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GOULD  LIBRARY 
EASTERN  NAZARENE 


■/ 


' -M ' 


$•:  I 


THE  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX 


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 
in  2015 


https://archive.org/details/journalofgeorgefOOfoxg 


THE  JOURNAL  OF 

GEORGE  FOX 

A REVISED  EDITION  BY 
JOHN  L.  NICKALLS 


WITH  AN  EPILOGUE  BY 

HENRY  J.  CADBURY 

AND 

AN  INTRODUCTION  BY 

GEOFFREY  F.  NUTTALL 


CAMBRIDGE 

AT  THE  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 
1952 


1544 


PUBLISHED  BY 

THE  SYNDICS  OF  THE  CAMBRIDGE  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 
London  Office:  Bentley  House,  N.W.l 
American  Branch : New  York 
Agents  for  Canada,  India,  and  Pakistan:  MacMillan 


PRINTED  IN  GREAT  BRITAIN  BY  HEADLEY  BROTHERS  LTD 
109  KINGSWAY  LONDON  WC2  AND  ASHFORD  KENT 


CONTENTS 


Preface  by  The  Editor  page  vii 

Bibliography  xvi 

Introduction  by  Geoffrey  F.  Nuttall,  D.D.  xix 

Extracts  from  William  Penn’s  Preface  xxxix 


THE  JOURNAL 


I 

1624-47 

page  1 

XIV 

1658 

page  332 

II 

1648-9 

22 

XV 

1658-9 

346 

III 

1649-51 

39 

XVI 

1660 

361 

IV 

1651-2 

70 

XVII 

1660 

375 

V 

1652 

95 

XVIII 

1660-3 

392 

VI 

1652-3 

133 

XIX 

1664-6 

456 

VII 

1653 

156 

XX 

1666-9 

505 

VIII 

1653-5 

164 

XXI 

1669-70 

536 

IX 

1655 

207 

XXII 

1670-1 

560 

X 

1655-6 

229 

XXIII 

1671-2 

579 

XI 

1656-7 

267 

XXIV 

1672-3 

612 

XII 

1657 

288 

XXV 

1673-5 

666 

XIII 

1657-8 

315 

George  Fox’s  Later  Years  by  Henry  J.  Cadbury,  Ph.D.  713 
Thomas  Ellwood’s  Conclusion  757 

Index  761 


PREFACE 

By  The  Editor 

This  new  edition  of  George  Fox’s  Journal  is  designed 
to  replace  for  the  general  reader  the  text  prepared  by 
Thomas  Ellwood,  which  was  first  published  in  1694 
and  has  been  many  times  reprinted  without  substantial 
alterations,  in  England  until  1902,  and  in  America  until 
1892. 

These  editions  are  listed  in  an  appendix  to  the  1902  issue 
of  the  eighth  (Bicentenary)  edition  published  in  London. 

The  following  brief  particulars  of  some  of  the  principal 
MSS.  still  extant,  and  of  Ellwood’s  edition,  will  help  to 
explain  the  differences  between  the  present  edition  and 
those  which  have  gone  before  it. 

George  Fox,  through  most  of  his  life,  did  not  keep  a 
journal  in  the  ordinary  sense  of  a nearly  contemporary  day- 
to-day  record.  It  was  also  Fox’s  habit  to  dictate,  in  prefer- 
ence to  writing  himself,  if  there  was  an  amanuensis  at 
hand. 

In  1675,  or  possibly  beginning  in  1674,  Fox  dictated  to 
Thomas  Lower,  his  stepson-in-law,  an  autobiography  down 
to  the  year  of  writing.  This  is  now  called  the  Spence  MS, 
Interspersed  through  the  narrative,  and  now  bound  with  it, 
are  numerous  letters,  pastoral  epistles,  and  other  papers. 
After  the  end  of  the  autobiography  are  a number  of  notes 
on  early  Quaker  history,  and  various  testamentary  instruc- 
tions. The  Spence  MS,  has  been  published  verbatim  and 
literatim  under  the  title  The  Journal  of  George  Fox,  by 
Cambridge  University  Press,  1911,  2 volumes,  with  an 
introduction  by  T.  Edmund  Harvey  and  full  editorial  notes 
by  Norman  Penney.  It  is  referred  to  as  the  Cambridge 
Journal,  This  MS.  was  at  one  time  thought  to  be  the  one 


vii 


Vlll 


PREFACE 


called  by  Fox  the  Great  Journal ; but  Henry  J.  Cadbury, 
in  his  Annual  Catalogue  of  George  Fox's  Papers  (1939),  has 
shown  that  the  Great  Journal  was  another  rather  similar 
MS.,  now  lost. 

The  following  MSS.  are  of  more  limited  scope,  but 
valuably  supplement  the  Spence  MS. 

When  in  prison  at  Lancaster  in  1664,  Fox  wrote  or 
dictated  detailed  accounts  of  a number  of  experiences  at 
various  times  between  1647  and  the  time  of  writing.  They 
are  chiefly  ‘ sufferings  for  preaching  the  truth  ’.  The  MS. 
preserved  is  either  the  original  dictated  by  Fox,  or  a 
contemporary  copy.  This  MS.,  known  as  The  Short 
Journal,  has  been  published  verbatim  and  literatim  under 
that  title  by  Cambridge  University  Press,  1925,  with  an 
introduction  by  T.  Edmund  Harvey  and  full  editorial 
notes  by  Norman  Penney.  It  is  referred  to  as  the  Short 
Journal. 

It  is  not  strictly  a journal,  nor  is  it  continuous  enough 
to  be  called  an  autobiography.  But  its  reporting  is  ten 
years  nearer  in  time  to  the  events  described  than  is  the 
Spence  MS.;  and  it  contains  many  vivid  touches  omitted 
from  the  later  account.  Presumably  Fox  used  it  to  help 
his  recollection  when  he  was  dictating  his  autobiography. 
The  Cambridge  and  the  Short  Journals,  reproducing  the 
MSS.  exactly,  and  with  their  valuable  introductions  and 
full  notes,  remain  of  the  first  importance  for  the  fullest 
study  of  Fox. 

There  are  several  seventeenth-century  copies  of  the 
Journal  of  Fox’s  Irish  travels.  One  is  included  in  the  Spence 
MS.  and  printed  in  Camb.  Jnl.  It  was  not,  like  the  rest 
of  the  autobiography,  dictated  in  1675,  but  is  a running 
account  written  during  Fox’s  journey  in  Ireland  in  1669. 
It  opens  with  a passage  by  one  of  Fox’s  companions, 
referring  to  Fox  in  the  third  person,  but  most  of  it  is  by 
Fox  himself,  probably  dictated  to  the  same  companion. 
Other  copies  are  in  Epistles  and  Queries  (George  Fox’s 
Papers  Xx),  G.F.'s  Epistles  (George  Fox’s  Papers  Z),  and 
in  Ecroyd  MS.  (see  J.F.H.S.,  xiv,  81  ff.). 


PREFACE 


IX 


In  the  Spence  MS.  the  journeys  to,  in,  and  from  America 
and  the  West  Indies  are  left  by  the  autobiographer  to  be 
covered  by  then  existing  diaries  and  letters,  some  of  which 
are  no  longer  extant.  For  the  voyage  from  England  to 
Barbados  we  depend  upon  the  detailed  log  of  a fellow- 
passenger,  John  Hull.  A seventeenth-century  MS.  copy 
of  this  is  in  Epistles  and  Queries,  mentioned  just  above, 
and  is  printed  in  Camb.  Jnl.  For  the  sojourn  in  Barbados 
we  depend  upon  letters  by  Fox  and  others. 

The  journeys  from  Barbados  onwards  until  arrival  home 
in  England  were  recorded  almost  from  day  to  day.  Out  of 
this  period  of  a year  and  a half,  about  a year  was  spent 
in  strenuous  and  hazardous  travel  on  the  American 
mainland.  For  eleven  months  of  this  we  have  the  original 
diaries. 

Of  all  the  MSS.  about  Fox’s  life,  these  American  Diaries 
are,  I believe,  those  most  truly  to  be  described  as  a journal 
by  George  Fox.  The  little  home-made  pocket  notebooks, 
written  beside  camp-fires  and  in  the  log-cabins  of  pioneers 
in  the  wilderness,  are  perhaps  the  only  MSS.,  dictated  as 
diaries  from  day  to  day  by  Fox  himself,  of  which  the 
originals  survive.  The  substance  of  their  story,  except 
for  the  first  seven  weeks,  is  to  be  found  in  the  Spence  MS. 
and  is  printed  in  Camh.  Jnl.  The  two  original  diaries  are 
preserved  among  the  MS.  records  of  Friends  at  Bristol. 
They  have  been  used  in  the  present  edition  and  are  here 
given  in  full.  For  further  details,  see  editorial  paragraphs 
on  pp.  608-9,  639,  655.  Other  seventeenth-century  MS. 
copies  of  the  American  Diaries  are  in  the  Bodleian  Library, 
in  a handwriting  thought  to  be  that  of  Thomas  Ellwood, 
and  in  the  Ecroyd  MS.  See  Bibliography,  p.  xvi  f.  post, 
for  ownership  of  the  various  MSS. 

Thomas  Ellwood  worked  on  the  instructions  of 
the  Second-day  Morning  Meeting,  a committee  of  the 
Society  of  Friends  in  London,  and  in  accord  with  the 
desire  of  Fox  that  his  life  and  writings  should  be 
published.  The  Journal  which  Ellwood  prepared  was 
a composite  work,  presenting  a continuous  account  of 


X 


PREFACE 


Fox’s  life  in  the  form  of  an  autobiography,  in  a more 
uniform,  more  polished,  and  more  cautious  style  in  many 
places  than  the  various  MSS.  which  have  been  mentioned. 
Some  passages  he  considerably  abbreviated.  Ellwood 
worked  with  more  freedom  than  would  to-day  be  approved, 
putting  passages  into  autobiographical  form  from  other 
sources,  but  he  was  an  able  and  a careful  editor.  He  also 
adapted  or  omitted  many  of  Fox’s  own  vigorous  phrases, 
his  picturesque  details,  his  apparent  overvaluation  of 
praise,  claims  to  psychic  powers,  and  matter  thought 
liable  to  cause  political  or  theological  protest,  besides 
doubtful  or  unverifiable  statements.^  Moreover,  after  the 
end  of  the  true  autobiography,  he  compiled  an  auto- 
biographical narrative  for  the  last  fifteen  years  of  Fox’s  life. 
It  is  based  upon  information  in  diaries  kept  for,  but  not  by. 
Fox;  and  it  is  heavily  loaded  with  pastoral  and  doctrinal 
papers  and  letters.  Three  of  these  diaries  are  printed 
in  the  same  volume  as  the  Short  Journal  described 
above. 

The  different  character  and  quality  of  the  later  sources 
mark  off  Ellwood’s  narrative  of  the  last  years,  from  Fox’s 
own  work,  and  it  has  not  been  included  here.  The  present 
text  ends  with  the  end  of  the  autobiographical  portion  of 
the  Spence  MS.,  in  1675;  and  the  last  fifteen  years  of  Fox’s 
life  are  covered  by  a chapter  written  for  this  volume  by 
Henry  J.  Cadbury. 

As  to  the  narrative,  the  present  edition  is  as  complete  as 
Ellwood’s  within  the  same  period.  And  it  expresses  the 
story  in  Fox’s  own  words  in  preference  to  Ellwood’s  more 
polished  presentation  of  it.  In  a few  cases  I have  adopted 
Ellwood’s  account  of  an  incident  as  clearer  than  that 
available  in  the  MS. 

^ Fox’s  report  of  Justice  Clarke’s  words  about  Ellen  Fretwell’s 
being  an  instrument  of  the  Devil,  and  of  the  judgment  upon  him,  was 
objected  to.  An  amended  leaf  (pp.  309-10)  was  circulated  to  pur- 
chasers of  the  1694  edition,  omitting  the  justice’s  name,  his  remarks 
about  Ellen  Fretwell,  as  well  as  the  sentences  referred  to  in  my  footnote 
on  p.  509  post.  Few  purchasers  seem  to  have  substituted  the  altered 
leaf.  The  omissions  were  maintained  in  subsequent  editions. 


PREFACE 


XI 


The  main  source  has  been  the  Spence  MS,  as  printed  in 
the  Cambridge  Journal,  Matter  supplementing  the  MS., 
taken  from  Ell  wood’s  edition,  has  been  enclosed  within 
angular  brackets,  < >,  without  reference  to  its  position  in 
the  source,  to  which  the  year  and  the  context  are  sufficient 
guide.  The  most  important  passage  from  Ellwood  to  be 
used  is  that  which  opens  the  book,  and  which,  except  for 
short  interpolations,  provides  the  narrative  down  to  1650, 
near  the  foot  of  p.  49  of  the  present  edition.  This  long 
passage  from  Ellwood  is  necessary  because  no  MS.  source 
survives  for  most  of  it;  the  first  sixteen  pages  of  the  Spence 
MS,  are  lacking.  Short  Journal  has  provided  down  to  1664 
many  vivid  details  and  some  whole  incidents.  These 
passages  occasionally  replace  an  inferior  account  in 
Camb,  Jnl,  Passages  from  S,J,  are  marked  at  the  beginning 
and  end  with  footnote  references.  Where  such  a footnote 
begins  with  ‘ Cf.’  the  passage  indicated  contains  a number 
of  borrowings  from  S,J,,  which  are  not  individually  marked. 

A few  sources  other  than  Cambridge  Journal,  Ellwood, 
and  Short  Journal  have  been  drawn  upon.  These  addi- 
tional sources  are  identified  either  by  footnotes  or  by 
editorial  paragraphs  placed  within  square  brackets  [ ]. 
The  most  notable  instances  are  the  American  Diaries 
and  a number  of  letters  from  Fox  to  his  wife  which 
have  not  been  printed  in  previous  editions  of  the  Journal. 

Not  all  the  controversial  or  pastoral  papers  and  similar 
documents  inserted  in  the  Ellwood  editions  have  been  used ; 
in  so  far  as  they  have  a biographical  interest  they  have  been 
retained.  Doctrinal  papers  have  been  abbreviated  to  give 
the  most  essential  points,  unless  their  importance  seemed  to 
warrant  printing  the  whole.  Many  papers  of  protest  and 
remonstrance  have  been  omitted.  In  each  case  a footnote 
directs  to  where  the  full  text  can  be  found  in  the  first 
edition,  1694,  and  in  the  eighth  (Bicentenary)  edition. 
The  year  and  the  context  provide  an  easy  guide  to  finding 
them  in  any  full  edition.  If  some  other  text  of  a document 
has  been  used  instead  of  the  text  in  Ellwood’s  edition, 
the  reference  to  the  source  used  has  been  placed  first. 


PREFACE 


xii 

Inserted  documents  not  of  a narrative  kind,  and  several 
passages  of  discourse  have  been  printed  in  smaller  type. 

The  pagination  of  the  1694  edition  contains  several 
irregularities,  requiring  partial  description  here  to  clarify 
the  footnote  references  to  that  edition.  About  90  page- 
numbers  were  used  twice.  At  the  first  use,  from  p.  201 
onwards,  they  carry  an  asterisk.  Where  (2)  is  added  to 
the  page-number  in  my  footnotes,  the  reference  is  to  the 
page-number  occurring  a second  time,  and  without  *. 
These  follow  the  first  use,  in  a second  series,  and  the 
pagination  is  thereafter  regular. 

Documents  in  Cambridge  Journal  not  previously  printed 
have  not  been  used  again  here  unless  they  seemed  to  me  to 
contribute  substantially  to  the  narrative. 

Where  Ellwood’s  narrative  was  built  up  from  matter 
taken  out  of  letters  in  the  Spence  MS'.,  the  letters  themselves 
or  parts  of  them  have  as  a rule  been  printed  in  preference 
to  Ellwood’s  compilation  from  them.  William  Penn’s  fine 
estimate  of  Fox’s  character,  written  for  the  first  edition, 
again  prefaces  the  Journal. 

In  transcribing  the  text  for  the  present  edition  the 
punctuation  and  spelling,  including  personal  names,  have 
been  modernized,  and  many  capital  letters  occurring  in  the 
sources  have  been  dispensed  with.  Simple  grammatical 
errors,  which  often  occur,  such  as  the  use  of  singular  verb 
after  plural  subject,  have  been  corrected.  Some  slight 
obscurities  due  to  faulty  construction  have  been  left.  The 
forms  of  place-names  have  been  modernized,  usually  in  the 
text  if  the  change  is  slight,  by  footnote  if  it  is  considerable. 

Obsolete  words  and  obsolete  meanings  have  been 
explained  in  footnotes,  in  more  cases  than  some  readers 
will  think  necessary.  A number  of  archaic  forms  and  usages 
have  been  retained  as  showing  how  Fox  spoke,  since  nearly 
all  the  narrative  was  dictated  by  him.  He  often  used  after 
where  we  should  say  afterwards  \ this  has  usually  been  made 
clearer  by  the  use  of  a comma.  He  often  said  / riz  (some- 
times written  risse),  but  here  uniformly  printed  r/z,  meaning 
‘ I rose  ’ ; and  run  for  ran  will  also  be  found.  Naked, 


PREFACE 


Xlll 


meaning  unarmed,  is  a reminder  of  how  recently  in  Fox’s 
time  arms  naturally  included  armour. 

Readers  who  are  puzzled  by  the  system  of  dating  used, 
may  find  the  following  explanation  useful. 

Dates  which  appear  in  the  sources  are  given  in  the 
form  in  which  they  occur,  viz.  the  Old  Style  or  Julian 
calendar  in  use  in  seventeenth-century  England.  Their 
modern  equivalents  in  our  New  Style  or  Gregorian  calendar 
adopted  in  1752,  are  added  in  [ ] immediately  after  each 
date.  The  apparent  discrepancy  is  greater  than  might  be 
expected  in  those  documents  which  were  dated  in  the 
Quaker  manner,  i.e.  by  the  number  of  the  month  instead  of 
the  name,  as  explained  below.  Dates  added  editorially 
are  in  modern  style  only. 

By  the  Julian  calendar  which  continued  in  use  in  England 
until  the  end  of  1751,  the  year  began  with  25th  March. 
Documents  dated  from  1st  January  to  24th  March,  there- 
fore, may  easily  be  misread  by  a year.  The  Gregorian 
calendar,  beginning  the  year  with  1st  January,  had  been 
in  use  in  the  rest  of  western  Europe  since  1582.  Many 
people,  therefore,  in  writing  dates  in  January,  February 
and  March,  gave  also  the  New  Style  year  as  well,  as  e.g. 
1st  February,  1660/1 ; the  second  year  gives  us  the  historical 
date. 

Quaker  dating  introduces  a further  complication.  The 
Society  of  Friends  from  its  beginning  called  the  months  by 
numbers,  refusing  to  use  their  ‘ heathen  ’ names.  Until 
1752,  therefore.  First  Month  means  March,  and  Twelfth 
Month  February.  But  in  accord  with  the  Old  Style 
calendar  the  first  24  days  of  First  Month,  March,  were 
in  the  old  year,  and  as  a rule  were  dated  so,  though  in  a 
few  instances  the  whole  of  First  Month  was  dated  with  the 
new  year.  With  the  adoption  of  the  New  Style  calendar  in 
1752  the  Quaker  numbering  of  months  was  revised  and 
January  (instead  of  March)  became  First  Month.  By  way 
of  example,  the  following  table  expresses  the  months  from 
December,  1689,  until  March,  1691,  according  to  the 
various  styles. 


XIV 


PREFACE 


December,  1689,  to  March,  1691,  expressed 
ACCORDING  TO  OlD  StYLE  AND  NeV^  StYLE 


OLD 

STYLE 

NEW 

STYLE 

Months  by 

Months  by 

Months  by 

Numbers 

Years 

Names 

Years 

Numbers 

(Historical  Dating) 

Tenth 

1689 

December 

1689 

Twelfth 

Eleventh 

January 

1690 

First 

Twelfth 

February 

Second 

First  1-24 

1689 

March  1-24 

1 J 

Third 

First  25-31 

1690 

March  25-31 

i 1 

Third 

Second 

April 

Fourth 

Third 

May 

Fifth 

Fourth 

June 

Sixth 

Fifth 

July 

Seventh 

Sixth 

August 

Eighth 

Seventh 

September 

Ninth 

Eighth 

October 

Tenth 

Ninth 

November 

Eleventh 

Tenth 

December 

1690 

Twelfth 

Eleventh 

January 

1691 

First 

Twelfth 

February 

Second 

First  1-24 

1690 

March  1-24  \ 

jThird 

First  25-31 

1691 

March  25-3  F 

iThird 

In  preparing  the  text,  the  unfinished  draft  for  a new 
edition  which  Norman  Penney  left  at  his  death  has  been 
invaluable  to  me;  and  I have  used  it  extensively,  and 
also  many  of  his  footnotes  identifying  persons  who  were 
not  followers  of  Fox. 

To  more  helpers  than  I can  here  name  1 should  like  to 
accord  my  grateful  thanks,  but  especially  to  the  following: 


PREFACE 


XV 


Henry  J.  Cadbury  and  Geoffrey  F.  Nuttall  have  read  my 
MS.;  T.  Edmund  Harvey  has  read  some  portions  of  it;  and 
all  three  have  given  valuable  advice  and  help,  resulting  in 
improvement  of  the  text  and  notes.  Henry  J.  Cadbury  has 
also  kindly  contributed  the  chapter  on  George  Fox’s  later 
years,  and  Geoffrey  F.  Nuttall  the  Introduction.  Nina 
Saxon  Snell  has  been  so  good  as  to  undertake  the  index; 
and  my  wife  has  given  me  valuable  help  with  proof  reading. 

I should  also  like  to  thank  Isabel  Grubb  for  information 
respecting  places  mentioned  in  Fox’s  Irish  travels,  Russell 
Mortimer  for  details  about  seventeenth-century  Bristol, 
George  Dott  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society 
for  help  over  some  obscure  Scottish  place  names,  and 
G.  P.  B.  Naish  of  the  National  Maritime  Museum, 
Greenwich,  for  guidance  as  to  the  probable  tonnages  of 
the  two  ships  in  which  Fox  crossed  the  Atlantic  ocean  in 
1671  and  1673;  in  the  absence  of  actual  record  it  can  be  no 
more  than  a well-based  guess.  To  Muriel  Hicks,  assistant 
librarian  at  Friends  House,  I am  deeply  indebted  for  her 
carrying  so  large  a share  of  the  regular  work  of  the  library 
for  several  years  past,  as  well  as  for  occasional  consultation 
of  sources. 

Thanks  are  also  tendered  to  the  following  who  have  very 
kindly  allowed  the  MSS.  belonging  to  them  to  be  used  in 
preparing  the  present  edition : Bristol  Friends  for  the 
original  MS.  diaries  of  Fox’s  American  travels;  Brindley 
Martin  for  a seventeenth-century  copy  of  the  same  diaries ; 
L.  Violet  Holdsworth  for  the  letter  from  George  Fox  to 
Margaret  Fox,  printed  on  p.  686,  which  was  a gift  to  her 
father.  Dr.  Thomas  Hodgkin;  and  to  the  University  Press, 
Cambridge,  for  kindly  allowing  me  to  use  the  printed 
text  of  the  MSS.  as  they  appear  in  the  Cambridge  Journal 
and  the  Short  Journal.  If  there  is  any  other  material  used 
for  which  permission  should  have  been  asked,  the  omission 
is  unwitting  and  my  apologies  are  offered  to  the  owners 
of  it. 

This  edition  has  been  undertaken  on  the  initiative  of  the 
Library  Committee  of  the  Society  of  Friends  in  London. 


XVI 


PREFACE 


Its  preparation  and  its  publication  at  a price  which  makes 
it  available  to  a wide  circle,  have  been  made  possible  by 
support  from  the  funds  of  a number  of  bodies  of  Friends 
which,  jointly,  and  in  about  equal  shares  as  between 
England  and  America,  have  borne  the  cost,  viz.  The  Yearly 
Meeting  Fund  of  Friends  in  Great  Britain,  the  Readership 
Committee  of  Woodbrooke  College,  Birmingham,  whose 
grant  of  a fellowship  enabled  me  to  complete  the  text; 
and  in  America,  funds  connected  with  Philadelphia  (Arch 
Street)  Yearly  Meeting,  Philadelphia  (Race  Street)  Yearly 
Meeting,  New  York  Yearly  Meeting,  and  the  Five  Years 
Meeting. 

A text  so  intricately  composed  from  diverse  sources  will 
no  doubt  be  found  to  contain  faults.  For  these  the  editor 
must  accept  responsibility.  The  present  edition  provides 
Fox’s  own  story  in  his  own  words  and  style.  It  is  presented 
with  the  needs  of  the  modern  reader  in  view,  and  with  the 
design  that  it  may  serve  the  author’s  purpose  better  in  this 
day  than  the  former  standard  editions,  which  made  Fox’s 
Journal  known  as  one  of  the  great  religious  autobio- 
graphies in  the  English  language. 

J.L.N. 

Library  of  the  Society  of  Friends, 

Friends  House,  Fusion  Road,  London,  N.W.L 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 

MANUSCRIPTS 

Abraham  MS.  A volume  of  early  Quaker  MSS.  at 
Friends  House,  London.  Described  in  J.F.H.S,, 
xi,  145-90. 

Bodleian  MSS.  A seventeenth-century  copy  of  the  Journal 
of  Fox’s  travels  in  America.  MS.  Add.  A.  95,  in  the 
Bodleian  Library,  Oxford.  Printed  in  J.FM.S.,  ix, 
5-39. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY 


XVll 


Bristol  MSS.  V.  ‘ Letters  and  Papers  of  George  Fox  and 
other  Early  Friends  a volume  in  the  records  of  the 
Society  of  Friends  in  Bristol.  See  J.F.H.S,,  ix,  189-98. 
See  also  Preface,  p.  ix  ante. 

Ecroyd  MS.  A seventeenth-century  copy  of  the  journals 
of  Fox  in  Ireland  and  in  America,  with  letters. 
Described  in  J.F.H.S.,  xiv,  81  ff.  Now  in  the 
possession  of  Brindley  Martin. 

Epistles  and  Queries  of  G.F.’s  (Fox  Papers  Xx).  A MS. 
volume  at  Friends  House,  London.  Described  in 
Ann.  Cata.,  see  below. 

Fox  Papers  marked  with  letters  (R,  X,  Xx,  etc.).  Various 
MSS.  by  Fox,  at  Friends  House,  London.  Described 
in  Ann.  Cat  a.,  see  below. 

Gibson  MSS.  A collection  of  miscellaneous  Quaker  MSS. 
in  10  volumes  at  Friends  House,  London. 

Portfolio  9,  Portfolio  10,  etc.  A varied  collection  of  MSS. 
in  42  volumes,  formerly  loose  in  Portfolios,  at  Friends 
House,  London. 

Records  of  Friends  Sufferings.  MS.  volumes  recording 
persecutions;  at  Friends  House,  London. 

Short  Journal.  At  Friends  House,  London.  See  Preface, 
p.  viii  ante. 

Spence  MSS.  At  Friends  House,  London.  See  Preface, 
pp.  vii-viii  ante. 

Swarthmore  MSS.  A collection  of  about  1,400  early 
Quaker  letters  in  7 volumes,  at  Friends  House,  London. 


PRINTED  WORKS 

Ann.  Cata.  Annual  Catalogue  of  George  Fox's  Papers. 
Edited  by  Henry  J.  Cadbury.  Philadelphia  and 
London,  1939. 

Beginnings.  Beginnings  of  Quakerism.  By  William  C. 
Braithwaite.  London,  1912. 

Bicent.  The  Journal  of  George  Fox.  8th,  Bicentenary  ed. 
London,  1891,  reprinted  1901  and  1902.  2 vols. 


XViii  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bulletin  FM.A,  Bulletin  of  the  Friends  Historical  Asso~ 
elation.  Philadelphia,  1907.  In  progress. 

C.R.  Calamy  Revised.  A revision  of  Calamy ’s  ‘ Account  ’ 
of  the  ministers  and  others  ejected  in  1660.  By 
A.  G.  Matthews.  Oxford,  1934. 

Camb.  Jnl.  The  Journal  of  George  Fox.  Edited  by  Norman 
Penney.  Cambridge,  1911.  2 vols. 

Ellwood.  The  Journal  of  George  Fox.  London,  1694. 
The  pagination  of  this  volume  contains  various 
irregularities,  see  Preface,  p.  xii  ante. 

F.P.T.  First  Publishers  of  Truth.  Early  records  of  the 
introduction  of  Quakerism  into  the  counties  of 
England  and  Wales.  Edited  by  Norman  Penney. 
London,  1907. 

George  Fox's  Book  of  Miracles.  By  Henry  J.  Cadbury. 
Cambridge,  1948. 

J.F.H.S.  Journal  of  the  Friends'  Historical  Society. 
London,  1903.  In  progress. 

Letters  of  Early  Friends.  Edited  by  A.  R.  Barclay. 
London,  1841. 

Quakers  in  Wales.  By  T.  Mardy  Rees.  Carmarthen,  1925. 
S.J.  Short  and  Itinerary  Journals  of  George  Fox.  Edited 
by  Norman  Penney.  Cambridge,  1925. 

Smith.  A Descriptive  Catalogue  of  Friends  Books  . . . from 
their  first  rise  ...  By  Joseph  Smith.  London,  1867. 
2 vols.  This  is  the  standard  bibliography  of  two 
centuries  of  Quakerism. 

Also  his  Bibliotheca  Anti-Quaker iana.  London,  1873. 
Sufferings.  A Collection  of  the  Sufferings  of  the  Quakers. 

By  Joseph  Besse.  London,  1753.  2 vols. 

W.R.  Walker  Revised.  A revision  of  Walker’s  ‘ Sufferings 
of  the  Clergy,  1642-1660  ’.  By  A.  G.  Matthews. 
Oxford,  1948. 

See  also  the  Bibliographical  Note  to  ‘ George  Fox’s  Later 
Years  ’,  by  Henry  J.  Cadbury,  p.  713  post. 


INTRODUCTION: 

GEORGE  FOX  AND  HIS  JOURNAL 


By  Geoffrey  F.  Nuttall,  D.D. 

f^'"|  iHE  power  of  the  Lord  was  over  all.’  ^ If  George 
^ I Fox’s  personality  is  to  be  expressed  in  a single 
phrase,  then  this  is  it.  Throughout  his  life  Fox 
walked  cheerfully  over  the  world  in  the  power  of  the  Lord, 
finding  it,  as  William  Penn  was  to  say  of  him,  a match  for 
every  service  or  occasion. 

One  immediate  and  obvious  effect  was  that  he  was 
fearless.  ‘ I never  feared  death  nor  sufferings  in  my  life.’ 

* One  of  the  parliament  men  told  me  they  must  have  me 
to  Smithfield  to  burn  me  as  they  did  the  martyrs,  but  I 
told  him  I was  over  their  fires  and  feared  them  not.’  Nor 
was  this  a vain  boast,  either  in  the  sense  that  it  was  an  idle 
threat  or  in  the  sense  that  he  would  retract  if  suffering  came. 
At  Lichfield,  where  to  Fox’s  vision  the  market  place  was  like 
a pool  of  blood,  Edward  Wightman  was  burned  for 
blasphemy  only  a few  years  before  Fox  was  born;  nor 
would  Wightman  have  been  the  last,  had  Archbishop  Laud^ 
had  his  way.  Witches,  moreover,  were  burned  till  a much 
later  period,  and  by  some  Fox  was  said  to  be  a witch. 
Nor  was  persecution  long  in  coming.  By  1659,  a bare 
twelve  years  from  the  beginning  of  Fox’s  ministry,  twenty- 
one  Quakers  are  known  to  have  died  in  prison  or  as  a 
consequence  of  ill  usage. 

Of  these  sufferings,  rough  handling  and  imprisonment 
alike.  Fox  bore  a full  share,  and  never  shrank  from  them. 
When  a man  came  with  a naked  sword  and  set  it  to  Fox’s 
side,  ‘ I looked  up  at  him  in  his  face  and  said  to  him, 
“ Alack  for  thee,  it’s  no  more  to  me  than  a straw.”  ’ 


XIX 


XX  INTRODUCTION 

Not  for  nothing  was  his  mother  of  the  stock  of  the  martyrs. 
In  prison,  like  Paul  and  Silas,  he  would  sing  in  the  Lord’s 
power,  and  sing  till  the  fiddler  who  had  been  brought 
into  the  dungeon  to  drown  him  was  drowned  himself  and 
silenced.  When  the  news  reached  Fox  that  at  Evesham 
stocks  had  been  set  up  against  his  coming,  to  Evesham 
at  once  he  went.  On  another  occasion,  when  he  had  been 
banished  from  Perth,  ‘ it  was  upon  me  from  the  Lord  to 
go  back  again  . . . and  so  set  the  power  of  God  over  them 
To  our  sophisticated  detachment  such  behaviour  seems 
to  have  more  than  a touch  of  exhibitionism;  but  it  bore 
a witness  which  was  unmistakable.  It  also  set  a noble 
example.  At  Reading  and  elsewhere  this  was  reproduced 
even  by  the  children,  who,  when  their  parents  were  all  in 
prison,  themselves  kept  up  the  meeting  for  worship.  In 
Penn’s  words:  ‘We  are  the  people  above  all  others  that 
must  stand  in  the  gap.’  And  as  in  the  beginnings  of 
Christianity,  such  courage  proved  powerful  in  convincing 
others.  ‘ Many  turned  Quakers  ’,  says  Richard  Baxter, 
‘ because  the  Quakers  kept  their  meetings  openly,  and  went 
to  prison  for  it  cheerfully.’ 

Together  with  this  physical  courage,  as  will  already 
be  clear,  went  moral  firmness  and  fidelity  to  truth.  In 
the  writings  of  the  early  Quakers,  who  sometimes  called 
themselves  Friends  in  Truth,  truth  is  a word  which  recurs 
constantly,  and  with  a meaning  which  goes  far  beyond 
mere  truthfulness,  high  though  Friends  rated  this.  ‘ The 
truth  can  live  in  the  gaols,’  wrote  Fox  from  one  of  them.^ 
The  connotation  of  the  word  is  emotional  and  moral 
rather  than  intellectual.  For  Fox  as  for  Isaac  Watts, 
because  for  the  Hebrew  poets  who  inspired  them,  ‘ Thy 
truth  for  ever  firmly  stood,  and  shall  from  age  to  age 
endure.’  It  is  natural  that  a life  devoted  to  truth  should 
itself  bear  something  of  this  steadfastness.  Fox’s  father 
did  not  become  a Quaker  but  he  knew  his  son’s  quality 
here.  On  one  occasion,  after  a dispute  between  Fox 
and  some  ministers  of  religion,  Fox  writes  that  his  father 

^ G.  Fox,  Epistles  (1698),  p.  199. 


INTRODUCTION 


XXI 


‘ thwacked  his  cane  on  the  ground,  and  said,  “ Well  ”,  said 
he,  “I  see  he  that  will  but  stand  to  the  truth  it  will  carry 
him  out.”  ’ It  had  always  been  so.  When  Fox  was  still 
a child,  it  was  a common  saying  among  people  that  knew 
him,  ‘ If  George  says  “ Verily  ”,  there  is  no  altering  him.’ 
So  it  remained.  ‘ If  formal  etiquette  expected  him  to  say 
to  a man  what  he  very  well  knew  was  not  true,  then  he 
resolved  to  have  nothing  more  to  do  with  formal  etiquette 
till  the  end  of  the  world  ! 

The  kind  of  situation  into  which  Fox  was  brought  by 
this  resolve  may  be  illustrated  from  the  story  of  his  imprison- 
ment at  Launceston.  He  was  taking  exercise  in  the  castle 
green  when  Peter  Ceely,  the  Justice  of  the  Peace  who  had 
arrested  him,  came  by.  Ceely  doffed  his  hat,  and  said, 
‘How  do  you,  Mr.  Fox?  Your  servant.  Sir.’  ‘Major 
Ceely  ’,  replied  Fox,  ‘ take  heed  of  hypocrisy  and  a rotten 
heart,  for  when  came  I to  be  thy  master  and  thee  my 
servant  ? Do  servants  use  to  cast  their  masters  into 
prison  ? ’ 

In  the  trial  which  followed.  Fox  requested  the  judge  to 
let  his  mittimus  be  read. 

The  judge  said  it  should  not.  I said  it  ought  to  be,  seeing  it 
concerned  my  life  and  liberty.  And  the  judge  said  again  it 
should  not  be  read.  And  I said,  ‘ It  ought  to  be  read;  and  if 
I have  done  any  thing  worthy  of  death  or  bonds,  let  all  the 
country  know  of  it.  ’ So  I spoke  unto  one  of  my  fellow  prisoners, 
‘ Thou  hast  a copy  of  it.  Read  it  up,’  said  I.  ‘ But  it  shall 
not  be  read  ’,  said  the  judge.  ‘ Gaoler,  take  him  away.  I will 
see  whether  he  or  I shall  be  master.’  So  they  did  and  after  a 
while  they  called  for  me  again,  and  I still  cried  to  have  my 
mittimus  read  up,  for  that  signified  my  crime.  And  then  I 
bid  William  Salt  read  it  up  again,  and  he  read  it  up,  and  the 
judge  and  justices  and  whole  court  were  silent,  for  the  people 
were  mighty  willing  to  hear  it  (pp.  246-7). 

In  the  end  Fox  got  his  way.  He  almost  always  did.  What 
could  one  do  against  a spirit  so  indomitable  ? Fox  was 
always  determined  to  have  justice.  It  was  part  of  his 

^ R.  M.  Jones,  George  Fox— Seeker  and  Friend,  p.  200. 


XXll  INTRODUCTION 

fidelity  to  truth.  ‘ I desire  nothing  but  law  and 
justice  at  thy  hands,’  he  told  a judge  once;  ‘for  I do 
not  look  for  mercy  For  the  same  reason,  he  could 
not  agree  to  be  released  from  prison  on  a pardon.  He 
had  not  done  wrong,  and  he  could  not  pretend  that  he 
had. 

Courage  and  moral  strength  are  always  impressive,  and 
especially  so  when  combined.  In  Fox’s  case  they  were 
accompanied  by  a distinctive  attitude  to  persecutors,  or, 
perhaps  it  would  be  truer  to  say,  to  some  of  them.  Towards 
officials,  such  as  ‘ priests  ’ (as  he  called  all  ordained 
clergymen  and  ministers)  and  Justices  of  the  Peace,  he  was 
commonly  resentful  and  sharp  of  tongue.  In  his  eyes 
religion  and  justice  were  but  mocked  by  them:  they  were 
not  living  according  to  what  they  professed.  Towards 
publicans  and  sinners,  on  the  other  hand,  he  often  showed 
a remarkable  forbearance.  To  a drunken  fellow-prisoner 
in  Scarborough  Castle,  who  had  challenged  him  to  a fight, 
Fox  said,  ‘ I was  come  to  answer  him,  with  my  hands  in 
my  pockets,  and  . . . there  was  my  hair  and  my  back, 
and  what  a shame  it  was  for  him  to  challenge  a man  whose 
principle  he  knew  was  not  to  strike;  . . . and  one  of  the 
officers  said,  “You  are  a happy  man  that  can  bear  such 
things.”  ’ Nor  was  this  an  isolated  case.  On  an  earlier 
occasion,  in  London,  Fox  heard  a rude  Irish  colonel 
threatening  to  kill  all  the  Quakers;  so  he  went  to  him  and 
said,  ‘ “ Here  is  gospel  for  thee,  here  is  my  hair,  and  here 
is  my  cheek,  and  here  are  my  shoulders  ”,  and  turned 
them  to  him  . . . and  the  truth  came  so  over  him  that  he 
grew  loving.’ 

Fox’s  explicit  equation  here  of  the  gospel  with  behaviour, 
and  with  behaviour  of  a certain  kind,  is  worth  noting. 
It  is  characteristic  of  him,  and  is  a key  to  much  in 
Quakerism.  It  is  also  worth  noting  that  he  later  records 
of  the  man  who  had  challenged  him  to  fight,  ‘ the  Lord 
soon  cut  him  off  in  his  wickedness  ’.  This  is  one  of  several 
similar  observations.  Fox’s  evident  satisfaction  in  thus 
recording  what  he  believed  to  be  the  Lord’s  judgments 


INTRODUCTION  XXlll 

reveals  a certain  hardness  in  him  and  has  sometimes 
disturbed  readers  who  have  failed  to  perceive  his  intense 
devotion  to  justice.  It  is  more  to  the  point  to  remark 
that  he  could  behave  towards  a man  with  forbearance 
and  could  yet  record  the  man’s  bad  end;  for  it  is  typical 
of  a realism  in  him  which  is  often  apparent.  On  another 
occasion,  when  he  was  in  court,  he  observed,  as  he  puts 
it,  that  ‘ the  power  of  darkness  riz  up  in  them  like  a 
mountain  ’.  Nevertheless,  he  looked  the  judge  in  the  face, 
‘ and  the  witness  started  up  in  him  and  made  him  blush  ’. 
Fox  is  peculiarly  sensitive,  that  is  to  say,  to  the  evil  in 
men  and  to  the  good  in  them;  and  he  can  be  sensitive 
to  both  at  one  and  the  same  time. 

‘ And  the  truth  came  so  over  him  that  he  grew  loving.’ 
We  are  still  in  the  context  of  the  Lord’s  power  coming 
over  all.  The  phrase  shows,  further,  the  motive  of  Fox’s 
forbearance.  Outwardly,  his  behaviour  can  sometimes 
appear  mere  passiveness,  as  when,  on  being  attacked  by 
a rude  wicked  man,  ‘ I stood  stiff  and  still  and  let  him 
strike.’  But  the  motive  is  through  the  power  of  the  Lord 
to  win  men,  and  in  particular  to  win  them  to  be  loving. 
Nov/  most  men,  rude  wicked  men  anyway,  are  not  in  a 
way  of  loving.  ‘ We  love,  because  he  first  loved  us,’  Fox 
read  in  his  New  Testament.  Ideally,  therefore,  his  for- 
bearance was  an  endeavour  to  express  a spirit  of  love 
through  which  others’  hearts  might  grow  gentle.  He  was 
human,  and  did  not  always  love  his  persecutors;  that  he 
ever  did  so  is  sufficiently  remarkable.  At  Ulverston,  in 
1652,  he  was  beaten  with  stakes  and  clubs  till  he  had  fallen 
unconscious.  When  he  recovered,  ‘ I lay  a little  still, 
and  the  power  of  the  Lord  sprang  through  me,  and  the 
eternal  refreshings  refreshed  me,  that  I stood  up  again 
in  the  eternal  power  of  God  and  stretched  out  my  arms 
amongst  them  all,  and  said  again  with  a loud  voice, 
“ Strike  again,  here  is  my  arms  and  my  head  and  my 
cheeks.”  . . . and  I was  in  the  love  of  God  to  them  all 
that  had  persecuted  me.’  It  is  a striking  scene,  and  vital 
for  gauging  the  quality  of  the  man. 


XXiv  INTRODUCTION 

Who  was  this  man  ? and  why  was  he  so  bitterly 
persecuted  ? As  for  who  he  was,  the  answer  is  short. 
He  was  a nobody:  a weaver’s  son  from  an  utterly  undis- 
tinguished village  in  Leicestershire;  with  how  little  schooling 
can  be  seen  at  a glance  from  the  big,  bold  scrawl  and 
erratic  spelling  in  what  few  scraps  of  his  handwriting 
are  still  preserved.  The  reason  why  he  was  persecuted 
is  more  complicated ; but  in  a word  it  was  because  he  was  a 
revolutionary,  and  a revolutionary  in  religion  at  a time 
when  religion  dominated  men’s  minds.  Primitive 
Christianity  Revived  was  the  title  which  William  Penn 
gave  to  one  of  his  books,  and  nothing  expresses  better 
what  Fox  was  after.  His  was  not  the  first  but  the  last  of  a 
series  of  endeavours  in  this  direction,  and  because  it  was 
the  last  it  was  both  the  most  extreme  and  the  most  keenly 
resented  by  those  who  were  concerned  for  reformation 
but  were  satisfied  with  the  limits  already  reached.  Fox 
was  in  no  way  peculiar,  for  instance,  in  belittling  university 
education  as  equipment  for  the  ministry.  In  1653  alarm 
was  felt  in  more  than  one  quarter  lest  Parliament  should 
destroy  the  universities  altogether;  and  a majority  of  the 
members  were  for  abolishing  the  payment  of  tithes  in 
support  of  the  ministry.  Fox  was  not  only  steadfast  in 
bearing  testimony  against  the  system  of  tithes,  he  wanted 
to  abolish  a paid  ministry  altogether;  for  he  could  find  none 
in  the  New  Testament.  Oaths,  likewise,  were  forbidden 
in  the  New  Testament;  then  they  were  forbidden  to 
Christians  still;  and  if  oaths  in  a court  of  law  were  an 
accepted  foundation  of  contemporary  society,  so  much 
the  worse  for  contemporary  society. 

It  is  thus  not  surprising  that  Quakers  were  said  to  be 
against  both  magistracy  and  ministry,  and  were  feared; 
or  that,  because  they  were  feared,  they  were  persecuted. 
Fox  says  himself  that  his  purpose  was  ‘ to  bring  people 
off  from  all  the  world’s  religions,  which  are  vain  ’.  Men’s 
fears  might  not  have  come  to  anything,  had  he  remained 
an  isolated  figure  with  no  following,  like  many  another 
harmless  fanatic  of  the  time.  But  Fox  quickly  became  the 


INTRODUCTION 


XXV 


leader  of  a widespread,  closely-knit  community  devoted 
to  him  personally  and  in  sympathy  with  his  revolutionary 
outlook;  and  of  this  the  authorities  were  fully  aware. 

He  began,  however,  alone;  and  he  had  a right  to  be 
proud  of  this.  As  the  Quaker  movement  grew,  it  owed 
much  to  other  leaders  also:  in  particular  to  James  Nayler, 
a man  of  temperament  more  ethereal  than  Fox  always 
understood,  and  to  the  fervent  and  lion-hearted  woman 
whom  eventually  Fox  married,  Margaret  Fell.  It  is  true 
that  Fox  sometimes  unduly  magnified  his  own  share  in 
the  convincing  of  others,  of  whom  Nayler  was  one.  But 
nothing  can  rob  him  of  the  glory  of  having  founded 
Quakerism,  and  of  having  done  so  alone,  by  the  sheer  force 
of  personality  and  of  faith  in  his  mission.  Like  Paul, 
he  was  anxious  to  claim  independence  of  others  in  the 
discovery  of  his  message;  and  in  fact  no  substantial  depen- 
dence has  been  established.  For  centuries  weavers  had 
borne  a name  for  independence  and  radicalism  in  religion. 
In  Leicestershire  Lollard  traditions  had  lingered  since 
Wycliffe  was  Rector  of  Lutterworth,  not  so  far  from  Fenny 
Drayton,  where  Fox  was  born.  To  the  atmosphere  of  his 
own  time  he  owed  more  than  he  knew  or  would  allow. 
To  all  intents  and  purposes,  nevertheless.  Fox  was,  what 
Penn  calls  him,  ‘an  original,  being  no  man’s  copy’; 
and  in  this  lay  much  of  his  strength.  If,  as  a Quaker 
historian  observes.  Friends  have  been  ready  ‘ to  step  out 
as  pioneers  of  worthy  causes  without  waiting  to  make  sure 
of  any  large  band  of  followers  ’,^  they  have  themselves 
but  followed  where  Fox  led.  To  refer  this,  with  Carlyle,  to 
his  ‘ enormous  sacred  Self-confidence  is  to  miss  the  mark. 
It  is  truer,  as  well  as  kinder,  to  see  in  him  something  larger, 
something  nearer  to  what  Godwin  calls  ‘ that  generous 
confidence  which,  in  a great  soul,  is  never  extinguished  ’.^ 

^ A.  N.  Brayshaw,  The  Quakers:  their  Story  and  Message,  p.  194. 

2 Letters  and  Speeches  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  ed.  T.  Carlyle  (Everyman 
edn.),  iii,  341. 

3 William  Godwin,  of  Mary  Wollstonecraft,  in  Memoirs  of  Mary 
Wollstonecraft  (Constable’s  Miscellany),  p.  101. 


XXVi  INTRODUCTION 

‘ All  must  first  know  the  voice  crying  in  the  wilderness, 
in  their  hearts.’  In  this  characteristic  utterance  of  Fox 
we  may  see  an  accepted  expression  of  genius,  namely,  the 
assumption  that  what  is  true  for  oneself  is  true  also  for 
others,  and  for  all  others;  its  universalizing.  We  may 
also  see  something  more.  The  Reformation  principles  of 
justification  by  faith  and  of  the  priesthood  of  all  believers 
had  already  introduced  a universalizing  element  into 
religion;  but  it  was  possible  for  this  to  become  but  a theory 
of  universalism,  held  only  by  the  few  who  had  the  wit, 
and  the  desire,  to  theorize.  Experience,  however,  is  open 
to  all  to  share;  and  in  treating  his  own  experience  as  possible 
for  all  Fox  also  provided  a surer  basis  for  the  universalizing 
element  in  Reformed  religion. 

What,  then,  was  it  which  was  distinctive  about  his  own 
experience  ? Something  like  this.  With  the  recovery  of 
the  Bible  in  the  vernacular,  Christians  had  come  to  hear 
the  voice  of  God  speaking  not  only  to  the  prophets  and 
apostles  of  old  but  through  these  to  themselves.  The 
word  of  the  Lord  endureth  for  ever,  and  what  was  written 
in  Scripture  was  found  to  possess  contemporary  signi- 
ficance and  power,  and  to  provide  a message  which  could 
be  preached  to  others  with  conviction.  ‘ You  will  say, 
Christ  saith  this,  and  the  apostles  say  this;  but  what  canst 
thou  say  ? ’ These  v/ords  of  Fox  proved  effective  in 
convincing  Margaret  Fell,  but  many  were  asking  questions 
of  this  kind  besides  Fox.  Fox,  however,  went  further. 
He  held,  with  Oliver  Cromwell,  that  God  speaks  without 
a written  word  sometimes,  yet  according  to  it.  He  urged 
men  to  attend  to  the  words  of  the  Spirit  of  Christ  still 
speaking  within  their  hearts,  ‘ Christ  within  you,  the  hope 
of  glory.’  He  argued,  moreover,  that,  unless  men  first 
did  this,  they  could  not  hope  to  read  Scripture  with  any 
genuine  understanding.  ‘ They  could  not  know  the 
spiritual  meaning  of  Moses’,  the  prophets’,  and  John’s 
words,  nor  see  their  path  and  travels,  much  less  see  through 
them  and  to  the  end  of  them  into  the  kingdom,  unless  they 
had  the  Spirit  and  light  of  Jesus.’  This  is  a position 


INTRODUCTION  XXVll 

familiar  to  most  of  us  to-day,  but  it  was  very  far  from 
familiar  then.  Fox  also  held  that  by  hearkening  to  the 
voice  of  the  living  Christ  latter-day  Christians,  and  all 
Christians,  might  live  in  the  power  of  Christ’s  endless 
life  as  Christ’s  first  disciples  had  done;  and,  furthermore, 
that  Christ’s  power  could  transport  men,  even  in  this  life, 
into  paradise,  such  a paradise  as  Adam  and  Eve  knew 
before  they  fell,  thus  giving  men  triumph  over  their  sinful 
propensities.  This  proved  more  than  most  men  could 
accept,  or  can;  but  we  can  see  its  place  in  the  context  of 
the  power  of  the  Lord  being  over  all. 

On  the  relation  of  the  voice,  or  the  light,  of  Christ  within 
the  heart  to  the  figure  of  Jesus  of  Nazareth,  Fox  did  not 
succeed  in  satisfying  the  theologians  of  his  day;  but  then 
they  rarely  satisfied  one  another.  Later  Quaker  history, 
it  is  true,  shows  that  they  were  not  altogether  astray  in 
fearing  a divorce  here  rather  than  an  association  of 
some  kind.  For  Fox  himself,  however,  there  was  the 
closest  association,  in  whatever  terms  it  was  to  be 
expressed.  His  principle  of  loving  forbearance,  to  take 
a single  but  telling  instance,  was  clearly  influenced  as 
much  by  the  example  of  Jesus  in  the  Gospels  as  by  any 
inward  voice.  No  one,  in  fact,  knew  his  Bible  better  than 
Fox  did,  or  could  quote  it  in  argument  more  devastatingly. 
His  use  of  Scripture,  together  with  the  nature  of  the  books 
and  passages  from  which  he  quotes,  or  which  affect  his 
imagery,  most  frequently,  remains  an  inviting  field  for 
research. 

Later  Quaker  devotion,  again,  shows  a tendency  so 
to  concentrate  on  the  light  within  that  in  meetings  for 
worship  at  some  periods  prayer,  in  the  normal  sense  of 
prayer  addressed  outside  oneself,  prayer  which  can  thus 
be  expressed  vocally,  fell  into  relative  desuetude.  This 
also  was  in  no  way  true  of  Fox.  Fox  knew  how,  as  well 
as  when,  to  be  silent,  how  ‘ to  famish  them  from  words  ’, 
as  he  puts  it;  but  normally  he  was  as  great  in  prayer  as  in 
preaching,  so  great  that  Penn  says  he  excelled  here  above  all. 
‘ The  most  awful,  living,  reverent  frame  I ever  felt  or  beheld. 


XXVlll 


INTRODUCTION 


I must  say,  was  his  in  prayer.  And  truly  it  was  a testimony 
(that)  he  knew  and  lived  nearer  to  the  Lord  than  other  men.’ 
George  Fox’s  Lord  was  no  mere  light  within. 

Nevertheless,  the  light  was  there,  shining  steadily  and 
welcomingly,  the  light  of  Christ;  and  it  was  to  this  that  Fox 
pointed  men  unwearyingly.  ‘ Mind  that  which  is  pure 
in  you  to  guide  you  to  God  ’,  he  would  say.^  Even  in 
childhood,  he  tells  us,  he  had  been  taught  how  to  walk 
to  be  kept  pure;  and  he  had  kept  his  childhood’s  vow  not 
to  be  wanton  when  he  grew  to  manhood.  Here  again  he 
universalized  his  own  experience.  If  he  could  be  kept  pure, 
so  could  others.  He  claimed  no  special  grace  for  himself, 
no  gift  that  was  not  for  all  men  to  receive  who  would.  Nor 
did  he  pretend  that  it  was  possible  to  live  in  purity  without 
persistent  watchfulness,  in  utter  dependence  on  the  power 
of  God.  That  which  was  pure  had  to  be  minded. 
‘ Friend  ’,  he  wrote  to  Oliver  Cromwell’s  favourite  daughter. 
Lady  Claypole,  ‘ Be  still  and  cool  in  thy  own  mind  and 
spirit  from  thy  own  thoughts,  and  then  thou  wilt  feel 
the  principle  of  God  to  turn  thy  mind  to  the  Lord  God, 
whereby  thou  wilt  receive  his  strength  and  power  from 
whence  life  comes  to  allay  all  tempests,  blusterings  and 
storms.’  Later  in  the  same  letter  he  writes: 

What  the  light  doth  make  manifest  and  discover,  temptations, 
confusions,  distractions,  distempers,  do  not  look  at  the  temp- 
tations, confusions,  corruptions,  but  at  the  light  which  discovers 
them,  that  makes  them  manifest;  and  with  the  same  light  you 
will  feel  over  them,  to  receive  power  to  stand  against  them  . . . 
For  looking  down  at  sin,  and  corruption,  and  distraction,  you 
are  swallowed  up  in  it;  but  looking  at  the  light  which  discovers 
them,  you  will  see  over  them.  That  will  give  victory;  and 
you  will  find  grace  and  strength:  and  there  is  the  first  step 
of  peace  (pp.  347-8  post). 

His  letter.  Fox  says,  settled  and  stayed  Lady  Claypole’s 
mind  for  the  present,  and  proved  useful  for  the  settling 
of  others’  minds  also.  Yet  in  a day  when,  in  Fox’s  quaint 


* G.  Fox,  Epistles  (1698),  p.  9. 


INTRODUCTION  xxix 

phrase,  popular  preachers  would  ‘ roar  up  for  sin,  in  their 
pulpits  ’,  it  sounded  strange  teaching;  as  to  many  weighed 
down  with  the  world’s  evil  it  still  sounds  strange.  It  is, 
indeed,  a teaching  which,  unless  Fox’s  Christian  presup- 
positions are  realized  and  accepted,  can  easily  bring  a man 
into  peril  and  has  often  done  so : the  peril,  for  instance,  of 
being  more  like  the  Pharisee  than  the  publican.  Yet 
Fox  was  not  wrong  in  finding  in  his  New  Testament  the 
promise  that  over  Christians  sin  should  not  have  dominion. 
That  he  took  this  promise  seriously  and  claimed  its  fulfil- 
ment in  experience  shows  him  entirely  in  character.  The 
Lord’s  power  was  over  all,  sin  included. 

Had  he  not  held  this  conviction  so  strongly,  he  would 
never  have  had  the  heart  to  go  through  either  with  his 
forbearance  to  those  who  persecuted  him,  or,  more  par- 
ticularly, with  his  refusal  to  take  up  arms.  For  himself, 
he  had  early  ‘ come  into  the  covenant  of  peace  which  was 
before  wars  and  strifes  were  ’,  as  he  told  those  who  pressed 
him  to  fight  for  Parliament  in  the  Civil  Wars.  He  had 
found  what  it  meant  to  live  ‘ in  the  virtue  of  that  life  and 
power  that  took  away  the  occasion  of  all  wars  ’.  But  he 
was  far  too  shrewd  an  observer  of  his  fellow  men  to  suppose 
that  this  was  true  generally.  Nothing  could  be  further 
from  the  truth  than  to  see  Fox’s  testimony  against  taking 
part  in  war  as  idealistic  and  up  in  the  air.  It  was  exactly 
the  opposite.  Fox  moved  constantly  among  rude  and 
wicked  men,  and  was  keenly  sensitive  to  the  evil  in  them, 
to  the  lust,  as  he  found  it  called  in  the  New  Testament, 
from  which  all  wars  arose.  His  object  was  to  overcome 
this  lust  by  going  among  men  in  the  power  of  the  Lord 
and  behaving  towards  them  in  the  way  ‘ the  most  likely 
to  reach  to  the  inward  witness  and  so  change  the  evil  mind 
into  the  right  mind  ’.^  It  was  essentially  a missionary 
gospel  which  he  preached,  the  gospel  of  Christ’s  power 
to  meet  evil  and  to  overcome  it;  and  it  had  its  origin  and 
seal  in  his  own  experience.  There,  before  starting  out 
on  his  ministry,  he  had  seen  an  ocean  of  darkness  and  death, 

^ A.  N.  Brayshaw,  op.  cit.,  p.  131. 


XXXll 


INTRODUCTION 


of  the  Lord.  Fox  lived  in  an  age  when  literary  self- 
expression  could  still  be  direct  and  naive : the  sophistication 
and  self-consciousness  of  the  following  century  were  not 
yet  felt.  In  his  Journal,  like  Bunyan  in  Grace  Abounding, 
and  Baxter  in  his  autobiography,  Fox  is  so  absorbed  in  the 
spiritual  purpose  of  his  narration  that  he  does  not  stop 
to  think  whether  he  is  giving  himself  away,  or  to  add 
touches  of  artistry  with  the  purpose  of  bringing  out  how 
things  should  have  happened  or  even  of  heightening  the 
effect  of  things  as  they  were.  Things  as  they  were  were 
quite  sufficiently  remarkable;  and  in  any  case  his  devotion 
to  truth  demanded  a straight  narrative.  That  this  did  not 
result  in  a bald  narrative  is  one  of  the  mysteries  of  creative 
writing.  All  we  can  say  is  that  Fox’s  personality  was  so 
well  integrated,  so  dominant  and  pervasive,  that  what  he 
dictated  was,  like  himself,  alive. 

Nor  is  it  only  himself  that  he  reveals  so  ingenuously.  He 
had  the  skill  to  sketch  many  a character  or  situation  in  a 
few  short  vivid  phrases.  Take  this  paragraph,  which 
follows  closely  on  the  scene  of  violence  at  Ulverston,  when, 
though  mazed  with  the  blows  he  had  received,  he  was  in 
the  love  of  God  to  all  his  persecutors. 

And  so  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  come  up  again  through 
them  and  up  into  Ulverston  market,  and  there  meets  me  a man 
with  a sword,  a soldier.  ‘ Sir  ’,  said  he,  ‘ I am  your  servant, 
I am  ashamed  that  you  should  be  thus  abused,  for  you  are  a 
man,’  said  he.  He  was  grieved  and  said  he  would  assist  me 
in  what  he  could,  and  I told  him  that  it  was  no  matter,  the  Lord’s 
power  was  over  all  (p.  128-9). 

The  conversation  here  is  highly  characteristic.  These  are 
real  people,  speaking  naturally. 

As  soon  as  I came  to  the  door,  a young  woman  came  to  the 
door.  ‘ What  ! Is  it  you  ? ’ said  she  as  though  she  had  seen 
me  before,  ‘ Come  in,’  said  she:  for  the  Lord’s  power  bowed 
their  hearts  (p.  73). 

Or  again: 

And  it  being  in  the  evening  there  being  a company  of  serving 


INTRODUCTION  XXXIll 

men  and  wild  fellows,  they  met  me  and  encompassed  me  about 
and  had  an  intent  to  have  done  me  some  mischief.  And  it 
being  dark,  I asked,  ‘ What  ! are  you  highwaymen  ? ’ (p.  278). 

The  syntax  is  loose;  but  one  can  see  and  hear,  almost  feel, 
it  as  it  happens. 

Or  take  Fox’s  description  of  the  situation  which  brought 
about  his  being  belaboured  so  roughly  at  Ulverston:  the 
picture  of  the  minister  who  was  ‘ blustering  on  in  his 
preaching  ’,  when  ‘ of  a sudden  all  the  people  in  the 
steeplehouse  were  in  an  outrage  and  an  uproar  ’ ; so  that 
‘ people  tumbled  over  their  seats  for  fear  . . . and  the  blood 
ran  down  several  people  so  as  I never  saw  the  like  in  my 
life,  as  I looked  at  them  when  they  were  dragging  me 
along 

This  last  phrase  explains  something  of  the  JournaVs 
power.  Fox  possessed  the  detachment  to  look  at  men. 
He  had  need  to  do  so,  it  is  true.  At  Aberystwyth  ‘ I turned 
but  my  back  from  the  man  that  was  giving  oats  to  my 
horse,  and  I looked  back  again  and  he  was  filling  his  pockets 
with  the  provender  that  was  given  to  my  horse  Fox 
looked  at  men,  and  he  remembered  what  he  saw.  Small 
wonder  that  men  cried  ‘ Look  .at  his  eyes  ! ’ and  ‘ Don’t 
pierce  me  so  with  thy  eyes  ! Keep  thy  eyes  off  me  ! ’ 
He  looked  at  them,  and  knew  what  was  in  them.  Some- 
times he  saw  them  not  only  as  they  were  but  as  they  would 
be.  ‘ As  I parted  from  him  ’,  he  says  of  James  Nayler  in 
1655,  ‘ I cast  my  eyes  upon  him,  and  a fear  struck  in  me 
concerning  him.’  Within  a year  Nayler  had  run  out  into 
imaginations,  as  Fox  calls  it,  and  had  brought  shame  upon 
Friends  generally. 

Fox  was  thus  not  only  always  minding  a light  within. 
He  was  also,  as  Penn  says  of  him,  a discerner  of  others’ 
spirits.  That  he  should  have  been  given  to  visions  more 
generally  is  hardly  surprising.  Such  visions  as,  on  various 
occasions,  he  had  of  ‘ a bear  and  two  great  mastiff  dogs, 
that  I should  pass  by  them  and  they  should  do  me  no  hurt  ’, 
of  ‘ a desperate  creature  like  a wild  horse  or  colt  that  was 
coming  to  destroy  me:  but  I got  victory  over  it  ’,  of  ‘ a black 


XXXIV 


INTRODUCTION 


coffin,  but  I passed  over  it  of  ‘ an  ugly  slubbering  hound 
are  all  presumably  to  be  regarded  as  but  the  projections 
into  concrete  symbols  of  a presentiment  of  danger  which 
often  came  to  him  and  seldom  without  cause.  He  had, 
however,  at  least  one  vision  of  a more  meditative  kind, 
his  account  of  which  contains  some  exquisite  dream- 
language,  especially  in  its  closing  sentences. 

And  I had  a vision  about  the  time  that  I was  in  this  travail 
and  sufferings,  that  I was  walking  in  the  fields,  and  many  Friends 
were  with  me,  and  I bid  them  dig  in  the  earth,  and  they  did 
and  I went  down.  And  there  was  a mighty  vault  top-full  of 
people  kept  under  the  earth,  rocks  and  stones.  So  I bid  them 
break  open  the  earth  and  let  all  the  people  out,  and  they  did, 
and  all  the  people  came  forth  to  liberty;  and  it  was  a mighty 
place. 

And  when  they  had  done  I went  on  and  bid  them  dig  again. 
They  did,  and  there  was  a mighty  vault  full  of  people,  and  I bid 
them  throw  it  down  and  let  all  the  people  out,  and  so  they  did. 

And  I went  on  again,  and  bid  them  dig  again,  and  Friends 
said  unto  me,  ‘ George,  thou  finds  out  all  things,’  and  so  there 
they  digged,  and  I went  down,  and  went  along  the  vault;  and 
there  sat  a woman  in  white  looking  at  time  how  it  passed  away. 
And  there  followed  me  a woman  down  in  the  vault,  in  which 
vault  was  the  treasure;  and  so  she  laid  her  hand  on  the  treasure 
on  my  left  hand  and  then  time  whisked  on  apace ; but  I clapped 
my  hand  upon  her,  and  said,  ‘ Touch  not  the  treasure.’ 

And  then  time  passed  not  so  swift  (p.  578). 

Something  of  Fox’s  secret  is  in  this  passage.  Much, 
no  doubt,  cannot  be  explained.  The  whole  passage  was 
omitted  from  the  Journal  as  first  published.  The  self- 
satisfaction  of  ‘ George,  thou  finds  out  all  things  ’,  as  well 
as  the  visionary  nature  of  the  whole,  were  not  welcomed 
in  1700.  To-day,  perhaps,  we  are  more  ready  to  under- 
stand. ‘ There  is  no  great  leadership  where  there  is  not 
a mystic.  Nothing  splendid  has  ever  been  achieved 
except  by  those  who  dared  to  believe  that  something 
inside  themselves  was  superior  to  circumstances,  and  in 
the  pursuit  of  the  great  secret  the  follower  finds  that 


INTRODUCTION  XXXV 

detachment  which  to  the  world  around  savours  of 
mystery.’^ 

This  vision  of  Fox’s  may  well  throw  light  upon  his 
mental  processes  generally.  At  least  we  may  say  that 
attention  to  the  eye  of  faith,  looking  on  the  things  which 
are  not  seen  but  eternal,  is  likely  to  foster  insight  and 
intuition  more  at  large.  ‘ The  strength  of  her  mind  lay 
in  intuition,’  wrote  William  Godwin  of  Mary  Wollstone- 
craft;  ‘ she  was  often  right,  by  this  means  only,  in  matters 
of  mere  speculation.  . . . She  adopted  one  opinion,  and 
rejected  another,  spontaneously,  by  a sort  of  tact.’  To 
compare  George  Fox  with  Mary  Wollstonecraft  may 
seem  fanciful,  but  the  passage  is  suggestive;  as  are  the 
words  with  which  Godwin  continues : ‘ In  a robust  and 
unwavering  judgment  of  this  sort,  there  is  a kind  of  witch- 
craft; when  it  decides  justly,  it  produces  a responsive 
vibration  in  every  ingenuous  mind.’^ 

May  we  not  have  here  something  that  explains  George 
Fox’s  leadership  ? For  not  his  least  remarkable  faculty 
was  his  ability  to  draw  men  to  himself  and  to  claim  their 
entire  and  life-long  devotion.  That  he  could  do  this  is, 
at  the  same  time,  the  best  evidence  that  he  was  no  mere 
visionary.  He  also  possessed  a robust  common  sense 
and  had  considerable  organizing  powers.  If  the  Society 
of  Friends  has  had  a continuing  existence,  while  other 
bands  of  Commonwealth  enthusiasts  were  forgotten 
before  the  century  was  out,  it  owes  this  in  no  small  measure 
to  the  system  of  monthly  and  quarterly  meetings  for  busi- 
ness which  Fox  established.  His  shrewdness,  not  to  say 
his  humour,  may  be  illustrated  from  the  occasion  when  he 
was  sent  up  to  London  after  being  tried  at  Lancaster.  First 
he  persuaded  the  authorities  at  Lancaster  to  save  themselves 
the  expense  of  sending  the  gaoler  and  bailiffs  with  him  as 
guards,  and  to  trust  him  to  travel  with  one  or  two  of  his 
own  friends  only.  Then,  when  he  appeared  in  London 

^ Professor  John  Fraser,  on  ‘ The  Influence  of  Lister’s  Work  on 
Surgery  in  Joseph,  Baron  Lister,  ed.  A.  Logan  Turner,  1927,  p.  105. 

2 V/.  Godwin,  op.  cit.,  p.  125. 


XXXvi  INTRODUCTION 

on  the  charge  of  plotting  to  imbrue  the  whole  nation  in 
blood,  he  said,  ‘ I had  need  to  have  had  two  or  three 
troops  of  horse  to  have  come  along  with  me  if  such  things 
could  be  proved,’  and  was  soon  set  free. 

Yet  more  than  shrewdness  and  common  sense  are  needed 
to  win  men  as  Fox  could  win  them.  Despite  the  central 
place  in  his  life  of  forbearance  to  enemies,  it  is  all  too  easy 
to  miss  his  tenderness  and  gentleness.  His  courage  is 
more  evident;  but  his  tender  side  was  equally  essential 
to  his  make-up.  The  scene  in  which  the  Lord  Protector 
catched  him  by  the  hand  and  said,  with  tears  in  his  eyes, 
‘ Come  again  to  my  house  ’,  says  something  for  Fox  as 
well  as  for  Cromwell.  Soldiers,  too,  ‘ took  me  by  the  hand 
very  friendly,  and  said  they  would  have  me  alongst  with 
them  ’.  ‘ Nathaniel  ’,  said  Fox  to  a minister  with  whom 

he  had  been  disputing,  ‘ give  me  thy  hand  ’ ; for,  he  added, 
he  would  not  quench  the  least  measure  of  God  in  any,  much 
less  put  out  his  starlight.  It  was  the  same  with  Quaker 
meetings  for  worship.  Fox  had  no  greater  praise  for  a 
meeting  for  worship  than  to  call  it  a tender  broken  meeting; 
and  if  any,  in  bubbling  forth  a few  words  of  ministry, 
should  go  beyond  their  measure,  he  bade  Friends  bear  it: 
‘ that  is  the  tender  ’. 

So  it  was  that  the  men  and  women  whom  he  gathered 
round  him  not  only  believed  in  him  but  loved  him.  One 
Friend,  John  Banks,  who  had  a withered  arm,  dreamed 
one  night  that  he  was  with  ‘ dear  George  Fox  ’,  and  felt 
such  faith  in  Fox  that  he  believed  Fox  could  heal  his  arm; 
he  accordingly  sought  Fox  out,  and  received  the  healing 
he  desired.  However  the  ‘ miracle  ’,  as  Fox  would  have 
called  it,  is  to  be  interpreted,  and  many  similar  incidents 
are  recorded  during  his  life,^  the  story  says  much  for  the 
relation  between  the  two  mten.  ‘ George  ’,  wrote  another 
Friend  when  in  prison  at  Lancaster,  ‘ sometimes  when  I 
think  on  thee,  the  power  rises  and  warms  my  heart.  Bonds 
and  fetters  (are)  ready  to  burst  asunder,  for  it  is  not  possible 

^ See  George  Fox's  ‘ Book  of  Miracles  ed.  H.  J.  Cadbury,  Cam- 
bridge University  Press,  1948. 


INTRODUCTION  XXXVii 

that  they  can  hold  me.’^  Robert  Widders,  the  writer  of 
this  letter,  was  a husbandman;  John  Banks  was  a glover; 
not  many  mighty,  not  many  noble,  were  called.  But 
when  they  were,  their  relation  to  Fox  was  just  the  same. 
It  was  so,  for  instance,  with  William  Penn,  the  courtier 
of  gentle  birth  who  became  the  founder  of  Pennsylvania. 
In  the  whole  of  Penn’s  carefully  balanced  character-sketch 
of  Fox  printed  in  his  preface  to  the  first  edition  of  Fox’s 
Journal,  a sketch  which  is  still  the  best  and  which  has  con- 
tinually been  drawn  on  in  the  present  study,  nothing  is 
more  moving  than  the  start  of  affection  with  which  it 
closes.  ‘ I have  done  ’,  Penn  writes,  ‘ as  to  this  part 
of  my  Preface,  when  I have  left  this  short  epitaph  to  his 
name:  “ Many  sons  have  done  virtuously  in  this  day; 
but,  dear  George,  thou  excellest  them  all.”  ’ 

Out  of  the  strong  came  forth  sweetness.  By  few  has 
Samson’s  riddle  been  better  resolved. 

^ Swarthmore  MSS.  (Friends  House),  iv,  41. 


Extracts  from 

WILLIAM  PENN’S  PREFACE 
TO  THE  Original  Edition  of 
George  Fox’s  Journal,  1694 

EORGE  FOX  was  bom  in  Leicestershire  in  the  year 


1624.  He  descended  of  honest  and  sufficient 


parents,  who  endeavoured  to  bring  him  up,  as  they 
did  the  rest  of  their  children,  in  the  way  and  worship  of  the 
nation;  especially  his  mother,  who  was  a woman  accom- 
plished above  most  of  her  degree  in  the  place  where  she  lived. 
But  from  a child  he  appeared  of  another  frame  of  mind 
than  the  rest  of  his  brethren;  being  more  religious,  inward, 
still,  solid  and  observing  beyond  his  years,  as  the  answers 
he  would  give  and  the  questions  he  would  put  upon  occasion 
manifested,  to  the  astonishment  of  those  that  heard  him, 
especially  in  divine  things. 

His  mother  taking  notice  of  his  singular  temper,  and  the 
gravity,  wisdom,  and  piety  that  very  early  shined  through 
him,  refusing  childish  and  vain  sports  and  company  when 
very  young,  she  was  tender  and  indulgent  over  him,  so 
that  from  her  he  met  with  little  difficulty.  As  to  his  employ- 
ment, he  was  brought  up  in  country  business;  and  as  he 
took  most  delight  in  sheep,  so  he  was  very  skilful  in  them; 
an  employment  that  very  well  suited  his  mind  in  several 
respects,  both  for  its  innocency  and  solitude,  and  was  a 
just  figure  of  his  after  ministry  and  service. 

I shall  not  break  in  upon  his  own  account,  which  is 
by  much  the  best  that  can  be  given,  and  therefore  desire, 
what  I can,  to  avoid  saying  anything  of  what  is  said  already 
as  to  the  particular  passages  of  his  coming  forth.  But 
in  general,  when  he  was  somewhat  above  twenty,  he  left 
his  friends,  and  visited  the  most  retired  and  religious 


XXXIX 


xl  WILLIAM  PENN’S  PREFACE 

people  in  those  parts;  and  some  few  there  were  in  this 
nation,  who  waited  for  the  consolation  of  Israel  night  and 
day;  as  Zacharias,  Anna,  and  good  old  Simeon  did  of  old 
time.  To  these  he  was  sent,  and  these  he  sought  out 
in  the  neighbouring  countries,  and  among  them  he  sojourned 
till  his  more  ample  ministry  came  upon  him.  At  this 
time  he  taught,  and  was  an  example  of,  silence,  endeavour- 
ing to  bring  them  from  self-performances,  testifying  and 
turning  to  the  light  of  Christ  within  them,  and  encouraging 
them  to  wait  in  patience  to  feel  the  power  of  it  to  stir  in 
their  hearts,  that  their  knowledge  and  worship  of  God 
might  stand  in  the  power  of  an  endless  life,  which  was  to 
be  found  in  the  Light,  as  it  was  obeyed  in  the  manifestation 
of  it  in  man.  For  in  the  Word  was  life,  and  that  life  is 
the  Light  of  men.  Life  in  the  Word,  Light  in  men,  and 
life  in  men  as  the  Light  is  obeyed ; the  Children  of  the  Light 
living  by  the  life  of  the  Word,  by  which  the  Word  begets 
them  again  to  God,  which  is  the  regeneration  and  new 
birth,  without  which  there  is  no  coming  unto  the  Kingdom 
of  God;  and  which,  whoever  comes  to,  is  greater  than  John; 
that  is,  than  John’s  dispensation,  which  was  not  that  of  the 
kingdom,  but  the  consummation  of  the  legal,  and  fore- 
running of  the  gospel  times.  Accordingly,  several  meetings 
were  gathered  in  those  parts,  and  thus  his  time  was  employed 
for  some  years. 

In  1652,  he  being  in  his  usual  retirement  to  the  Lord, 
upon  a very  high  mountain  in  some  of  the  hither  parts  of 
Yorkshire,^  as  I take  it,  his  mind  exercised  towards  the  Lord, 
he  had  a vision  of  the  great  work  of  God  in  the  earth, 
and  of  the  way  that  he  was  to  go  forth  to  begin  it.  He  saw 
people  as  thick  as  motes  in  the  sun,  that  should  in  time 
be  brought  home  to  the  Lord,  that  there  might  be  but  one 
shepherd  and  one  sheepfold  in  all  the  earth.  There  his 
eye  was  directed  northward,  beholding  a great  people 
that  should  receive  him  and  his  message  in  those  parts. 
Upon  this  mountain  he  was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  sound 
out  his  great  and  notable  day,  as  if  he  had  been  in  a great 

^ Pendle  Hill  is  in  Lancashire. 


WILLIAM  PENN’S  PREFACE  xli 

auditory,  and  from  thence  went  forth,  as  the  Lord  had 
shown  him;  and  in  every  place  where  he  came,  if  not 
before  he  came  to  it,  he  had  his  particular  exercise  and 
service  shown  to  him,  so  that  the  Lord  was  his  leader 
indeed;  for  it  was  not  in  vain  that  he  travailed,  God  in 
most  places  sealing  his  commission  with  the  convincement  of 
some  of  all  sorts,  as  well  publicans  as  sober  professors  of 
religion. 

Some  of  the  first  and  most  eminent  of  them,  which  are  at 
rest,  were  Richard  Farnsworth,  James  Nayler,  William 
Dewsbury,  Francis  Flowgill,  Edward  Burrough,  John  Camm, 
John  Audland,  Richard  Hubberthorn,  Thomas  Taylor, 
John  Aldam,  Thomas  Holme,  Alexander  Parker,  William 
Simpson,  William  Caton,  John  Stubbs,  Robert  Widders, 
John  Burnyeat,  Robert  Lodge,  Thomas  Salthouse,  and 
many  more  worthies,  that  cannot  be  well  here  named, 
together  with  divers  yet  living  of  the  first  and  great  con- 
vincement, who  after  the  knowledge  of  God’s  purging 
judgments  in  themselves,  and  some  time  in  waiting  in 
silence  upon  him,  to  feel  and  receive  power  from  on  high 
to  speak  in  his  name,  which  none  else  rightly  can,  though 
they  may  use  the  same  words,  felt  the  divine  motions 
and  were  frequently  drawn  forth,  especially  to  visit  the 
public  assemblies  to  reprove,  inform  and  exhort  them, 
sometimes  in  markets,  fairs,  streets,  and  by  the  highway- 
side,  calling  people  to  repentance  and  to  turn  to  the  Lord 
with  their  hearts  as  well  as  their  mouths,  directing  them  to 
the  Light  of  Christ  within  them  to  see  and  examine  and 
consider  their  ways  by,  and  to  eschew  the  evil  and  do  the 
good  and  acceptable  will  of  God.  And  they  suffered  great 
hardships  for  their  love  and  good-will,  being  often  stocked, 
stoned,  beaten,  whipt  and  imprisoned,  though  honest 
men  and  of  good  report  where  they  lived,  that  had  left 
wives  and  children  and  houses  and  lands  to  visit  them  with 
a living  call  to  repentance.  And  though  the  priests  generally 
set  themselves  to  oppose  them  and  write  against  them, 
and  insinuated  most  false  and  scandalous  stories  to  defame 
them,  stirring  up  the  magistrates  to  suppress  them,  especially 


xlii  WILLIAM  PENN’S  PREFACE 

in  those  northern  parts,  yet  God  was  pleased  so  to  fill 
them  with  his  living  power  and  give  them  such  an  open 
door  of  utterance  in  his  service,  that  there  was  a mighty 
convincement  over  those  parts. 

And  through  the  tender  and  singular  indulgence  of  Judge 
Bradshaw  and  Judge  Fell,  who  were  wont  to  go  that  circuit, 
in  the  infancy  of  things,  the  priests  were  never  able  to  gain 
the  point  they  laboured  for,  which  was  to  have  proceeded 
to  blood,  and  if  possible,  Herod  like,  by  a cruel  exercise  of 
the  civil  power,  to  have  cut  them  off  and  rooted  them  out  of 
the  country;  especially  Judge  Fell,  who  was  not  only  a 
check  to  their  rage  but  finally  countenanced  this  people; 
for  his  wife  receiving  the  Truth  with  the  first,  it  had  that 
influence  upon  his  spirit,  being  a just  and  wise  man,  and 
seeing  in  his  own  wife  and  family  a full  confutation  to  all 
the  popular  clamours  against  the  way  of  Truth,  that  he 
covered  them  what  he  could,  and  freely  opened  his  doors, 
and  gave  up  his  house  to  his  wife  and  her  friends,  not 
valuing  the  reproach  of  ignorant  or  evil  minded  people, 
which  I here  mention  to  his  and  her  honour,  and  which 
will  be,  I believe,  an  honour  and  a blessing  to  such  of  their 
name  and  family  as  shall  be  found  in  that  tenderness, 
humility,  love  and  zeal  for  the  truth  and  people  of  the  Lord. 

That  house  was  for  some  years  at  first,  till  the  Truth 
had  opened  its  way  in  the  southern  part  of  this  island,  an 
eminent  receptacle  of  this  people.  Others  of  good  note 
and  substance  in  those  nortWn  countries  had  also  opened 
their  houses  with  their  hearts,  to  the  many  publishers  that  in 
a short  time  the  Lord  had  raised  to  declare  his  salvation 
to  the  people,  and  where  meetings  of  the  Lord’s  messengers 
were  frequently  held,  to  communicate  their  services  and 
exercises  and  comfort  and  edify  one  another  in  their  blessed 
ministry. 

I return  to  this  excellent  man.  For  his  personal  qualities 
both  natural,  moral  and  divine  as  they  appeared  in  his 
converse  with  brethren  and  in  the  church  of  God,  take 
as  follows: 

He  was  a man  that  God  endued  with  a clear  and  wonderful 


WILLIAM  PENN’S  PREFACE  xliii 

depth,  a discerner  of  others’  spirits,  and  very  much  a master 
of  his  own.  And  though  the  side  of  his  understanding 
which  lay  next  to  the  world,  and  especially  the  expression  of 
it,  might  sound  uncouth  and  unfashionable  to  nice  ears,  his 
matter  was  nevertheless  very  profound;  and  would  not  only 
bear  to  be  often  considered  but  the  more  it  was  so  the  more 
weighty  and  instructing  it  appeared.  And  abruptly  and 
brokenly  as  sometimes  his  sentences  would  fall  from  him 
about  divine  things,  it  is  well  known  they  were  often  as 
texts  to  many  fairer  declarations.  And  indeed  it  showed, 
beyond  all  contradiction,  that  God  sent  him,  that  no  arts 
or  parts  had  any  share  in  his  matter  or  manner  of  his 
ministry;  and  that  so  many  great,  excellent,  and  necessary 
truths  as  he  came  forth  to  preach  to  mankind  had  therefore 
nothing  of  man’s  wit  or  wisdom  to  recommend  them; 
so  that  as  to  man  he  was  an  original,  being  no  man’s  copy. 
And  his  ministry  and  writings  show  they  are  from  one 
that  was  not  taught  of  man,  nor  had  learned  what  he  said 
by  study.  Nor  were  they  notional  or  speculative,  but 
sensible  and  practical  truths,  tending  to  conversion  and 
regeneration  and  the  setting  up  of  the  kingdom  of  God 
in  the  hearts  of  men ; and  the  way  of  it  was  his  work. 

From  the  clearness  of  the  principle,  the  power  and 
efficacy  of  it,  in  the  exemplary  sobriety,  plainness,  zeal, 
steadiness,  humility,  gravity,  punctuality,  charity,  and 
circumspect  care  in  the  government  of  Church  affairs,  which 
shined  in  his  and  their  life  and  testimony  that  God  employ- 
ed in  this  work,  it  greatly  confirmed  me  that  it  was  of  God, 
and  engaged  my  soul  in  a deep  love,  fear,  reverence  and  thank- 
fulness for  his  love  and  mercy  therein  to  mankind;  in  which 
mind  I remain,  and  shall,  I hope,  to  the  end  of  my  days. 

In  his  testimony  or  ministry,  he  much  laboured  to  open 
Truth  to  the  people’s  understandings,  and  to  bottom  them 
upon  the  principle,  and  principal,  Christ  Jesus,  the  Light 
of  the  world,  that  by  bringing  them  to  something  that  was 
of  God  in  themselves,  they  might  the  better  know  and 
judge  of  him  and  themselves. 

He  had  an  extraordinary  gift  in  opening  the  Scriptures. 


Xliv  WILLIAM  PENN’S  PREFACE 

He  would  go  to  the  marrow  of  things,  and  show  the  mind, 
harmony,  and  fulfilling  of  them  with  much  plainness  and  to 
great  comfort  and  edification. 

The  mystery  of  the  first  and  second  Adam,  of  the  fall 
and  restoration,  of  the  law  and  gospel,  of  shadows  and 
substance,  of  the  servant’s  and  son’s  state,  and  the  fulfilling 
of  the  Scriptures  in  Christ,  and  by  Christ  the  true  Light, 
in  all  that  are  his  through  the  obedience  of  faith,  were 
much  of  the  substance  and  drift  of  his  testimonies.  In  all 
which  he  was  witnessed  to  be  of  God,  being  sensibly  felt 
to  speak  that  which  he  had  received  of  Christ,  and  which 
was  his  own  experience,  in  that  which  never  errs  nor  fails. 

But  above  all  he  excelled  in  prayer.  The  inwardness  and 
weight  of  his  spirit,  the  reverence  and  solemnity  of  his 
address  and  behaviour,  and  the  fewness  and  fullness  of 
his  words,  have  often  struck  even  strangers  with  admiration, 
as  they  used  to  reach  others  with  consolation.  The  most 
awful,  living,  reverent  frame  I ever  felt  or  beheld,  I must 
say,  was  his  in  prayer.  And  truly  it  was  a testimony  that 
he  knew  and  lived  nearer  to  the  Lord  than  other  men; 
for  they  that  know  him  most  will  see  most  reason  to 
approach  him  with  reverence  and  fear. 

He  was  of  an  innocent  life,  no  busy-body,  nor  self-seeker, 
neither  touchy  nor  critical;  what  fell  from  him  was  very 
inoffensive,  if  not  very  edifying.  So  meek,  contented, 
modest,  easy,  steady,  tender,  it  was  a pleasure  to  be  in  his 
company.  He  exercised  no  authority  but  over  evil,  and 
that  everywhere  and  in  all,  but  with  love,  compassion,  and 
long-suffering,  a most  merciful  man,  as  ready  to  forgive 
as  unapt  to  take  or  give  an  offence.  Thousands  can  truly 
say  he  was  of  an  excellent  spirit  and  savour  among  them, 
and  because  thereof,  the  most  excellent  spirits  loved  him 
with  an  unfeigned  and  unfading  love. 

He  was  an  incessant  labourer;  for  in  his  younger  time, 
before  his  many  great  and  deep  sufferings  and  travels  had 
enfeebled  his  body  for  itinerant  services,  he  laboured 
much  in  the  word,  and  doctrine  and  discipline,  in  England, 
Scotland  and  Ireland,  turning  many  to  God,  and  confirming 


WILLIAM  PENN'S  PREFACE  xlv 

those  that  were  convinced  of  the  Truth,  and  settling  good 
order  as  to  church  affairs  among  them.  And  towards 
the  conclusion  of  his  travelling  services,  between  the  years 
’71  and  ’77,  he  visited  the  churches  of  Christ  in  the  plan- 
tations in  America,  and  in  the  United  Provinces  and 
Germany,  to  the  convincement  and  consolation  of  many. 
After  that  time  he  chiefly  resided  in  and  about  the  city  of 
London;  and  besides  the  services  of  his  ministry,  which 
were  frequent  and  serviceable,  he  writ  much  both  to  them 
that  are  within  and  those  that  are  without  the  communion. 
But  the  care  he  took  of  the  affairs  of  the  church  in  general 
was  very  great. 

He  was  often  where  the  records  of  the  affairs  of  the 
church  are  kept  and  where  the  letters  from  the  many 
Meetings  of  God’s  people  over  all  the  world,  where  settled, 
come  upon  occasions;  which  letters  he  had  read  to  him, 
and  communicated  them  to  the  meeting  that  is  weekly^  held 
there  for  such  services;  and  he  would  be  sure  to  stir  them 
up  to  discharge  them,  especially  in  suffering  cases,  showing 
great  sympathy  and  compassion  upon  all  such  occasions, 
carefully  looking  into  the  respective  cases,  and  endeavouring 
speedy  relief,  according  to  the  nature  of  them.  So  that 
the  churches,  and  any  of  the  suffering  members  thereof, 
were  sure  not  to  be  forgotten  or  delayed  in  their  desires, 
if  he  were  there. 

As  he  was  unwearied,  so  he  was  undaunted  in  his  services 
for  God  and  his  people;  he  was  no  more  to  be  moved  to 
fear  than  to  wrath.  His  behaviour  at  Derby,  Lichfield, 
Appleby,  before  Oliver  Cromwell,  at  Launceston,  Scar- 
borough, Worcester,  and  Westminster  Hall,  with  many 
other  places  and  exercises,  did  abundantly  evidence  it  to  his 
enemies  as  well  as  his  friends. 

But,  as  in  the  primitive  times  some  rose  up  against  the 
blessed  apostles  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  even  from  among 
those  that  they  had  turned  to  the  hope  of  the  gospel,  and 
who  became  their  greatest  trouble,  so  this  man  of  God 
had  his  share  of  suffering  from  some  that  were  convinced 

^ ‘ The  Meeting  for  Sufferings  now  held  monthly. 


Xlvi  WILLIAM  PENN’S  PREFACE 

by  him,  who  through  prejudice  or  mistake  ran  against  him, 
as  one  that  sought  dominion  over  conscience,  because  he 
pressed,  by  his  presence  or  epistles,  a ready  and  zealous 
compliance  with  such  good  and  wholesome  things  as  tended 
to  an  orderly  conversation  about  the  affairs  of  the  church, 
and  in  their  walking  before  men.  That  which  contributed 
much  to  this  ill  work  was,  in  some,  a begrudging  of  this 
meek  man  the  love  and  esteem  he  had  and  deserved  in  the 
hearts  of  the  people,  and  weakness  in  others  that  were 
taken  with  their  groundless  suggestions  of  imposition  and 
blind  obedience. 

They  would  have  had  every  man  independent,  that  as 
he  had  the  principle  in  himself,  he  should  only  stand  and 
fall  to  that  and  nobody  else,  not  considering  that  the 
principle  is  one  in  all.  And  though  the  measure  of  light 
or  grace  might  differ,  yet  the  nature  of  it  was  the  same, 
and  being  so,  they  struck  at  the  spiritual  unity  which  a 
people  guided  by  the  same  principle  are  naturally  led  into. 
So  that  what  is  an  evil  to  one,  is  so  to  all,  and  what  is 
virtuous,  honest  and  of  good  report  to  one,  is  so  to  all, 
from  the  sense  and  savour  of  the  one  universal  principle 
which  is  common  to  all,  the  root  of  all  true  Christian  fellow- 
ship and  that  spirit  into  which  the  people  of  God  drink  and 
come  to  be  spiritually  minded,  and  of  one  heart  and  one  soul. 

Some  weakly  mistook  good  order  in  the  government  of 
church  affairs,  for  discipline  in  worship,  and  that  it  was  so 
pressed  or  recommended  by  him  and  other  brethren. 
And  they  were  ready  to  reflect  the  same  things  that  dissenters 
had  very  reasonably  objected  upon  the  national  churches 
that  have  coercively  pressed  conformity  to  their  respective 
creeds  and  worships.  Whereas  these  things  related  wholly 
to  conversation  and  the  outward  and  (I  may  say)  civil 
part  of  the  church,  that  men  should  walk  up  to  the  principles 
of  their  belief,  and  not  be  wanting  in  care  and  charity. 
But  though  some  have  stumbled  and  fallen  through 
mistakes,  and  an  unreasonable  obstinacy,  even  to  a pre- 
judice, yet  blessed  be  God  the  generality  have  returned 
to  their  first  love. 


WILLIAM  PENN’S  PREFACE  Xlvii 

In  all  these  occasions,  though  there  was  no  person 
the  discontented  struck  so  sharply  at  as  this  good  man, 
he  bore  all  their  weakness  and  prejudice,  and  returned  not 
reflection  for  reflection  but  forgave  them  their  weak  and 
bitter  speeches,  praying  for  them  that  they  might  have  a 
sense  of  their  hurt,  see  the  subtilty  of  the  enemy  to  rend 
and  divide,  and  return  into  their  first  love  that  thought 
no  ill. 

And  truly,  I must  say,  that  though  God  had  visibly 
clothed  him  with  a divine  preference  and  authority,  and 
indeed  his  very  presence  expressed  a religious  majesty,  yet 
he  never  abused  it ; but  held  his  place  in  the  Church  of  God 
with  great  meekness  and  a most  engaging  humility  and 
moderation.  For  upon  all  occasions,  like  his  blessed 
Master,  he  was  a servant  to  all;  holding  and  exercising 
his  eldership  in  the  invisible  power  that  had  gathered  them, 
with  reverence  to  the  Head,  and  care  over  the  body; 
and  was  received  only  in  that  spirit  and  power  of  Christ, 
as  the  first  and  chief  elder  in  this  age;  who,  as  he  was 
therefore  worthy  of  double  honour,  so  for  the  same  reason 
it  was  given  by  the  faithful  of  this  day;  because  his  authority 
was  inward  and  not  outward,  and  that  he  got  it  and  kept 
it  by  the  love  of  God  and  power  of  an  endless  life. 

I write  my  knowledge  and  not  report;  and  my  witness 
is  true,  having  been  with  him  for  weeks  and  months 
together  on  divers  occasions,  and  those  of  the  nearest  and 
most  exercising  nature,  and  that  by  night  and  by  day,  by 
sea  and  by  land,  in  this  and  in  foreign  countries;  and  I can 
say  I never  saw  him  out  of  his  place,  or  not  a match  for 
every  service  or  occasion. 

For  in  all  things  he  acquitted  himself  like  a man,  yea, 
a strong  man,  a new  and  heavenly-minded  man,  a divine 
and  a naturalist,  and  all  of  God  Almighty’s  making. 
I have  been  surprised  at  his  questions  and  answers  in  natural 
things ; that  whilst  he  was  ignorant  of  useless  and  sophistical 
science,  he  had  in  him  the  foundation  of  useful  and  com- 
mendable knowledge,  and  cherished  it  everywhere.  Civil 
beyond  all  forms  of  breeding,  in  his  behaviour;  very 


xlviii  WILLIAM  PENN’S  PREFACE 

temperate,  eating  little  and  sleeping  less,  though  a bulky 
person. 

Thus  he  lived  and  sojourned  among  us;  and  as  he  lived, 
so  he  died;  feeling  the  same  eternal  power,  that  had  raised 
and  preserved  him,  in  his  last  moments.  So  full  of  assur- 
ance was  he  that  he  triumphed  over  death;  and  so  even 
to  the  last,  as  if  death  were  hardly  worth  notice  or  a mention ; 
recommending  to  some  with  him  the  despatch  and  dis- 
persion of  an  epistle  just  before  written  to  the  churches  of 
Christ  throughout  the  world,  and  his  own  books;  but, 
above  all.  Friends,  and  of  all  Friends,  those  in  Ireland 
and  America,  twice  over  saying,  ‘ Mind  poor  Friends  in 
Ireland  and  America.’  And  to  some  that  came  in  and 
inquired  how  he  found  himself,  he  answered,  ‘ Never  heed, 
the  Lord’s  power  is  over  all  weakness  and  death;  the  Seed 
reigns,  blessed  be  the  Lord  ’;  v/hich  was  about  four  or 
five  hours  before  his  departure  out  of  this  world. 

He  was  at  the  great  meeting  near  Lombard  Street  on  the 
First  day  of  the  week,  and  it  was  the  Third  day  following, 
about  ten  at  night,  when  he  left  us,  being  at  the  house  of 
Henry  Gouldney  in  the  same  court.  In  a good  old  age 
he  went,  after  having  lived  to  see  his  children’s  children 
to  many  generations  in  the  Truth.  He  had  the  comfort 
of  a short  illness,  and  the  blessing  of  a clear  sense  to  the 
last;  and  we  may  truly  say,  with  a man  of  God  of  old,  that 
‘ being  dead,  he  yet  speaketh  ’ ; and  though  absent  in 
body,  he  is  present  in  spirit;  neither  time  nor  place  being 
able  to  interrupt  the  communion  of  saints,  or  dissolve 
the  fellowships  of  the  spirits  of  the  just.  His  works 
praise  him,  because  they  are  to  the  praise  of  him  that 
worked  by  him;  for  which  his  memorial  is  and  shall  be 
blessed. 

I have  done  when  I have  left  this  short  epitaph  to  his 
name.  Many  sons  have  done  virtuously  in  this  day,  but 
dear  George  thou  excellest  them  all. 


William  Penn 


THE  JOURNAL 


CHAPTER  I 


^<^'-T^HAT  all  may  know  the  dealings  of  the  Lord  with 

I me,  and  the  various  exercises,  trials,  and  troubles 
through  which  he  led  me  in  order  to  prepare  and 
fit  me  for  the  work  unto  which  he  had  appointed  me,  and 
may  thereby  be  drawn  to  admire  and  glorify  his  infinite 
wisdom  and  goodness,  I think  fit  (before  I proceed  to  set 
forth  my  public  travels  in  the  service  of  Truth),  briefly  to 
mention  how  it  was  with  me  in  my  youth,  and  how  the 
work  of  the  Lord  was  begun  and  gradually  carried  on  in  me, 
even  from  my  childhood. 

I was  born  in  the  month  called  July  in  the  year  1624, 
at  Drayton-in-the-Clay^  in  Leicestershire.  My  father’s 
name  was  Christopher  Fox;  he  was  by  profession  a weaver, 
an  honest  man,  and  there  was  a Seed  of  God  in  him.  The 
neighbours  called  him  ‘ Righteous  Christer  ’.  My  mother 
was  an  upright  woman;  her  maiden  name  was  Mary  Lago, 
of  the  family  of  the  Lagos  and  of  the  stock  of  the  martyrs. 

In  my  very  young  years  I had  a gravity  and  stayedness 
of  mind  and  spirit  not  usual  in  children,  insomuch  that, 
when  I have  seen  old  men  carry  themselves  lightly  and 
wantonly  towards  each  other,  I have  had  a dislike  thereof 
risen  in  my  heart,  and  have  said  within  myself,  ‘ If  ever 
I come  to  be  a man,  surely  I should  not  do  so  nor  be  so 
wanton.’ 

When  I came  to  eleven  years  of  age,  I knew  pureness 
and  righteousness;  for  while  I was  a child  I was  taught 
how  to  walk  to  be  kept  pure.  The  Lord  taught  me  to  be 

^ < > These  brackets  indicate  matter  taken  from  the  first  (Ellwood’s) 
edition,  1694.  The  various  sources  are  explained  in  the  editorial 
preface.  The  passage  here  begun  ends  on  p.  20. 

^ Now  Fenny  Drayton. 


1 


2 JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1635 

faithful  in  all  things,  and  to  act  faithfully  two  ways,  viz. 
inwardly  to  God  and  outwardly  to  man,  and  to  keep  to 
‘ yea  ’ and  ‘ nay  ’ in  all  things.  For  the  Lord  showed 
me  that  though  the  people  of  the  world  have  mouths 
full  of  deceit  and  changeable  words,  yet  I was  to  keep 
to  ‘yea  ’ and  ‘ nay  ’ in  all  things;  and  that  my  words  should 
be  few  and  savoury,  seasoned  with  grace;  and  that  I might 
not  eat  and  drink  to  make  myself  wanton  but  for  health, 
using  the  creatures  in  their  service,  as  servants  in  their 
places,  to  the  glory  of  him  that  hath  created  them;  they 
being  in  their  covenant,  and  I being  brought  up  into  the 
covenant,  as  sanctified  by  the  Word  which  was  in  the 
beginning,  by  which  all  things  are  upheld ; wherein  is  unity 
with  the  creation. 

But  people  being  strangers  to  the  covenant  of  life  with 
God,  they  eat  and  drink  to  make  themselves  wanton  with 
the  creatures,  devouring  them  upon  their  own  lusts,  and 
living  in  all  filthiness,  loving  foul  ways  and  devouring  the 
creation;  and  all  this  in  the  world,  in  the  pollutions  thereof, 
without  God;  and  therefore  I was  to  shun  all  such. 

Afterwards,  as  I grew  up,  my  relations  thought  to  have 
me  a priest,^  but  others  persuaded  to  the  contrary;  where- 
upon I was  put  to  a man,^  a shoemaker  by  trade,  and  that 
dealt  in  wool,  and  used  grazing,  and  sold  cattle;  and  a 
great  deal  went  through  my  hands.  While  I was  with  him, 
he  was  blessed;  but  after  I left  him  he  broke,  and  came  to 
nothing.  I never  wronged  man  or  woman  in  all  that  time, 
for  the  Lord’s  power  was  with  me  and  over  me,  to  preserve 
me.  While  I v/as  in  that  service,  I used  in  my  dealings 
the  word  ‘ verily  ’,  and  it  was  a common  saying  among 
people  that  knew  me,  ‘If  George  says  “Verily”  there  is  no 
altering  him.’  When  boys  and  rude  people  would  laugh 
at  me,  I let  them  alone  and  went  my  way,  but  people  had 
generally  a love  to  me  for  my  innocency  and  honesty. 

When  I came  towards  nineteen  years  of  age,  I being 

^ Fox  applied  the  term  priest  to  all  professional  preachers,  ministers 
and  clergy,  irrespective  of  the  particular  sect  to  which  they  belonged. 

2 Probably  George  Gee  of  Mancetter,  a neighbouring  village. 


EARLY  TRAVELS 


1643] 


3 


upon  business  at  a fair/  one  of  my  cousins,  whose  name 
was  Bradford,  being  a professor^  and  having  another 
professor  with  him,  came  to  me  and  asked  me  to  drink 
part  of  a jug  of  beer  with  them,  and  I,  being  thirsty,  went 
in  with  them,  for  I loved  any  that  had  a sense  of  good, 
or  that  did  seek  after  the  Lord.  And  when  we  had  drunk 
a glass  apiece,  they  began  to  drink  healths  and  called  for 
more  drink,  agreeing  together  that  he  that  would  not  drink 
should  pay  all.  I was  grieved  that  any  that  made  profession 
of  religion  should  offer  to  do  so.  They  grieved  me  very 
much,  having  never  had  such  a thing  put  to  me  before 
by  any  sort  of  people;  wherefore  I rose  up  to  be  gone, 
and  putting  my  hand  into  my  pocket  I took  out  a groat 
and  laid  it  down  upon  the  table  before  them  and  said, 
‘ If  it  be  so.  I’ll  leave  you.’  So  I went  away;  and  when 
I had  done  what  business  I had  to  do,  I returned  home, 
but  did  not  go  to  bed  that  night,  nor  could  not  sleep, 
but  sometimes  walked  up  and  down,  and  sometimes  prayed 
and  cried  to  the  Lord,  who  said  unto  me,  ‘ Thou  seest 
how  young  people  go  together  into  vanity  and  old  people 
into  the  earth;  and  thou  must  forsake  all,  both  young  and 
old,  and  keep  out  of  all,  and  be  as  a stranger  unto  all.’ 

Then,  at  the  command  of  God,  on  the  9th  day  of  the 
Seventh  Month  [September], 3 1643,  I left  my  relations 
and  brake  off  all  familiarity  or  fellowship  with  young  or 
old.  And  I passed  to  Lutterworth,  where  I stayed  some 
time;  and  from  thence  I went  to  Northampton,  where  also 
I made  some  stay,  then  passed  from  thence  to  Newport 
Pagnall  in  Buckinghamshire,  where,  after  I had  stayed 
awhile,  I went  unto  Barnet,  and  came  thither  in  the  Fourth 
Month,  called  June,  in  the  year  1644.  And  as  I thus 
travelled  through  the  countries,^  professors  took  notice 


^ At  Ather stone,  near  Drayton. 

^ That  is,  one  who  makes  profession  of  religious  faith. 

3 It  is  to  be  noted  in  reading  dates  in  these  pages  that,  previous 
to  the  reform  of  the  Calendar  in  1752,  March  was  the  First  Month  of 
the  year. 

,Fox  uses  country  both  in  its  indefinite  sense  and  instead  of  county. 


4 JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1644 

of  me  and  sought  to  be  acquainted  with  me,  but  I was 
afraid  of  them  for  I was  sensible  they  did  not  possess  what 
they  professed. 

Now  during  the  time  that  I was  at  Barnet  a strong 
temptation  to  despair  came  upon  me.  And  then  I saw 
how  Christ  was  tempted,  and  mighty  troubles  I was  in. 
And  sometimes  I kept  myself  retired  in  my  chamber,  and 
often  walked  solitary  in  the  Chase  there,  to  wait  upon 
the  Lord.  And  I wondered  why  these  things  should  come 
to  me;  and  I looked  upon  myself  and  said,  ‘ Was  I ever  so 
before  ? ’ Then  I thought,  because  I had  forsaken  my 
relations  I had  done  amiss  against  them;  so  I was  brought 
to  call  to  mind  all  my  time  that  I had  spent  and  to  consider 
whether  I had  wronged  any.  But  temptations  grew  more 
and  more  and  I was  tempted  almost  to  despair,  and  when 
Satan  could  not  effect  his  design  upon  me  that  way,  then 
he  laid  snares  for  me  and  baits  to  draw  me  to  commit 
some  sin,  whereby  he  might  take  advantage  to  bring  me  to 
despair.  I was  about  twenty  years  of  age  when  these 
exercises  came  upon  me,  and  some  years  I continued  in 
that  condition,  in  great  trouble;  and  fain  I would  have  put 
it  from  me.  And  I went  to  many  a priest  to  look  for  com- 
fort but  found  no  comfort  from  them. 

From  Barnet  I went  to  London,  where  I took  a lodging, 
and  was  under  great  misery  and  trouble  there,  for  I looked 
upon  the  great  professors  of  the  city  of  London,  and  I saw 
all  was  dark  and  under  the  chain  of  darkness.  And  I had 
an  uncle  there,  one  Pickering,  a Baptist  (and  they  were 
tender  then),  yet  I could  not  impart  my  mind  to  him  nor 
join  with  them,  for  I saw  all,  young  and  old,  where  they  were. 
Some  tender  people  would  have  had  me  stay,  but  I was 
fearful,  and  returned  homewards  into  Leicestershire  again, 
having  a regard  upon  my  mind  unto  my  parents  and  rela- 
tions, lest  I should  grieve  them,  who,  I understood,  were 
troubled  at  my  absence. 

When  I was  come  down  into  Leicestershire,  my  relations 
would  have  had  me  married,  but  I told  them  I was  but  a 
lad,  and  I must  get  wisdom.  Others  would  have  had  me 


1646]  ‘ SORROWS  AND  TROUBLES  ’ 5 

into  the  auxiliary  band  among  the  soldiery,  but  I refused; 
and  I was  grieved  that  they  proffered  such  things  to  me, 
being  a tender  youth.  Then  I went  to  Coventry,  where 
I took  a chamber  for  a while  at  a professor’s  house  till 
people  began  to  be  acquainted  with  me,  for  there  were 
many  tender  people  in  that  town. 

And  after  some  time  I went  into  my  own  country  again, 
and  was  there  about  a year,  in  great  sorrows  and  troubles, 
and  walked  many  nights  by  myself.  Then  the  priest  of 
Drayton,  the  town  of  my  birth,  whose  name  was  Nathaniel 
Stephens,  would  come  often  to  me,  and  I went  often 
to  him,  and  another  priest  sometimes  would  come  with 
him;  and  they  would  have  given  place  to  me  to  hear  me, 
and  I would  ask  them  questions  and  reason  with  them. 
And  this  priest  Stephens  asked  me  a question,  why  Christ 
cried  out  upon  the  Cross,  ‘ My  God,  my  God,  why  has 
thou  forsaken  me  ? ’ and  why  he  said,  ‘ If  it  be  possible, 
let  this  cup  pass  from  me,  yet  not  my  will  but  thine  be 
done  ’ ? And  I told  him  at  that  time  the  sins  of  all  mankind 
were  upon  him,  and  their  iniquities  and  transgressions 
with  which  he  was  wounded,  which  he  was  to  bear,  and 
to  be  an  offering  for  them  as  he  was  man,  but  died  not 
as  he  was  God;  and  so,  in  that  he  died  for  all  men,  and 
tasted  death  for  every  man,  he  was  an  offering  for  the  sins 
of  the  whole  world.  This  I spoke,  being  at  that  time 
in  a measure  sensible  of  Christ’s  sufferings,  and  what 
he  went  through.  And  the  priest  said  it  was  a very  good, 
full  answer,  and  such  an  one  as  he  had  not  heard.  And 
at  that  time  he  would  applaud  and  speak  highly  of  me  to 
others;  and  what  I said  in  discourse  to  him  on  the  week- 
days that  he  would  preach  of  on  the  First-days,  for  which 
I did  not  like  him.  And  this  priest  afterwards  became 
my  great  persecutor. 

After  this  I went  to  another  ancient  priest^  at  Mancetter 
in  Warwickshire  and  reasoned  with  him  about  the  ground 
of  despair  and  temptations,  but  he  was  ignorant  of  my 
condition;  and  he  bid  me  take  tobacco  and  sing  psalms. 

^ Richard  Abel. 


6 JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1646 

Tobacco  was  a thing  I did  not  love  and  psalms  I was  not 
in  an  estate  to  sing;  I could  not  sing.  Then  he  bid  me  come 
again  and  he  would  tell  me  many  things,  but  when  I came 
again  he  was  angry  and  pettish,  for  my  former  words  had 
displeased  him.  And  he  told  my  troubles  and  sorrows 
and  griefs  to  his  servants,  so  that  it  got  among  the  milk- 
lasses,  which  grieved  me  that  I should  open  my  mind  to 
such  an  one.  I saw  they  were  all  miserable  comforters; 
and  this  brought  my  troubles  more  upon  me. 

Then  I heard  of  a priest  living  about  Tamworth,  who 
was  accounted  an  experienced  man,  and  I went  seven  miles 
to  him;  but  I found  him  but  like  an  empty,  hollow  cask. 
Then  I heard  of  one  called  Doctor  Cradock,  of  Coventry, 
and  I went  to  him,  and  I asked  him  the  ground  of  temp- 
tations and  despair  and  how  troubles  came  to  be  wrought 
in  man.  He  asked  me  who  were  Christ’s  father  and 
mother.  I told  him  Mary  was  his  mother,  and  that  he  was 
supposed  to  be  the  son  of  Joseph,  but  he  was  the  Son  of 
God.  Now,  as  we  were  talking  together  in  his  garden, 
the  alley  being  narrow,  I chanced,  in  turning,  to  set  my 
foot  on  the  side  of  a bed,  at  which  the  man  was  in  such  a 
rage  as  if  his  house  had  been  on  fire.  And  thus  all  our 
discourse  was  lost,  and  I went  away  in  sorrow,  worse 
than  I was  when  I came.  I thought  them  miserable  com- 
forters, and  I saw  they  were  all  as  nothing  to  me,  for  they 
could  not  reach  my  condition. 

After  this  I went  to  another,  one  Macham,^  a priest  in 
high  account.  And  he  would  needs  give  me  some  physic 
and  I was  to  have  been  let  blood,  but  they  could  not  get 
one  drop  of  blood  from  me,  either  in  arms  or  head,  though 
they  endeavoured  it,  my  body  being,  as  it  were,  dried  up 
with  sorrows,  grief,  and  troubles,  which  were  so  great 
upon  me  that  I could  have  wished  I had  never  been  born 
to  see  vanity  and  wickedness,  or  that  I had  been  born 
blind,  that  I might  never  have  seen  wickedness  nor  vanity, 
and  deaf,  that  I might  never  have  heard  vain  and  wicked 
words,  or  the  Lord’s  name  blasphemed. 

^ John  Machin,  Lecturer  at  Atherstone. 


1646]  LEARNING  ‘ NOT  ENOUGH  ’ 7 

And  when  the  time  called  Christmas  came,  while  others 
were  feasting  and  sporting  themselves,  I would  have  gone 
and  looked  out  poor  widows  from  house  to  house,  and  have 
given  them  some  money.  And  when  I was  invited  to 
marriages,  as  I sometimes  was,  I would  go  to  none  at  all, 
but  the  next  day,  or  soon  after,  I would  go  and  visit  them, 
and  if  they  were  poor,  I gave  them  some  money;  for  I had 
wherewith  both  to  keep  myself  from  being  chargeable 
to  others,  and  to  administer  something  to  the  necessities 
of  others. 

About  the  beginning  of  the  year  1646,  as  I was  going 
to  Coventry,  and  entering  towards  the  gate,  a consideration 
arose  in  me,  how  it  was  said  that  all  Christians  are  believers, 
both  Protestants  and  Papists;  and  the  Lord  opened  to  me 
that,  if  all  were  believers,  then  they  were  all  born  of  God 
and  passed  from  death  to  life,  and  that  none  were  true 
believers  but  such;  and  though  others  said  they  were 
believers,  yet  they  were  not.  At  another  time,  as  I was 
walking  in  a field  on  a First-day  morning,  the  Lord  opened 
unto  me  that  being  bred  at  Oxford  or  Cambridge  was 
not  enough  to  fit  and  qualify  men  to  be  ministers  of  Christ; 
and  I stranged^  at  it  because  it  was  the  common  belief  of 
people.  But  I saw  clearly,  as  the  Lord  opened  it  to  me, 
and  was  satisfied,  and  admired  the  goodness  of  the  Lord 
who  had  opened  this  thing  unto  me  that  morning,  which 
struck  at  Priest  Stephens’s  ministry,  namely,  that  to  be  bred 
at  Oxford  or  Cambridge  was  not  enough  to  make  a man 
fit  to  be  a minister  of  Christ.  So  that  which  opened  in 
me,  I saw,  struck  at  the  priest’s  ministry. 

But  my  relations  were  much  troubled  at  me  that  I would 
not  go  with  them  to  hear  the  priest,  for  I would  get  into 
the  orchard  or  the  fields,  with  my  Bible  by  myself.  And 
I told  them,  ‘ Did  not  the  apostle  say  to  believers  that  they 
needed  no  man  to  teach  them,  but  as  the  anointing  teacheth 
them  ? ’ And  though  they  knew  this  was  Scripture  and 
that  it  was  true,  yet  they  would  be  grieved  because  I could 
not  be  subject  in  this  matter  to  go  to  hear  the  priest  with 

^ i.e.  thought  it  strange. 


8 JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1647 

them.  For  I saw  that  a true  believer  was  another  thing 
than  they  looked  upon  it  to  be.  And  I saw  that  being 
bred  at  Oxford  or  Cambridge  did  not  qualify  or  fit  a man  to 
be  a minister  of  Christ ; and  what  then  should  I follow  such 
for  ? So  neither  them  nor  any  of  the  Dissenting  people 
could  I join  with,  but  was  as  a stranger  to  all,  relying  wholly 
upon  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ. 

At  another  time  it  was  opened  in  me  that  God,  who  made 
the  world,  did  not  dwell  in  temples  made  with  hands. 
This,  at  the  first,  seemed  a strange  word  because  both 
priests  and  people  use  to  call  their  temples  or  churches, 
dreadful  places,  and  holy  ground,  and  the  temples  of  God. 
But  the  Lord  showed  me,  so  that  I did  see  clearly,  that  he 
did  not  dwell  in  these  temples  which  men  had  commanded 
and  set  up,  but  in  people’s  hearts;  for  both  Stephen  and 
the  Apostle  Paul  bore  testimony  that  he  did  not  dwell 
in  temples  made  with  hands,  not  even  in  that  which  he  had 
once  commanded  to  be  built,  since  he  put  an  end  to  it; 
but  that  his  people  were  his  temple,  and  he  dwelt  in  them. 
This  opened  in  me  as  I walked  in  the  fields  to  my  relations’ 
house.  And  when  I came  there,  they  told  me  that  Nathaniel 
Stephens  the  priest  had  been  there,  and  told  them  he  was 
afraid  of  me  for  going  after  new  lights.  And  I smiled  in 
myself,  knowing  what  the  Lord  had  opened  in  me  concern- 
ing him  and  his  brethren,  but  I told  not  my  relations, 
who,  though  they  saw  beyond  the  priests,  yet  they  went 
to  hear  them,  and  were  grieved  because  I would  not  go 
also.  But  I brought  them  Scriptures,  and  told  them  there 
was  an  anointing  within  man  to  teach  him,  and  that  the 
Lord  would  teach  his  people  himself.  And  I had  great 
openings  concerning  the  things  written  in  the  Revelations ; 
and  when  I spoke  of  them,  the  priests  and  professors  would 
say  that  was  a sealed-up  book,  and  would  have  kept  me 
out  of  it,  but  I told  them  Christ  could  open  the  seals, 
and  that  they  were  the  nearest  things  to  us,  for  the  Epistles 
were  written  to  the  saints  that  lived  in  former  ages,  but 
the  Revelations  were  written  of  things  to  come. 

After  this,  I met  with  a sort  of  people  that  held  women 


1647]  ‘ GREAT  OPENINGS  ’ 9 

have  no  souls,  adding  in  a light  manner,  no  more  than  a 
goose.  But  I reproved  them  and  told  them  that  was  not 
right,  for  Mary  said,  ‘ My  soul  doth  magnify  the  Lord, 
and  my  spirit  hath  rejoiced  in  God  my  Saviour.’ 

And  removing  again  to  another  place,  I came  among 
a people  that  relied  much  on  dreams.  And  I told  them, 
except  they  could  distinguish  between  dream  and  dream, 
they  would  mash  or  confound  all  together;  for  there  were 
three  sorts  of  dreams;  for  multitude  of  business  sometimes 
caused  dreams;  and  there  were  whisperings  of  Satan  in 
man  in  the  night-season;  and  there  were  speakings  of  God 
to  man  in  dreams.  But  these  people  came  out  of  these 
things,  and  at  last  became  Friends. 

Now  though  I had  great  openings,  yet  great  trouble  and 
temptation  came  many  times  upon  me,  so  that  when  it 
was  day  I wished  for  night,  and  when  it  was  night  I wished 
for  day;  and  by  reason  of  the  openings  I had  in  my  troubles, 
I could  say  as  David  said,  ‘ Day  unto  day  uttereth  speech, 
and  night  unto  night  showeth  knowledge.’  And  when 
I had  openings,  they  answered  one  another  and  answered 
the  Scriptures,  for  I had  great  openings  of  the  Scriptures; 
and  when  I was  in  troubles,  one  trouble  also  answered  to 
another. 

About  the  beginning  of  the  year  1647,  I was  moved 
of  the  Lord  to  go  into  Derbyshire,  where  I met  with  some 
friendly  people,  and  had  many  discourses  with  them. 
Then  passing  further  into  the  Peak  country,  I met  with  more 
friendly  people,  and  with  some  in  empty,  high  notions. 
And  travelling  on  through  some  parts  of  Leicestershire 
and  into  Nottinghamshire,  there  I met  with  a tender  people, 
and  a very  tender  woman  whose  name  was  Elizabeth 
Hooton;  and  with  these  I had  some  meetings  and  dis- 
courses. But  my  troubles  continued,  and  I was  often 
under  great  temptations;  and  I fasted  much,  and  walked 
abroad  in  solitary  places  many  days,  and  often  took  my 
Bible  and  went  and  sat  in  hollow  trees  and  lonesome 
places  till  night  came  on;  and  frequently  in  the  night 
walked  mournfully  about  by  myself,  for  I was  a man  of 


10  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1647 

sorrows  in  the  times  of  the  first  workings  of  the  Lord 
in  me. 

Now  during  all  this  time  I was  never  joined  in  profession 
of  religion  with  any,  but  gave  up  myself  to  the  Lord, 
having  forsaken  all  evil  company,  and  taken  leave  of  father 
and  mother  and  all  other  relations,  and  travelled  up  and 
down  as  a stranger  in  the  earth,  which  way  the  Lord 
inclined  my  heart,  taking  a chamber  to  myself  in  the  town 
where  I came,  and  tarrying  sometimes  a month,  sometimes 
more,  sometimes  less  in  a place.  For  I durst  not  stay 
long  in  any  place,  being  afraid  both  of  professor  and 
profane,  lest,  being  a tender  young  man,  I should  be  hurt 
by  conversing  much  with  either.  For  which  reason  I 
kept  myself  much  as  a stranger,  seeking  heavenly  wisdom 
and  getting  knowledge  from  the  Lord,  and  was  brought 
off  from  outward  things  to  rely  wholly  on  the  Lord  alone. 
And  though  my  exercises  and  troubles  were  very  great, 
yet  were  they  not  so  continual  but  that  I had  some  inter- 
missions, and  was  sometimes  brought  into  such  an  heavenly 
joy  that  I thought  I had  been  in  Abraham’s  bosom.  As  I 
cannot  declare  the  misery  I was  in,  it  was  so  great  and  heavy 
upon  me,  so  neither  can  I set  forth  the  mercies  of  God 
unto  me  in  all  my  misery.  Oh,  the  everlasting  love  of 
God  to  my  soul  when  I was  in  great  distress  ! When  my 
troubles  and  torments  were  great,  then  was  his  love  exceed- 
ing great.  Thou,  Lord,  makest  a fruitful  field  a barren 
wilderness,  and  a barren  wilderness  a fruitful  field;  thou 
bringest  down  and  settest  up;  thou  killest  and  makest 
alive;  all  honour  and  glory  be  to  thee,  O Lord  of  glory  ! 
The  knowledge  of  thee  in  the  spirit  is  life,  but  that  knowledge 
which  is  fleshly  works  death.  And  while  there  is  this 
knowledge  in  the  flesh,  deceit  and  self-will  conform  to 
anything,  and  will  say,  ‘ Yes,  yes  ’,  to  that  it  doth  not 
know.  The  knowledge  which  the  world  hath  of  what  the 
prophets  and  apostles  spake  is  a fleshly  knowledge;  and 
the  apostates  from  the  life  in  which  the  prophets  and 
apostles  were,  have  gotten  their  words,  the  Holy  Scriptures, 
in  a form,  but  not  in  their  life  nor  spirit  that  gave  them 


1647]  ‘ 1 HEARD  A VOICE  ’ 11 

forth.  And  so  they  all  lie  in  confusion  and  are  making 
provision  for  the  flesh,  to  fulfil  the  lusts  thereof,  but  not  to 
fulfil  the  law  and  command  of  Christ  in  his  power  and  spirit ; 
for  that,  they  say,  they  cannot  do,  but  to  fulfil  the  lusts 
of  the  flesh,  that  they  can  do  with  delight. 

Now  after  I had  received  that  opening  from  the  Lord 
that  to  be  bred  at  Oxford  or  Cambridge  was  not  sufficient 
to  fit  a man  to  be  a minister  of  Christ,  I regarded  the 
priests  less,  and  looked  more  after  the  dissenting  people. 
And  among  them  I saw  there  was  some  tenderness,  and 
many  of  them  came  afterwards  to  be  convinced,  for  they 
had  some  openings.  But  as  I had  forsaken  all  the  priests, 
so  I left  the  separate  preachers  also,  and  those  called  the 
most  experienced  people;  for  I saw  there  was  none  among 
them  all  that  could  speak  to  my  condition.  And  when 
all  my  hopes  in  them  and  in  all  men  were  gone,  so  that  I 
had  nothing  outwardly  to  help  me,  nor  could  tell  what  to 
do,  then.  Oh  then,  I heard  a voice  which  said,  ‘ There 
is  one,  even  Christ  Jesus,  that  can  speak  to  thy  condition  ’, 
and  when  I heard  it  my  heart  did  leap  for  joy.  Then  the 
Lord  did  let  me  see  why  there  was  none  upon  the  earth 
that  could  speak  to  my  condition,  namely,  that  I might 
give  him  all  the  glory;  for  all  are  concluded  under  sin, 
and  shut  up  in  unbelief  as  I had  been,  that  Jesus  Christ 
might  have  the  pre-eminence,  who  enlightens,  and  gives 
grace,  and  faith,  and  power.  Thus,  when  God  doth  work 
who  shall  let'  it  ? And  this  I knew  experimentally. 

My  desires  after  the  Lord  grew  stronger,  and  zeal  in 
the  pure  knowledge  of  God  and  of  Christ  alone,  without 
the  help  of  any  man,  book,  or  writing.  For  though  I read 
the  Scriptures  that  spoke  of  Christ  and  of  God,  yet  I knew 
him  not  but  by  revelation,  as  he  who  hath  the  key  did  open, 
and  as  the  Father  of  life  drew  me  to  his  Son  by  his  spirit. 
And  then  the  Lord  did  gently  lead  me  along,  and  did  let 
me  see  his  love,  which  was  endless  and  eternal,  and  sur- 
passeth  all  the  knowledge  that  men  have  in  the  natural 
state,  or  can  get  by  history  or  books;  and  that  love  let 

' Prevent. 


12  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1647 

me  see  myself  as  I was  without  him.  And  I was  afraid 
of  all  company,  for  I saw  them  perfectly  where  they  were, 
through  the  love  of  God  which  let  me  see  myself.  I had 
not  fellowship  with  any  people,  priests,  or  professors, 
nor  any  sort  of  separated  people,  but  with  Christ,  who 
hath  the  key,  and  opened  the  door  of  light  and  life  unto  me. 
And  I was  afraid  of  all  carnal  talk  and  talkers,  for  I could 
see  nothing  but  corruptions,  and  the  life  lay  under  the 
burden  of  corruptions.  And  when  I myself  was  in  the 
deep,  under  all  shut  up,  I could  not  believe  that  I should 
ever  overcome;  my  troubles,  my  sorrows,  and  my  temp- 
tations were  so  great,  that  I thought  many  times  I should 
have  despaired,  I was  so  tempted.  But  when  Christ 
opened  to  me  how  he  was  tempted  by  the  same  Devil, 
and  had  overcome  him  and  bruised  his  head,  and  that 
through  him  and  his  power,  light,  grace  and  spirit,  I should 
overcome  also,  I had  confidence  in  him.  So  he  it  was 
that  opened  to  me  when  I was  shut  up  and  had  not  hope 
nor  faith.  Christ  it  was  who  had  enlightened  me,  that  gave 
me  his  light  to  believe  in,  and  gave  me  hope,  which  is 
himself,  revealed  himself  in  me,  and  gave  me  his  spirit 
and  gave  me  his  grace,  which  I found  sufficient  in  the  deeps 
and  in  weakness.  Thus,  in  the  deepest  miseries,  and  in 
greatest  sorrows  and  temptations,  that  many  times  beset 
me,  the  Lord  in  his  mercy  did  keep  me. 

And  I found  that  there  were  two  thirsts  in  me,  the  one 
after  the  creatures,  to  have  gotten  help  and  strength  there, 
and  the  other  after  the  Lord  the  creator  and  his  Son  Jesus 
Christ.  And  I saw  all  the  world  could  do  me  no  good. 
If  I had  had  a king’s  diet,  palace,  and  attendance,  all  would 
have  been  as  nothing,  for  nothing  gave  me  comfort  but  the 
Lord  by  his  power.  And  I saw  professors,  priests,  and 
people  were  whole  and  at  ease  in  that  condition  which  was 
my  misery,  and  they  loved  that  which  I would  have  been 
rid  of.  But  the  Lord  did  stay  my  desires  upon  himself 
from  whom  my  help  came,  and  my  care  was  cast  upon 
him  alone.  Therefore,  all  wait  patiently  upon  the  Lord, 
whatsoever  condition  you  be  in ; wait  in  the  grace  and  truth 


13 


1647]  ‘ LIFE  DID  SPRING  ’ 

that  comes  by  Jesus;  for  if  ye  so  do,  there  is  a promise  to 
you,  and  the  Lord  God  will  fulfil  it  in  you.  And  blessed 
are  all  they  indeed  that  do  hunger  and  thirst  after  righteous- 
ness; they  shall  be  satisfied  with  it.  I have  found  it  so, 
praised  be  the  Lord  who  filleth  with  it,  and  satisfieth  the 
desires  of  the  hungry  soul.  O let  the  house  of  the  spiritual 
Israel  say,  ‘ His  mercy  endureth  for  ever.’  It  is  the  great 
love  of  God  to  make  a wilderness  of  that  which  is  pleasant 
to  the  outward  eye  and  fleshly  mind;  and  to  make  a fruitful 
field  of  a barren  wilderness.  This  is  the  great  work  of  God. 

But  while  people’s  minds  do  run  in  the  earthly,  after  the 
creatures  and  changeable  things,  and  changeable  ways 
and  religions,  and  changeable,  uncertain  teachers,  their 
minds  are  in  bondage.  And  they  are  brittle  and  change- 
able, and  tossed  up  and  down  with  windy  doctrines  and 
thoughts,  and  notions  and  things,  their  minds  being  from 
the  unchangeable  truth  in  the  invv^ard  parts,  the  light  of 
Jesus  Christ,  which  would  keep  their  minds  to  the  unchange- 
able, who  is  the  way  to  the  Father,  who  in  all  my  troubles 
did  preserve  me  by  his  spirit  and  power.  Praised  be  his 
holy  name  for  ever. 

Again  I heard  a voice  which  did  say,  ‘ Thou  Serpent, 
thou  dost  seek  to  destroy  the  life  but  canst  not,  for  the 
sword  which  keepeth  the  tree  of  life  shall  destroy  thee.’ 

So  Christ,  the  Word  of  God,  that  bruised  the  head  of  the 
Serpent  the  destroyer,  preserved  me,  my  inward  mind 
being  joined  to  his  good  Seed,  that  bruised  the  head  of  this  ^ 
Serpent  the  destroyer.  And  this  inward  life  did  spring 
up  in  me,  to  answer  all  the  opposing  professors  and  priests, 
and  did  bring  in  Scriptures  to  my  memory  to  refute  them 
with. 

At  another  time  I saw  the  great  love  of  God,  and  I was 
filled  with  admiration  at  the  infiniteness  of  it;  and  then 
I saw  what  was  cast  out  from  God,  and  what  entered  into 
God’s  kingdom,  and  how  by  Jesus,  the  opener  of  the  door 
by  his  heavenly  key,  the  entrance  was  given.  And  I saw 
death,  how  it  had  passed  upon  all  men  and  oppressed 
the  Seed  of  God  in  man  and  in  me,  and  how  I in  the  Seed 


3 


14  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1647 

came  forth,  and  what  the  promise  was  to.  Yet  it  was  so 
with  me  that  there  seemed  to  be  two  pleading  in  me; 
and  questionings  arose  in  my  mind  about  gifts  and  pro- 
phecies, and  I was  tempted  again  to  despair,  as  if  I had 
sinned  against  the  Holy  Ghost.  And  I was  in  great 
perplexity  and  trouble  for  many  days,  yet  I gave  up  myself 
to  the  Lord  still. 

And  one  day  when  I had  been  walking  solitarily  abroad 
and  was  come  home,  I was  taken  up  in  the  love  of  God, 
so  that  I could  not  but  admire  the  greatness  of  his  love. 
And  while  I was  in  that  condition  it  was  opened  unto  me  by 
the  eternal  Light  and  power,  and  I therein  saw  clearly  that 
all  was  done  and  to  be  done  in  and  by  Christ,  and  how 
he  conquers  and  destroys  this  tempter,  the  Devil  and  all 
his  works,  and  is  atop  of  him,  and  that  all  these  troubles 
were  good  for  me,  and  temptations  for  the  trial  of  my 
faith  which  Christ  had  given  me.  And  the  Lord  opened 
me  that  I saw  through  all  these  troubles  and  temptations. 
My  living  faith  was  raised,  that  I saw  all  was  done  by 
Christ,  the  life,  and  my  belief  was  in  him.  And  when  at 
any  time  my  condition  was  veiled,  my  secret  beUef  was 
stayed  firm,  and  hope  underneath  held  me,  as  an  anchor 
in  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  and  anchored  my  immortal 
soul  to  its  Bishop,  causing  it  to  swim  above  the  sea,  the 
world  where  all  the  raging  waves,  foul  weather,  tempests, 
and  temptations  are.  But  oh,  then  did  I see  my  troubles, 
trials,  and  temptations  more  than  ever  I had  done  ! As  the 
Light  appeared,  all  appeared  that  is  out  of  the  Light, 
darkness,  death,  temptations,  the  unrighteous,  the  ungodly; 
all  was  manifest  and  seen  in  the  Light. 

Then  after  this  there  did  a pure  fire  appear  in  me;  then 
I saw  how  he  sat  as  a refiner’s  fire  and  as  the  fuller’s  soap; 
and  then  the  spiritual  discerning  came  into  me,  by  which 
I did  discern  my  own  thoughts,  groans  and  sighs,  and  what 
it  was  that  did  veil  me,  and  what  it  was  that  did  open 
me.  And  that  which  could  not  abide  in  the  patience  nor 
endure  the  fire,  in  the  Light  I found  to  be  the  groans  of  the 
flesh  (that  could  not  give  up  to  the  will  of  God),  which 


1647]  ‘ SELF  TO  DIE  ’ 15 

had  veiled  me,  and  that  could  not  be  patient  in  ail  trials, 
troubles  and  anguishes  and  perplexities,  and  could  not 
give  up  self  to  die  by  the  Cross,  the  power  of  God,  that  the 
living  and  quickened  might  follow  him;  and  that  that  which 
would  cloud  and  veil  from  the  presence  of  Christ,  that  which 
the  sword  of  the  Spirit  cuts  down  and  which  must  die, 
might  not  be  kept  alive.  And  I discerned  the  groans  of  the 
spirit,  which  did  open  me,  and  made  intercession  to  God, 
in  which  spirit  is  the  true  waiting  upon  God  for  the  redemp- 
tion of  the  body  and  of  the  whole  creation.  And  by  this 
true  spirit,  in  which  the  true  sighing  is,  I saw  over  the 
false  sighings  and  groanings.  And  by  this  invisible  spirit 
I discerned  all  the  false  hearing  and  the  false  seeing,  and  the 
false  smelling  which  was  atop,  above  the  Spirit,  quenching 
and  grieving  it;  and  that  all  they  that  were  there  were  in 
confusion  and  deceit,  where  the  false  asking  and  praying 
is,  in  deceit,  and  atop  in  that  nature  and  tongue  that  takes 
God’s  holy  name  in  vain,  and  wallows  in  the  Egyptian 
sea,  and  asketh  but  hath  not.  For  they  hate  his  light  and 
resist  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  turn  the  grace  into  wantonness, 
and  rebel  against  the  Spirit,  and  are  erred  from  the  faith 
they  should  ask  in,  and  from  the  spirit  they  should  pray  by. 
He  that  knoweth  these  things  in  the  true  spirit,  can  witness 
them.  The  divine  light  of  Christ  manifesteth  all  things; 
and  the  spiritual  fire  trieth  all  things,  and  severeth  all  things. 
Several  tWgs  did  I then  see  as  the  Lord  opened  them  to  me, 
for  he  showed  me  that  which  can  live  in  his  holy  refining 
fire,  and  that  can  live  to  God  under  his  law.  And  he  made 
me  sensible  how  the  law  and  the  prophets  were  until  John 
and  how  the  least  in  the  everlasting  kingdom  of  God  is 
greater  than  John. 

The  pure  and  perfect  law  of  God  is  over  the  flesh  to  keep 
it  and  its  works,  which  are  not  perfect,  under,  by  the  perfect 
law;  and  the  law  of  God  that  is  perfect  answers  the  perfect 
principle  of  God  in  every  one.  And  this  law  the  Jews  and 
the  prophets  and  John  were  to  perform  and  do.  None 
knows  the  giver  of  this  law  but  by  the  spirit  of  God,  neither 
can  any  truly  read  it  or  hear  its  voice  but  by  the  spirit  of 


16  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1647 

God.  He  that  can  receive  it  let  him.  John,  who  was  the 
greatest  prophet  that  was  born  of  a woman,  did  bear 
witness  to  the  light,  which  Christ  the  great  heavenly 
prophet  hath  enlightened  every  man  that  cometh  into  the 
world  withal,  that  they  might  believe  in  it,  and  become 
the  children  of  light,  and  so  have  the  light  of  life,  and  not 
come  into  condemnation.  For  the  true  belief  stands 
in  the  light  that  condemns  all  evil  and  the  Devil,  who  is 
the  prince  of  darkness,  who  would  draw  out  of  the  light 
into  condemnation.  And  they  that  walk  in  this  light 
come  to  the  mountain  of  the  house  of  God  established  above 
all  mountains,  and  to  God’s  teaching,  who  will  teach  them 
his  ways.  These  things  were  opened  to  me  in  the  light. 

And  I saw  the  mountains  burning  up  and  the  rubbish, 
and  the  rough  and  crooked  ways  and  places  made  smooth 
and  plain  that  the  Lord  might  come  into  his  tabernacle. 
These  things  are  to  be  found  in  man’s  heart.  But  to  speak 
of  these  things  being  within  seemed  strange  to  the  rough 
and  crooked  and  mountainous  ones.  Yet  the  Lord  said, 
‘ O Earth,  hear  the  word  of  the  Lord  ! ’ The  law  of  the 
Spirit  crosseth  the  fleshly  mind,  spirit  and  will,  which  lives 
in  disobedience,  and  doth  not  keep  within  the  law  of  the 
Spirit.  I saw  this  law  was  the  pure  love  of  God  which 
was  upon  me,  and  which  I must  go  through,  though  I 
was  troubled  while  I was  under  it;  for  I could  not  be  dead 
to  the  law  but  through  the  law  which  did  judge  and  condemn 
that  which  is  to  be  condemned.  I saw  many  talked  of  the 
law,  who  had  never  known  the  law  to  be  their  schoolmaster ; 
and  many  talked  of  the  Gospel  of  Christ,  who  had  never 
known  life  and  immortality  brought  to  light  in  them  by  it. 
You  that  have  been  under  that  schoolmaster,  and  the 
condemnation  of  it,  know  these  things;  for  through  the 
Lord  in  that  day  opened  these  things  unto  me  in  secret, 
they  have  since  been  published  by  his  eternal  spirit,  as  on 
the  house-top.  And  as  you  are  brought  into  the  law,  and 
through  the  law  to  be  dead  to  it,  and  witness  the  righteous- 
ness of  the  law  fulfilled  in  you,  ye  will  afterwards  come 
to  know  what  it  is  to  be  brought  into  the  faith,  and  through 


1647]  ‘ INTO  LIBERTY  ’ 17 

faith  from  under  the  law.  And  abiding  in  the  faith  which 
Christ  is  the  author  of,  ye  will  have  peace  and  access  to  God. 
But  if  ye  look  out  from  the  faith,  and  from  that  which 
would  keep  you  in  the  victory,  and  look  after  fleshly  things 
or  words,  ye  will  be  brought  into  bondage  to  the  flesh 
again,  and  to  the  law  which  takes  hold  upon  the  flesh 
and  sin  and  worketh  wrath,  and  the  works  of  the  flesh  will 
appear  again.  The  law  of  God  takes  hold  upon  the  law  of 
sin  and  death;  but  the  law  of  faith,  or  the  law  of  the  Spirit 
of  life,  which  is  the  love  of  God,  and  which  comes  by  Jesus 
(who  is  the  end  of  the  law  for  righteousness’  sake),  this 
makes  free  from  the  law  of  sin  and  death.  This  law  of 
life  fleshly-minded  men  do  not  know;  yet  they  will  tempt 
you,  to  draw  you  from  the  Spirit  into  the  flesh,  and  so  into 
bondage. 

Therefore  ye,  who  know  the  love  of  God,  and  the  law 
of  his  Spirit,  and  the  freedom  that  is  in  Jesus  Christ,  stand 
fast  in  him,  in  that  divine  faith  which  he  is  the  author 
of  in  you;  and  be  not  entangled  with  the  yoke  of  bondage. 
For  the  ministry  of  Christ  Jesus  and  his  teaching  bringeth 
into  liberty  and  freedom;  but  the  ministry  that  is  of  man 
and  by  man,  and  which  stands  in  the  will  of  man,  bringeth 
into  bondage,  and  under  the  shadow  of  death  and  darkness. 
And  therefore  none  can  be  a minister  of  Christ  Jesus  but 
in  the  eternal  Spirit,  which  was  before  the  Scriptures  were 
given  forth;  for  if  they  have  not  his  spirit,  they  are  none 
of  his.  Though  they  may  have  his  light  to  condemn 
them  that  hate  it,  yet  they  can  never  bring  any  into  unity 
and  fellowship  in  the  Spirit,  except  they  be  in  it.  For  the 
Seed  of  God  is  a burdensome  stone  to  the  selfish,  fleshly, 
earthly  will  which  reigns  in  its  own  knowledge  and  under- 
standing, that  must  perish,  and  in  its  wisdom,  that  is  devilish. 
And  the  Spirit  of  God  is  grieved  and  vexed  and  quenched 
with  that  which  brings  into  the  fleshly  bondage,  and  that 
which  wars  against  the  spirit  of  God  must  be  mortified  by  it. 
For  the  flesh  lusteth  against  the  spirit,  and  the  spirit  against 
the  flesh,  and  these  are  contrary  the  one  to  the  other.  The 
flesh  would  have  its  liberty,  and  the  spirit  v/ould  have  its 


18  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1647 

liberty;  but  the  spirit  is  to  have  its  liberty  and  not  the  flesh. 
If  therefore  ye  quench  the  spirit,  and  join  to  the  flesh,  and  be 
servants  of  it,  then  ye  are  judged  and  tormented  by  the 
spirit;  but  if  ye  join  to  the  spirit  and  serve  God  in  it,  ye  have 
liberty  and  victory  over  the  flesh  and  its  works.  Therefore 
keep  in  the  daily  cross,  the  power  of  God,  by  which  ye 
may  witness  all  that  to  be  crucified  which  is  contrary  to  the 
will  of  God,  and  which  shall  not  come  into  his  kingdom. 

These  things  are  here  mentioned  and  opened  for 
information,  exhortation  and  comfort  to  others,  as  the 
Lord  opened  them  unto  me  in  that  day.  And  in  that  day 
I wondered  that  the  children  of  Israel  should  murmur 
for  water  and  victuals,  for  I could  have  fasted  long  without 
murmuring  or  minding  victuals.  But  I was  judged  some- 
times, that  I was  not  contented  to  be  sometimes  without 
the  water  and  bread  of  life,  that  I might  learn  to  know 
how  to  want  and  how  to  abound. 

And  I heard  of  a woman  in  Lancashire  that  had  fasted 
two  and  twenty  days,  and  I travelled  to  see  her;  but  when 
I came  to  her  I saw  that  she  was  under  a temptation. 
And  when  I had  spoken  to  her  what  I had  from  the  Lord,  I 
left  her,  her  father  being  one  high  in  profession.  And 
passing  on,  I went  among  the  professors  at  Dukinfield 
and  Manchester,  where  I stayed  a while  and  declared 
Truth  among  them.  And  there  were  some  convinced, 
who  received  the  Lord’s  teaching,  by  which  they  were 
confirmed  and  stood  in  the  Truth.  But  the  professors 
were  in  a rage,  all  pleading  for  sin  and  imperfection,  and 
could  not  endure  to  hear  talk  of  perfection,  and  of  an  holy 
and  sinless  life.  But  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  all;  though 
they  were  chained  under  darkness  and  sin,  which  they 
pleaded  for,  and  quenched  the  tender  thing  in  them. 

About  this  time  there  was  a great  meeting  of  the  Baptists, 
at  Broughton,^  in  Leicestershire,  with  some  that  had 
separated  from  them;  and  people  of  other  notions  went 
thither,  and  I went  also.  Not  many  of  the  Baptists  came, 
but  abundance  of  other  people  were  there.  And  the  Lord 

^ Probably  Broughton-Astley. 


1647]  ‘ OCEAN  OF  LIGHT  AND  LOVE  ’ 19 

opened  my  mouth,  and  his  everlasting  Truth  was  declared 
amongst  them,  and  the  power  of  the  Lord  was  over  them  all. 
For  in  that  day  the  Lord’s  power  began  to  spring,  and  I had 
great  openings  in  the  Scriptures.  And  several  were 
convinced  in  those  parts,  and  were  turned  from  darkness 
to  light,  and  from  the  power  of  Satan  unto  God,  and  his 
power  they  did  receive  and  by  it  many  were  raised  up  to 
praise  God.  And  when  I reasoned  with  professors  and 
other  people,  some  were  convinced  and  did  stand. 

Yet  I v/as  under  great  temptations  sometimes,  and  my 
inward  sufferings  were  heavy;  but  I could  find  none  to 
open  my  condition  to  but  the  Lord  alone,  unto  whom  I 
cried  night  and  day.  And  I went  back  into  Nottingham- 
shire, and  there  the  Lord  shewed  me  that  the  natures  of 
those  things  which  were  hurtful  without  were  within, 
in  the  hearts  and  minds  of  wicked  men.  The  natures  of 
dogs,  swine,  vipers,  of  Sodom  and  Egypt,  Pharaoh,  Cain, 
Ishmael,  Esau,  etc.  The  natures  of  these  I saw  within, 
though  people  had  been  looking  without.  And  I cried 
to  the  Lord,  saying,  ‘ Why  should  I be  thus,  seeing  I was 
never  addicted  to  commit  those  evils  ? ’ And  the  Lord 
answered  that  it  was  needful  I should  have  a sense  of  all 
conditions,  how  else  should  I speak  to  all  conditions; 
and  in  this  I saw  the  infinite  love  of  God.  I saw  also 
that  there  was  an  ocean  of  darkness  and  death,  but  an 
infinite  ocean  of  light  and  love,  which  flowed  over  the  ocean 
of  darkness.  And  in  that  also  I saw  the  infinite  love  of 
God;  and  I had  great  openings. 

And  as  I was  walking  by  the  steeplehouse  side,  in  the 
town  of  Mansfield,  the  Lord  said  unto  me,  ‘ That  which 
people  do  trample  upon  must  be  thy  food.’  And  as  the 
Lord  spoke  he  opened  it  to  me  how  that  people  and  pro- 
fessors did  trample  upon  the  life,  even  the  life  of  Christ  was 
trampled  upon;  and  they  fed  upon  v/ords,  and  fed  one 
another  with  words,  but  trampled  upon  the  life,  and 
trampled  underfoot  the  blood  of  the  Son  of  God,  which 
blood  was  my  life,  and  they  lived  in  their  airy  notions, 
talking  of  him.  It  seemed  strange  to  me  at  the  first  that 


20  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1647 

I should  feed  on  that  which  the  high  professors  trampled 
upon,  but  the  Lord  opened  it  clearly  to  me  by  his  eternal 
spirit  and  power.) 

^In  Mansfield  there  came  a priest  who  was  looked  upon 
to  be  above  others,  and  all  that  professed  themselves 
above  the  priests  went  to  hear  him  and  cried  him  up.  I was 
against  their  going,  and  spoke  to  them  against  their  going, 
and  asked  them  if  they  had  not  a teacher  within  them: 
the  anointing  to  teach  them,  and  why  would  they  go  out 
to  man.  And  then  when  they  were  gone  to  hear  him, 
I was  in  sore  travail,  and  it  came  upon  me  that  I was  moved 
to  go  to  the  steeplehouse^  to  tell  the  people  and  the  priest, 
and  to  bid  them  to  cease  from  man  whose  breath  was  in 
their  nostrils,  and  to  tell  them  where  their  teacher  was, 
within  them,  the  spirit  and  the  light  of  Jesus,  and  how  God 
that  made  the  world  doth  not  dwell  in  temples  made  with 
hands.  And  many  other  things  concerning  the  Truth  I 
spake  to  them.  And  they  were  pretty  moderate  to  hear 
the  Truth,  whereby,  after,  many  were  wrought  upon.^ 
<Then  came  people  from  far  and  near  to  see  me;  and  I was 
fearful  of  being  drawn  out  by  them,  yet  I was  made  to 
speak  and  open  things  to  them. 

There  was  one  Brown,  who  had  great  prophecies  and 
sights  upon  his  death-bed  of  me.  And  he  spoke  openly 
of  what  I should  be  made  instrumental  by  the  Lord  to 
bring  forth.  And  of  others  he  spake  that  they  should  come 
to  nothing,  which  was  fulfilled  on  some,  that  then  were 
something  in  show.  And  when  this  man  was  buried,  a 
great  work  of  the  Lord  fell  upon  me,  to  the  admiration  of 
many,  who  thought  I had  been  dead,  and  many  came  to 
see  me,  for  about  fourteen  days’  time.  For  I was  very 
much  altered  in  countenance  and  person  as  if  my  body 
had  been  new  moulded  or  changed.  And  while  I was  in 
that  condition,  I had  a sense  and  discerning  given  me  by  the 
Lord,  through  which  1 saw  plainly  that  when  many  people 

^ Fox’s  use  of  ‘ steeplehouse  ’ and  ‘ church  ’ are  explained  on 
p.  93-4  in  the  paragraph  about  Ulrome. 

» ^5./.,  p.  1. 


1647]  ‘ THE  HARVEST  WHITE  ’ 21 

talked  of  God  and  of  Christ,  etc.,  the  Serpent  spoke  in 
them;  but  this  was  hard  to  be  borne.  Yet  the  work  of 
the  Lord  went  on  in  some,  and  my  sorrows  and  troubles 
began  to  wear  off  and  tears  of  joy  dropped  from  me,  so  that 
I could  have  wept  night  and  day  with  tears  of  joy  to  the 
Lord,  in  humility  and  brokenness  of  heart.  And  I saw 
into  that  which  was  without  end,  and  things  which  cannot 
be  uttered,  and  of  the  greatness  and  infiniteness  of  the  love 
of  God,  which  cannot  be  expressed  by  words.  For  I 
had  been  brought  through  the  very  ocean  of  darkness  and 
death,  and  through  the  power  and  over  the  power  of  Satan, 
by  the  eternal  glorious  power  of  Christ.  Even  through 
that  darkness  was  I brought,  which  covered-over  all  the 
world,  and  which  chained  down  all,  and  shut  up  all  in  the 
death.  And  the  same  eternal  power  of  God,  v/hich  brought 
me  through  these  things,  was  that  which  afterwards  shook 
the  nations,  priests,  professors,  and  people.  Then  could 
I say  I had  been  in  spiritual  Babylon,  Sodom,  Egypt,  and 
the  grave;  but  by  the  eternal  power  of  God  I was  come 
out  of  it,  and  was  brought  over  it  and  the  power  of  it,  into 
the  power  of  Christ.  And  I saw  the  harvest  white,  and 
the  Seed  of  God  lying  thick  in  the  ground,  as  ever  did 
wheat  that  was  sown  outwardly,  and  none  to  gather  it; 
and  for  this  I mourned  with  tears. 

And  a report  went  abroad  of  me  that  I was  a young 
man  that  had  a discerning  spirit;  whereupon  many  came 
to  me  from  far  and  near,  professors,  priests,  and  people. 
And  the  Lord’s  power  brake  forth;  and  I had  great  openings, 
and  prophecies,  and  spake  unto  them  of  the  things  of  God, 
and  they  heard  with  attention  and  silence,  and  went 
away,  and  spread  the  fame  thereof.  Then  came  the  tempter, 
and  set  upon  me  again,  charging  me  that  I had  sinned 
against  the  Holy  Ghost,  but  I could  not  tell  in  what.  And 
then  Paul’s  condition  came  before  me,  how,  after  he  had 
been  taken  up  into  the  third  heaven  and  seen  things  not 
lawful  to  be  uttered,  a messenger  of  Satan  was  sent  to  buffet 
him  again.  Thus,  by  the  power  of  Christ,  I got  over  that 
temptation  also. 


CHAPTER  ll 


IN  the  year  1648,  as  I was  sitting  in  a Friend’s  house 
in  Nottinghamshire  (for  by  this  time  the  power  of  God 
had  opened  the  hearts  of  some  to  receive  the  word  of 
life  and  reconciliation),  I saw  there  was  a great  crack 
to  go  throughout  the  earth,  and  a great  smoke  to  go  as  the 
crack  went;  and  that  after  the  crack  there  should  be  a 
great  shaking.  This  was  the  earth  in  people’s  hearts, 
which  was  to  be  shaken  before  the  Seed  of  God  was  raised 
out  of  the  earth.  And  it  was  so;  for  the  Lord’s  power 
began  to  shake  them,  and  great  meetings  we  began  to  have, 
and  a mighty  power  and  work  of  God  there  was  amongst 
people,  to  the  astonishment  of  both  people  and  priests. 

And  there  was  a meeting  of  priests  and  professors  at  a 
justice’s  house,  and  I went  among  them.  And  there  they 
discoursed  how  Paul  said  he  had  not  known  sin,  but  by 
the  law,  which  said,  ‘ Thou  shalt  not  lust  ’ : and  they  held 
that  to  be  spoken  of  the  outward  law.  But  I told  them 
Paul  spake  that  after  he  was  convinced;  for  he  had  the 
outward  law  before,  and  was  bred  up  in  it,  when  he  was 
in  the  lust  of  persecution;  but  this  was  the  law  of  God 
in  his  mind,  which  he  served,  and  which  the  law  in  his 
members  warred  against;  for  that  which  he  thought  had 
been  life  to  him  proved  death.  So  the  more  sober  of  the 
priests  and  professors  yielded,  and  consented  that  it  was 
not  the  outward  law,  but  the  inward,  which  showed  the 
inward  lust  which  Paul  spake  of  after  he  was  convinced. 
For  the  outward  law  took  hold  upon  the  outward  action, 
but  the  inward  law  upon  the  inward  lust. 

After  this  I went  again  to  Mansfield,  where  was  a great 
meeting  of  professors  and  people,  and  I was  moved  to  pray, 
and  the  Lord’s  power  was  so  great  that  the  house  seemed 
to  be  shaken.  When  I had  done,  some  of  the  professors 


22 


1648]  IN  NOTTINGHAMSHIRE  23 

said  it  was  now  as  in  the  days  of  the  apostles,  when  the 
house  was  shaken  v/here  they  were.  After  I had  prayed, 
one  of  the  professors  would  pray,  which  brought  deadness 
and  a veil  over  them.  And  others  of  the  professors  were 
grieved  at  him  and  told  him  it  was  a temptation  upon  him. 
Then  he  came  to  me,  and  desired  that  I would  pray  again, 
but  I could  not  pray  in  man’s  will. 

Soon  after  there  was  another  great  meeting  of  professors, 
and  a captain,  whose  name  v/as  Amor  Stoddard,  came  in. 
And  they  were  discoursing  of  the  blood  of  Christ;  and  as 
they  were  discoursing  of  it,  I saw,  through  the  immediate 
opening  of  the  invisible  Spirit,  the  blood  of  Christ.  And 
I cried  out  among  them,  and  said,  ‘ Do  ye  not  see  the  blood 
of  Christ  ? see  it  in  your  hearts,  to  sprinkle  your  hearts 
and  consciences  from  dead  works  to  serve  the  living  God  ? ’ 
for  I saw  it,  the  blood  of  the  New  Covenant,  how  it  came 
into  the  heart.  This  startled  the  professors,  who  would 
have  the  blood  only  without  them  and  not  in  them.  But 
Captain  Stoddard  was  reached,  and  said,  ‘ Let  the  youth 
speak;  hear  the  youth  speak  ’,  when  he  saw  they 
endeavoured  to  bear  me  dov/n  with  many  words. 

There  was  also  a company  of  priests,  that  were  looked 
upon  to  be  tender.  One  of  their  names  was  Kellet;  and 
several  people  that  were  tender  went  to  hear  them.  And 
I was  moved  to  go  after  them,  and  bid  them  mind  the  Lord’s 
teaching  in  their  inward  parts.  That  priest  Kellet  was 
against  parsonages  then,  but  afterwards  he  got  a great  one, 
and  turned  a persecutor. 

Now,  after  I had  had  some  service  in  these  parts,  I 
went  through  Derbyshire  into  my  own  country,  Leicester- 
shire, again,  and  several  tender  people  were  convinced. 
And  passing  thence,  I met  with  a great  company  of  pro- 
fessors in  Warwickshire,  who  were  praying  and  expounding 
the  Scriptures  in  the  fields.  And  they  gave  the  Bible  to  me, 
and  I opened  it  on  the  fifth  of  Matthew,  where  Christ 
expounded  the  law;  and  I opened  the  inward  state  to  them 
and  the  outward  state ; and  they  fell  into  a fierce  contention, 
and  so  parted;  but  the  Lord’s  power  got  ground. 


24  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1648 

^In  Leicestershire,  as  I was  passing  through  the  fields, 
I was  moved  to  go  to  Leicester,  and  when  I came  there 
I heard  of  a great  meeting  for  a dispute  and  that  there 
were  many  to  preach,^  Presbyterians,  Independents, 
Baptists,  and  Common-prayer-men,  The  meeting  was 
in  a steeplehouse ; and  I was  moved  to  go  among  them. 
And  I heard  their  discourse  and  reasonings,  some  being  in 
pews  and  the  priest  in  the  pulpit,  abundance  of  people 
being  gathered  together.  At  last  one  woman  asked  a 
question  out  of  Peter,  what  that  birth  was,  viz.  a being 
‘ born  again  of  incorruptible  seed,  by  the  Word  of  God, 
that  liveth  and  abideth  for  ever  And  the  priest  said 
to  her,  ‘ I permit  not  a woman  to  speak  in  the  church  ’ ; 
though  he  had  before  given  liberty  for  any  to  speak. 
Whereupon  I was  rapt  up,  as  in  a rapture,  in  the  Lord’s 
power;  and  I stepped  up  in  a place  and  asked  the  priest, 
‘ Dost  thou  call  this  place  a church  ? Or  dost  thou  call 
this  mixed  multitude  a church  ? ’ For  the  woman  asking 
a question,  he  ought  to  have  answered  it,  having  given 
liberty  for  any  to  speak.  But  he  did  not  answer  me 
neither,  but  asked  me  what  a church  was.  I told  him  the 
Church  was  the  pillar  and  ground  of  Truth,  made  up  of 
living  stones,  living  members,  a spiritual  household  which 
Christ  was  the  head  of,  but  he  was  not  the  head  of  a mixed 
multitude,  or  of  an  old  house  made  up  of  lime,  stones,  and 
wood. 

^Then  I spoke  how  that  the  Church  was  in  God  the 
Father  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  what  the  woman 
was  that  was  not  to  speak,  and  what  the  woman  was  that 
might  prophesy  and  speak;  and  it  broke  them  all  to  pieces 
and  confused  them,  and  they  all  turned  against  me  into 
jangling.^ 

The  priest  came  down  out  of  his  pulpit,  and  others  out 
of  their  pews,  and  the  dispute^  there  was  marred.  But 
I went  to  a great  inn,  and  there  disputed  the  thing  with  the 
priests  and  professors  of  all  sorts,  and  they  were  all  on  a 

^ i.e.  a properly  conducted  argument,  not  a mere  wrangle. 

a a Cf.  SJ.,  p.  3. 


1648]  IN  NOTTINGHAMSHIRE  25 

fire.  But  I maintained  the  true  Church,  and  the  true  head 
thereof,  over  the  heads  of  them  all,  till  they  all  gave  out 
and  fled  away.  And  there  was  one  man  that  seemed 
loving,  and  appeared  for  a v/hile  to  join  with  me,  but  he 
soon  turned  against  me,  and  joined  with  a priest  in  pleading 
for  infants’  baptism,  though  he  himself  had  been  a Baptist 
before,  and  so  left  me  alone.  Howbeit,  there  were  several 
convinced  that  day;  and  the  woman  that  asked  the  question 
aforesaid  was  convinced,  and  her  family;  and  the  Lord’s 
power  and  glory  shined  over  all. 

After  this  I returned  into  Nottinghamshire  again,  and 
went  into  the  Vale  of  Beavor.^  And  as  I went,  I preached 
repentance  to  the  people;  and  there  were  many  convinced 
in  the  Vale  of  Beavor,  in  many  towns,  for  I stayed  some 
weeks  amongst  them.  And  one  morning,  as  I was  sitting 
by  the  fire,  a great  cloud  came  over  me,  and  a temptation 
beset  me;  but  I sat  still.  And  it  was  said,  ‘ All  things 
come  by  nature  ’;  and  the  elements  and  stars  came  over 
me  so  that  I was  in  a manner  quite  clouded  with  it.  But 
inasmuch  as  I sat,  still  and  silent,  the  people  of  the  house 
perceived  nothing.  And  as  I sat  still  under  it  and  let  it 
alone,  a living  hope  arose  in  me,  and  a true  voice,  which 
said,  ‘ There  is  a living  God  who  made  all  things.’  And 
immediately  the  cloud  and  temptation  vanished  away, 
and  life  rose  over  it  all,  and  my  heart  was  glad,  and  I 
praised  the  living  God. 

And  after  some  time,  I met  with  some  people  who  had 
such  a notion  that  there  was  no  God  but  that  all  things 
came  by  nature.  And  I had  great  dispute  with  them  and 
overturned  them  and  made  some  of  them  confess  that  there 
was  a living  God.  Then  I saw  that  it  was  good  that  I had 
gone  through  that  exercise.  And  we  had  great  meetings 
in  those  parts,  for  the  power  of  the  Lord  broke  through 
in  that  side  of  the  country. 

And  returning  into  Nottinghamshire  I found  there  a 
company  of  shattered  Baptists,  and  others;  and  the  Lord’s 
power  wrought  mightily  and  gathered  many  of  them. 

^ i.e.  Belvoir. 


26  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1648  ; 

Then  afterwards  I went  to  Mansfield  and  thereaway,  j 
where  the  Lord’s  power  was  wonderfully  manifested  both  l 
at  Mansfield  and  other  towns  thereabouts.  And  in  i 
Derbyshire  the  mighty  power  of  God  wrought  in  a wonderful  | 
manner.  At  Eaton,  a town  near  Derby,  there  was  a | 
meeting  of  Friends,  where  there  was  such  a mighty  power  t 
of  God  that  they  were  greatly  shaken,  and  many  mouths  | 
were  opened  in  the  power  of  the  Lord  God.  And  many  1 

were  moved  by  the  Lord  to  go  to  steeplehouses,  to  the 
priests  and  to  the  people,  to  declare  the  everlasting  Truth 
unto  them. 

And  at  a certain  time,  when  I was  at  Mansfield,  there  was 
a sitting  of  the  justices  about  hiring  of  servants;  and  it  was 
upon  me  from  the  Lord  to  go  and  speak  to  the  justices 
that  they  should  not  oppress  the  servants  in  their  wages. 

So  I walked  towards  the  inn  where  they  sat^  but  finding 
a company  of  fiddlers  there,  I did  not  go  in  but  thought 
to  come  in  the  morning,  when  I might  have  a more  serious 
opportunity  to  discourse  with  them,  not  thinking  that  a 
seasonable  time.  But  when  I came  again  in  the  morning, 
they  were  gone,  and  I was  struck  even  blind  that  I could 
not  see.  And  I inquired  of  the  innkeeper  where  the  justices 
were  to  sit  that  day  and  he  told  me  at  a town  eight  miles 
olf.  My  sight  began  to  come  to  me  again,  and  I went 
and  ran  thitherward  as  fast  as  I could.  And  then  I was 
come  to  the  house  where  they  were,  and  many  servants 
with  them,  I exhorted  the  justices  not  to  oppress  the 
servants  in  their  wages,  but  to  do  that  which  was  right  and 
just  to  them;  and  I exhorted  the  servants  to  do  their  duties, 
and  serve  honestly,  etc.  And  they  all  received  my  exhor- 
tation kindly,  for  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  therein. 

Moreover,  I was  moved  to  go  to  several  courts  and 
steeplehouses  at  Mansfield  and  other  places  to  warn  them 
to  leave  off  oppression  and  oaths,  and  to  turn  from  deceit 
and  to  turn  to  the  Lord,  and  do  justly.  Particularly  at 
Mansfield,  after  I had  been  at  a court  there,  I was  moved 
to  go  and  speak  to  one  of  the  wickedest  men  in  the  country, 

^ The  Bowl  in  Hand. 


1648]  ‘ THE  PARADISE  OF  GOD  ’ 27 

one  who  was  a common  drunkard,  a noted  whore-master, 
and  a rhyme-maker;  and  I reproved  him  in  the  dread  of 
the  mighty  God  for  his  evil  courses.  And  when  I had 
done  speaking  and  left  him,  he  came  after  me,  and  told 
me  that  he  was  so  smitten  when  I spoke  to  him,  that  he  had 
scarce  any  strength  left  in  him.  So  this  man  was  convinced, 
and  turned  from  his  wickedness,  and  remained  an  honest, 
sober  man,  to  the  astonishment  of  the  people  who  had 
known  him  before. 

Thus  the  work  of  the  Lord  went  forward,  and  many 
were  turned  from  the  darkness  to  the  light  within  the  com- 
pass of  these  three  years,  1646,  1647,  and  1648.  And 
divers  meetings  of  Friends,  in  several  places,  were  then 
gathered  to  God’s  teaching,  by  his  light,  spirit,  and  power; 
for  the  Lord’s  power  brake  forth  more  and  more  wonder- 
fully. 

Now  was  1 come  up  in  spirit  through  the  flaming  sword 
into  the  paradise  of  God.  All  things  were  new,  and  all 
the  creation  gave  another  smell  unto  me  than  before, 
beyond  what  words  can  utter.  I knew  nothing  but  pure- 
ness, and  innocency,  and  righteousness,  being  renewed 
up  into  the  image  of  God  by  Christ  Jesus,  so  that  I say  i 
was  come  up  to  the  state  of  Adam  which  he  was  in  before 
he  fell.  The  creation  was  opened  to  me,  and  it  was  showed 
me  how  all  things  had  their  names  given  them  according 
to  their  nature  and  virtue.  And  I was  at  a stand  in  my 
mind  whether  I should  practise  physic  for  the  good  of 
mankind,  seeing  the  nature  and  virtues  of  the  creatures 
were  so  opened  to  me  by  the  Lord.  But  I was  immediately 
taken  up  in  spirit,  to  see  into  another  or  more  steadfast 
state  than  Adam’s  in  innocency,  even  into  a state  in  Christ 
Jesus,  that  should  never  fall.  And  the  Lord  showed  me 
that  such  as  were  faithful  to  him  in  the  power  and  light  of 
Christ,  should  come  up  into  that  state  in  which  Adam 
was  before  he  fell,  in  which  the  admirable  works  of  the 
creation,  and  the  virtues  thereof,  may  be  known,  through 
the  openings  of  that  divine  Word  of  wisdom  and  power 
by  which  they  were  made.  Great  things  did  the  Lord 


28  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1648 

lead  me  into,  and  wonderful  depths  were  opened  unto  me, 
beyond  what  can  by  words  be  declared;  but  as  people 
come  into  subjection  to  the  spirit  of  God,  and  grow  up  in 
the  image  and  power  of  the  Almighty,  they  may  receive 
the  Word  of  wisdom,  that  opens  all  things,  and  come  to 
know  the  hidden  unity  in  the  Eternal  Being. 

Thus  travelled  I on  in  the  Lord’s  service,  as  the  Lord 
led  me.  And  when  I came  to  Nottingham,  the  mighty 
power  of  God  was  there  among  Friends.  From  thence  I 
went  to  Clawson  in  Leicestershire,  in  the  Vale  of  Beavor, 
and  the  mighty  power  of  God  was  there  also  in  several 
towns  and  villages  where  Friends  were  gathered.  While 
I was  there,  the  Lord  opened  to  me  three  things  relating 
to  those  three  great  professions  in  the  world,  physic, 
divinity  (so  called),  and  law.  And  he  showed  me  that  the 
physicians  were  out  of  the  wisdom  of  God  by  which 
the  creatures  were  made,  and  so  knew  not  the  virtues  of  the 
creatures,  because  they  were  out  of  the  Word  of  wisdom 
by  which  they  were  made.  And  he  showed  me  that  the 
priests  were  out  of  the  true  faith  which  Christ  is  the  author 
of,  the  faith  which  purifies  and  gives  victory  and  brings 
people  to  have  access  to  God,  by  which  they  please  God, 
which  mystery  of  faith  is  held  in  a pure  conscience.  He 
showed  me  also,  that  the  lawyers  were  out  of  the  equity 
and  out  of  the  true  justice,  and  out  of  the  law  of  God, 
which  went  over  the  first  transgression  and  over  all  sin, 
and  answered  the  spirit  of  God  that  was  grieved  and 
transgressed  in  man.  And  that  these  three,  the  physicians, 
the  priests,  and  the  lawyers,  ruled  the  world  out  of  the 
wisdom,  out  of  the  faith  and  out  of  the  equity  and  law 
of  God,  the  one  pretending  the  cure  of  the  body,  the  other 
the  cure  of  the  soul,  and  the  third  the  property  of  the 
people.  But  I saw  they  were  all  out,  out  of  the  wisdom, 
out  of  the  faith,  out  of  the  equity  and  perfect  law  of  God. 

And  as  the  Lord  opened  these  things  unto  me,  I felt 
his  power  went  forth  over  all,  by  which  all  might  be 
reformed,  if  they  would  receive  and  bow  unto  it.  The 
priests  might  be  reformed  and  brought  into  the  true  faith 


1648]  LAWYERS,  PHYSICIANS,  PRIESTS  29 

which  was  the  gift  of  God.  The  lawyers  might  be  reformed 
and  brought  into  the  law  of  God  which  answers  that  of 
God  (that  is  transgressed)  in  every  one,  and  brings  to  love 
one’s  neighbour  as  himself.  This  lets  man  see  if  he 
wrongs  his  neighbour  he  wrongs  himself;  and  this  teaches 
him  to  do  unto  others  as  he  would  they  should  do  unto 
him.  The  physicians  might  be  reformed,  and  brought 
into  the  wisdom  of  God  by  which  all  things  were  made 
and  created;  that  they  might  receive  a right  knowledge 
of  the  creatures  and  understand  the  virtues  of  them,  which 
the  Word  of  wisdom,  by  v/hich  they  were  made  and  are 
upheld,  hath  given  them.  Abundance  was  opened  con- 
cerning these  things ; how  all  lay  out  of  the  wisdom  of  God, 
and  out  of  the  righteousness  and  holiness  that  man  at  the 
first  was  made  in.  But  as  all  believe  in  the  light  and  walk 
in  the  light,  which  Christ  hath  enlightened  every  man 
that  cometh  into  the  world  withal,  and  so  become  children 
of  the  light,  and  of  the  day  of  Christ;  in  his  day  all  things 
are  seen,  visible  and  invisible,  by  the  divine  light  of  Christ, 
the  spiritual,  heavenly  man,  by  whom  all  things  were  made 
and  created. 

Then  I saw  concerning  the  priests,  that  although  they  stood 
in  the  deceit,  and  acted  by  the  dark  power,  which  both  they 
and  their  people  were  kept  under,  yet  they  were  not  the  greatest 
deceivers  spoken  of  in  the  Scriptures;  for  these  v/ere  not  come 
so  far  as  many  of  them  had  come.  But  the  Lord  opened  to 
me  who  the  greatest  deceivers  were,  and  how  far  they  might 
come;  even  such  as  came  as  far  as  Cain,  to  hear  the  voice  of  God; 
and  such  as  came  out  of  Egypt,  and  through  the  Red  Sea,  and 
to  praise  God  on  the  banks  of  the  sea-shore;  such  as  could 
speak  by  experience  of  God’s  miracles  and  wonders;  such  as 
were  come  as  far  as  Korah  and  Dathan  and  their  company; 
such  as  came  as  far  as  Balaam,  who  could  speak  the  word  of 
the  Lord,  who  heard  his  voice  and  knew  it,  and  knew  his  spirit 
and  could  see  the  star  of  Jacob  and  the  goodliness  of  Israel’s 
tent;  the  second  birth,  which  no  enchantment  could  prevail 
against.  These  that  could  speak  so  much  of  their  experiences 
of  God,  and  yet  turned  from  the  Spirit  and  the  Word,  and  went 
into  the  gainsaying,  these  were,  and  would  be,  the  great  deceivers 


30  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1648 

far  beyond  the  priests.  Likewise  among  the  Christians,  such  as 
should  preach  in  Christ’s  name,  and  should  work  miracles, 
cast  out  devils,  and  go  as  far  as  a Cain,  a Korah,  and  a Balaam, 
in  the  Gospel  times,  these  were  and  would  be  the  great  deceivers. 
They  that  could  speak  some  experiences  of  Christ  and  God, 
but  lived  not  in  the  life,  these  were  they  that  led  the  world  after 
them,  who  got  the  form  of  godliness,  but  denied  the  power; 
who  inwardly  ravened  from  the  Spirit,  and  brought  people 
into  the  form,  but  persecuted  them  that  were  in  the  power, 
as  Cain  did;  and  ran  greedily  after  the  error  of  Balaam  through 
covetousness,  loving  the  wages  of  unrighteousness  as  Balaam 
did.  These  followers  of  Cain,  Korah,  and  Balaam  have  brought 
the  world,  since  the  apostles’  days,  to  be  like  a sea.  And  such 
as  these,  I saw  might  deceive  now,  as  they  had  in  former  ages; 
but  it  is  impossible  for  them  to  deceive  the  elect,  who  were 
chosen  in  Christ,  who  was  before  the  world  began,  and  before 
the  deceiver  was,  though  others  may  be  deceived  in  their  openings 
and  prophecies,  not  keeping  their  minds  to  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  who  doth  open  and  reveal  to  his. 

And  I saw  the  state  of  those,  both  priests  and  people,  who 
in  reading  the  Scriptures,  cry  out  much  against  Cain,  Esau,  and 
Judas,  and  other  wicked  men  of  former  times,  mentioned  in  the 
Holy  Scriptures ; but  do  not  see  the  nature  of  Cain,  of  Esau,  of 
Judas,  and  those  others,  in  themselves.  And  these  said  it  was 
they,  they,  they,  that  were  the  bad  people;  putting  it  off  from 
themselves:  but  when  some  of  these  came,  with  the  light  and 
spirit  of  Truth,  to  see  into  themselves,  then  they  came  to  say, 
‘ I,  I,  I,  it  is  I myself  ihat  have  been  the  Ishmael,  and  the  Esau  ’, 
etc.  For  then  they  camic  to  see  the  nature  of  wild  Ishmael 
in  themselves,  the  nature  of  Cain,  of  Esau,  of  Korah,  of  Balaam 
and  of  the  son  of  perdition  in  themselves,  sitting  above  all  that 
is  called  God  in  them. 

So  I saw  it  was  the  fallen  man  that  was  got  up  into  the  Scrip- 
tures and  was  finding  fault  with  those  before-mentioned,  and, 
with  the  backsliding  Jews,  calling  them  the  sturdy  oaks  and  tall 
cedars  and  fat  bulls  of  Bashan,  wild  heifers,  vipers,  serpents,  etc., 
and  charging  them  that  it  was  they  that  closed  their  eyes  and 
stopped  their  ears  and  hardened  their  hearts,  and  were  dull  of 
hearing,  that  it  was  they  that  hated  the  light  and  rebelled  against 
it,  and  that  quenched  the  Spirit,  and  vexed,  and  grieved  it,  and 
walked  despitefully  against  the  spirit  of  grace,  and  turned  the 
grace  of  God  into  wantonness,  and  that  it  was  they  that  resisted 


1648]  ‘ THE  FORM  OF  GODLINESS  ’ 31 

the  Holy  Ghost,  and  they  that  got  the  form  of  godliness,  and 
turned  against  the  power,  and  that  they  were  the  inwardly 
ravening  wolves,  that  had  got  the  sheep’s  clothing,  and  that 
they  were  the  wells  without  water,  and  clouds  without  rain, 
and  trees  without  fruit,  etc.  But  when  these,  who  were  so 
much  taken  up  with  finding  fault  with  others,  and  thought 
themselves  clear  from  these  things,  came  to  look  into  themselves, 
and  with  the  liglit  of  Christ  throughly  to  search  themselves, 
they  might  see  enough  of  this  in  themselves;  and  then  the  cry 
could  not  be,  it  is  he,  or  they,  as  before,  but  I and  we  are  found 
in  these  conditions. 

I saw  also  how  people  read  the  Scriptures  without  a right 
sense  of  them,  and  without  duly  applying  them  to  their  own 
states.  For,  when  they  read  that  death  reigned  from  Adam 
to  Moses,  that  the  law  and  the  prophets  were  until  John,  and  that 
the  least  in  the  kingdom  is  greater  than  John,  they  read  these 
things  without  them  and  applied  them  to  others  without  them, 
and  the  things  were  true  of  others  without  them,  but  they  did 
not  turn  in  to  find  the  truth  of  these  things  in  themselves.  But 
as  these  things  came  to  be  opened  in  me,  I saw  death  reigned 
over  them  from  Adam  to  Moses,  from  the  entrance  into  trans- 
gression till  they  came  to  the  ministration  of  condemnation, 
which  restrains  people  from  sin  that  brings  death.  Then,  when 
the  ministration  of  Moses  is  passed  through,  the  ministry  of  the 
prophets  comes  to  be  read  and  understood,  which  reaches 
through  the  figures,  types  and  shadows  unto  John,  the  greatest 
prophet  born  of  woman;  whose  ministration  prepares  the  way 
of  the  Lord  by  bringing  down  the  exalted  mountains  and 
making  straight  paths.  And  as  this  ministration  is  passed 
through,  an  entrance  comes  to  be  known  into  the  everlasting 
kingdom. 

So  I saw  plainly  that  none  could  read  Moses  aright  without 
Moses’  spirit,  by  which  Moses  saw  how  man  was  in  the  image 
of  God  in  Paradise,  and  how  he  fell,  and  how  death  came  over 
him,  and  how  all  men  have  been  under  this  death.  I saw  how 
Moses  received  the  pure  law  that  went  over  all  transgressors, 
and  how  the  clean  beasts  which  were  figures  and  types  were 
offered  up,  when  the  people  were  come  into  the  righteous  law 
that  went  over  the  first  transgression.  And  both  Moses  and  the 
prophets  saw  through  the  types  and  figures  and  beyond  them, 
and  saw  Christ  the  great  prophet  that  was  to  come  to  fulfil 
them. 


32  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1648 

And  1 saw  that  none  could  read  John’s  words  aright  and  with 
a true  understanding  of  them,  but  in  and  with  the  same  divine 
Spirit  by  which  John  spoke  them,  and  by  his  burning,  shining 
light,  which  is  sent  from  God.  For  by  that  Spirit  their  crooked 
natures  might  be  made  straight,  and  their  rough  natures  smooth, 
and  the  exacter  and  violent  doer  in  them  might  be  thrown  out, 
and  they  that  had  been  hypocrites  might  come  to  bring  forth 
fruits  meet  for  repentance,  and  their  mountain  of  sin  and  earthli- 
ness  might  be  laid  low  in  them,  and  their  valley  exalted  in  them, 
that  there  might  be  a way  prepared  for  the  Lord  in  them;  and 
then  the  least  in  the  kingdom  is  greater  than  John.  But  all 
must  first  know  the  voice  crying  in  the  wilderness,  in  their 
hearts,  which  through  transgression  were  become  as  a wilderness. 
Thus  I saw  it  was  an  easy  matter  to  say  death  reigned  from  Adam 
to  Moses,  and  that  the  law  and  the  prophets  v/ere  until  John, 
and  that  the  least  in  the  kingdom  is  greater  than  John;  but 
none  could  know  death  reigned  from  Adam  to  Moses,  etc., 
but  by  the  same  Holy  Spirit  which  Moses,  and  the  prophets, 
and  John  were  in.  They  could  not  know  the  spiritual  meaning 
of  Moses’,  the  prophets’,  and  John’s  words,  nor  see  their  path 
and  travels,  much  less  see  through  them  and  to  the  end  of  them 
into  the  kingdom,  unless  they  had  the  Spirit  and  the  light  of 
Jesus;  nor  could  they  know  the  words  of  Chiist  and  of  his 
apostles  without  his  Spirit.  But  as  man  comes  through  by  the 
Spirit  and  power  of  God  to  Christ  who  fulfils  the  types,  figures, 
shadows,  promises,  and  prophecies  that  were  of  him,  and  is 
led  by  the  Holy  Ghost  into  the  truth  and  substance  of  the 
Scriptures,  sitting  down  in  him  who  is  the  author  and  end  of  them, 
then  are  they  read  and  understood  with  profit  and  great  delight. 

Moreover  the  Lord  God  let  me  see,  when  I was  brought 
up  into  his  image  in  righteousness  and  holiness,  and  into  the 
paradise  of  God,  the  state  how  Adam  was  made  a living  soul, 
and  also  the  stature  of  Christ,  the  mystery,  that  had  been  hid 
from  ages  and  generations,  which  things  are  hard  to  be  uttered 
and  cannot  be  borne  by  many.  For,  of  all  the  sects  in  Christen- 
dom (so  called)  that  I discoursed  withal,  I found  none  that  could 
bear  to  be  told  that  any  should  come  to  Adam’s  perfection, 
into  that  image  of  God  and  righteousness  and  holiness  that 
Adam  was  in  before  he  fell,  to  be  so  clear  and  pure  without 
sin,  as  he  was.  Therefore  how  should  they  be  able  to  bear 
being  told  that  any  should  grow  up  to  the  measure  of  the  stature 
of  the  fulness  of  Christ,  when  they  cannot  bear  to  hear  that  any 


1648]  ‘ EVERY  MAN  ENLIGHTENED  ’ 33 

should  come,  whilst  upon  earth,  into  the  same  power  and  Spirit 
that  the  prophets  and  apostles  were  in  ? Though  it  be  a certain 
truth,  that  none  can  understand  their  writings  aright  without 
the  same  Spirit  by  which  they  were  v/ritten. 

Now  the  Lord  God  hath  opened  to  me  by  his  invisible 
power  how  that  every  man  was  enlightened  by  the  divine 
light  of  Christ;  and  I saw  it  shine  through  all,  and  that 
they  that  believed  in  it  came  out  of  condemnation  and  came 
to  the  light  of  life  and  became  the  children  of  it,  but  they 
that  hated  it,  and  did  not  believe  in  it,  were  condemned 
by  it,  though  they  made  a profession  of  Christ.  This 
I saw  in  the  pure  openings  of  the  Light  without  the  help  of 
any  man,  neither  did  I then  know  where  to  find  it  in  the 
Scriptures;  though  afterwards,  searching  the  Scriptures, 
I found  it.  For  I saw  in  that  Light  and  Spirit  which  was 
before  Scripture  was  given  forth,  and  which  led  the  holy 
men  of  God  to  give  them  forth,  that  all  must  come  to  that 
Spirit,  if  they  would  knov/  God,  or  Christ,  or  the  Scriptures 
aright,  which  they  that  gave  them  forth  were  led  and  taught 
by. 

But  I observed  a dulness  and  drowsy  heaviness  upon 
people,  which  I wondered  at,  for  sometimes  when  I would 
set  myself  to  sleep,  my  mind  went  over  all  to  the  beginning, 
in  that  which  is  from  everlasting  to  everlasting.  I saw 
death  was  to  pass  over  this  sleepy,  heavy  state,  and  I told 
people  they  must  come  to  witness  death  to  that  sleepy, 
heavy  nature,  and  a cross  to  it  in  the  power  of  God,  that 
their  minds  and  hearts  might  be  on  things  above. 

And  on  a certain  time,  as  I was  walking  in  the  fields, 
the  Lord  said  unto  me,  ' Thy  name  is  written  in  the  Lamb’s 
book  of  life,  which  was  before  the  foundation  of  the  world  ’ ; 
and  as  the  Lord  spoke  it  I believed,  and  saw  it  in  the  new 
birth.  Then,  some  time  after,  the  Lord  commanded  me 
to  go  abroad  into  the  world,  which  was  like  a briery, 
thorny  wilderness,  and  when  I came  in  the  Lord’s  mighty 
power  with  the  word  of  life  into  the  world,  the  world  swelled 
and  made  a noise  like  the  great  raging  waves  of  the  sea. 
Priests  and  professors,  magistrates  and  people,  were  all 


34  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1648 

like  a sea,  when  I came  to  proclaim  the  day  of  the  Lord 
amongst  them  and  to  preach  repentance  to  them. 

Now  I was  sent  to  turn  people  from  darkness  to  the  light 
that  they  might  receive  Christ  Jesus,  for  to  as  many  as 
should  receive  him  in  his  light,  I saw  that  he  would  give 
power  to  become  the  sons  of  God,  which  I had  obtained 
by  receiving  Christ.  And  I was  to  direct  people  to  the 
Spirit  that  gave  forth  the  Scriptures,  by  which  they  might 
be  led  into  all  Truth,  and  so  up  to  Christ  and  God,  as  they 
had  been  who  gave  them  forth.  And  I was  to  turn  them 
to  the  grace  of  God,  and  to  the  Truth  in  the  heart,  which 
came  by  Jesus,  that  by  this  grace  they  might  be  taught, 
which  would  bring  them  into  salvation,  that  their  hearts 
might  be  established  by  it,  and  their  words  might  be 
seasoned,  and  all  might  come  to  know  their  salvation  nigh. 
For  I saw  that  Christ  had  died  for  all  men,  and  was  a pro- 
pitiation for  all,  and  had  enlightened  all  men  and  women 
with  his  divine  and  saving  light,  and  that  none  could  be  a 
true  believer  but  who  believed  in  it.  I saw  that  the  grace 
of  God,  which  brings  salvation,  had  appeared  to  all  men, 
and  that  the  manifestation  of  the  Spirit  of  God  was  given 
to  every  man  to  profit  withal.  These  things  I did  not  see 
by  the  help  of  man,  nor  by  the  letter,  though  they  are 
written  in  the  letter,  but  I saw  them  in  the  light  of  the 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  by  his  immediate  Spirit  and  power, 
as  did  the  holy  men  of  God,  by  whom  the  Holy  Scriptures 
were  written.  Yet  I had  no  slight  esteem  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures,  but  they  were  very  precious  to  me,  for  I was  in 
that  spirit  by  which  they  were  given  forth,  and  what  the 
Lord  opened  in  me  I afterwards  found  was  agreeable 
to  them.  I could  speak  much  of  these  things  and  many 
volumes  might  be  written,  but  all  would  prove  too  short 
to  set  forth  the  infinite  love,  wisdom,  and  power  of  God, 
in  preparing,  fitting,  and  furnishing  me  for  the  service  he 
had  appointed  me  to;  letting  me  see  the  depths  of  Satan 
on  the  one  hand,  and  opening  to  me,  on  the  other  hand, 
the  divine  mysteries  of  his  own  everlasting  kingdom. 

Now,  when  the  Lord  God  and  his  son,  Jesus  Christ, 


1648]  ‘ THE  NEW  AND  LIVING  WAY  ’ 35 

did  send  me  forth  into  the  world,  to  preach  his  everlasting 
gospel  and  kingdom,  I was  glad  that  I was  commanded 
to  turn  people  to  that  inward  light,  spirit,  and  grace,  by 
which  all  might  know  their  salvation,  and  their  way  to 
God;  even  that  divine  Spirit  which  would  lead  them  into 
all  Truth  and  which  I infallibly  knew  v/ould  never  deceive 
any.  But  with  and  by  this  divine  power  and  spirit  of  God, 
and  the  light  of  Jesus,  I was  to  bring  people  off  from  all 
their  own  ways  to  Christ,  the  new  and  living  way,  and  from 
their  churches,  which  men  had  made  and  gathered,  to  the 
Church  in  God,  the  general  assembly  v/ritten  in  heaven, 
which  Christ  is  the  head  of,  and  off  from  the  world’s  teachers 
made  by  men,  to  learn  of  Christ,  who  is  the  way,  the  truth, 
and  the  life,  of  whom  the  Father  said,  ‘ This  is  my  beloved 
Son,  hear  ye  him  and  off  from  all  the  world’s  worships, 
to  know  the  spirit  of  Truth  in  the  inward  parts,  and  to  be 
led  thereby,  that  in  it  they  might  worship  the  Father  of 
spirits,  who  seeks  such  to  worship  him,  which  spirit  they 
that  worshipped  not  in  knew  not  what  they  worshipped. 

And  I was  to  bring  people  off  from  all  the  world’s 
religions,  which  are  vain,  that  they  might  know  the  pure 
religion,  and  might  visit  the  fatherless,  the  v/idows  and  the 
strangers,  and  keep  themselves  from  the  spots  of  the  world. 
And  then  there  would  not  be  so  many  beggars,  the  sight  of 
whom  often  grieved  my  heart,  to  see  so  much  hard-hearted- 
ness amongst  them  that  professed  the  name  of  Christ. 
And  I was  to  bring  them  off  from  all  the  world’s  fellowships, 
and  prayings,  and  singings,  which  stood  in  forms  without 
power,  that  their  fellowships  might  be  in  the  Holy  Ghost, 
and  in  the  eternal  Spirit  of  God;  that  they  might  pray 
in  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  sing  in  the  spirit  and  with  the  grace 
that  comes  by  Jesus,  making  melody  in  their  hearts  to  the 
Lord  who  hath  sent  his  beloved  Son  to  be  their  Saviour, 
and  caused  his  heavenly  sun  to  shine  upon  all  the  world, 
and  through  them  all,  and  his  heavenly  rain  to  fall  upon 
the  just  and  the  unjust  (as  his  outward  rain  doth  fall,  and 
his  outward  sun  doth  shine  on  all),  which  is  God’s  unspeak- 
able love  to  the  world. 


36  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1648 

And  I was  to  bring  people  off  from  Jewish  ceremonies, 
and  from  heathenish  febles,  and  from  men’s  inventions 
and  windy  doctrines,  by  which  they  blowed  the  people 
about  this  way  and  the  other  way,  from  sect  to  sect;  and  all 
their  beggarly  rudiments,  with  their  schools  and  colleges 
for  making  ministers  of  Christ,  who  are  indeed  ministers 
of  their  own  making  but  not  of  Christ’s;  and  from  all  their 
images  and  crosses,  and  sprinkling  of  infants,  with  all  their 
holy  days  (so  called)  and  all  their  vain  traditions,  which 
they  had  gotten  up  since  the  apostles’  days,  which  the  Lord’s 
power  was  against,  and  in  the  dread  and  authority  thereof 
I was  moved  to  declare  against  them  all,  and  against  all 
that  preached  and  not  freely,  as  being  such  as  had  not 
received  freely  from  Christ. 

Moreover  when  the  Lord  sent  me  forth  into  the  world, 
he  forbade  me  to  put  off  my  hat  to  any,  high  or  low; 
and  I was  required  to  ‘ thee  ’ and  ‘ thou  ’ all  men  and 
women,  without  any  respect  to  rich  or  poor,  great  or  small. 
And  as  I travelled  up  and  down,  I was  not  to  bid  people 
‘ good  morrow  ’ or  ‘ good  evening  ’,  neither  might  I 
bow  or  scrape  with  my  leg  to  any  one;  and  this  made  the 
sects  and  professions  to  rage.  But  the  Lord’s  power 
carried  me  over  all  to  his  glory,  and  many  came  to  be  turned 
to  God  in  a little  time,  for  the  heavenly  day  of  the  Lord 
sprang  from  on  high,  and  brake  forth  apace,  by  the  light 
of  which  many  came  to  see  where  they  were. 

But  oh,  the  rage  that  then  was  in  the  priests,  magistrates, 
professors,  and  people  of  all  sorts,  but  especially  in  priests 
and  professors  ! for,  though  ‘ thou  ’ to  a single  person 
was  according  to  their  own  learning,  their  accidence  and 
grammar  rules,  and  according  to  the  Bible,  yet  they  could 
not  bear  to  hear  it,  and  the  hat-honour,  because  I could 
not  put  off  my  hat  to  them,  it  set  them  all  into  a rage.  But 
the  Lord  showed  me  that  it  was  an  honour  below,  which 
he  would  lay  in  the  dust  and  stain  it,  an  honour 
which  proud  flesh  looked  for,  but  sought  not  the  honour 
which  came  from  God  only,  that  it  was  an  honour  invented 
by  men  in  the  Fall,  and  in  the  alienation  from  God,  who 


1649]  HAT  HONOUR  REFUSED  37 

were  offended  if  it  ¥/ere  not  given  them,  and  yet  would  be 
looked  upon  as  saints,  church-members,  and  great 
Christians.  But  Christ  saith,  ‘ How  can  ye  believe,  who 
receive  honour  one  of  another,  and  seek  not  the  honour 
that  cometh  from  God  only  ? ’ ‘ And  I saith  Christ, 

‘ receive  not  honour  of  men  ’ : showing  that  men  have  an 
honour,  v/hich  men  will  receive  and  give,  but  Christ  will 
have  none  of  it.  This  is  the  honour  which  Christ  will  not 
receive,  and  which  must  be  laid  in  the  dust.  Oh,  the  rage 
and  scorn,  the  heat  and  fury  that  arose  ! Oh,  the  blows, 
punchings,  beatings,  and  imprisonments  that  we  under- 
went for  not  putting  off  our  hats  to  men  ! For  that  soon 
tried  all  men’s  patience  and  sobriety,  what  it  was.  Some 
had  their  hats  violently  plucked  off  and  thrown  away  so 
that  they  quite  lost  them.  The  bad  language  and  evil 
usage  we  received  on  this  account  are  hard  to  be  expressed, 
besides  the  danger  we  were  sometimes  in  of  losing  our  lives 
for  this  matter,  and  that,  by  the  great  professors  of  Chris- 
tianity, who  thereby  discovered  that  they  were  not  true 
believers.  And  though  it  was  but  a small  thing  in  the  eye 
of  man,  yet  a wonderful  confusion  it  brought  among  all 
professors  and  priests.  But,  blessed  be  the  Lord,  many 
came  to  see  the  vanity  of  that  custom  of  putting  off  the 
hat  to  men,  and  felt  the  weight  of  Truth’s  testimony 
against  it. 

About  this  time  I was  sorely  exercised  in  going  to  their 
courts  to  cry  for  justice,  and  in  speaking  and  writing  to 
judges  and  justices  to  do  justly,  and  in  warning  such  as  kept 
public  houses  for  entertainment  that  they  should  not  let 
people  have  more  drink  than  would  do  them  good,  and  in 
testifying  against  their  wakes  or  feasts,  their  May-games, 
sports,  plays,  and  shows,  which  trained  up  people  to  vanity 
and  looseness,  and  led  them  from  the  fear  of  God,  and 
the  days  they  had  set  forth  for  holy-days  were  usually 
the  times  wherein  they  most  dishonoured  God  by  these 
things.  In  fairs  also,  and  in  markets,  I was  made  to  declare 
against  their  deceitful  merchandise  and  cheating  and 
cozening,  warning  all  to  deal  justly,  to  speak  the  truth. 


38  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1649 

to  let  their  ‘ yea  ’ be  ‘ yea  and  their  ‘ nay  ’ be  ‘ nay 
and  to  do  unto  others  as  they  would  have  others  do  unto 
them,  and  forewarning  them  of  the  great  and  terrible  day 
of  the  Lord  which  would  come  upon  them  all.  I was 
moved  also  to  cry  against  all  sorts  of  music,  and  against  the 
mountebanks  playing  tricks  on  their  stages,  for  they  bur- 
dened the  pure  life,  and  stirred  up  people’s  minds  to  vanity. 

I was  much  exercised  too,  with  school-masters  and  school- 
mistresses, warning  them  to  teach  their  children  sobriety 
in  the  fear  of  the  Lord,  that  they  might  not  be  nursed  and 
trained  up  in  lightness,  vanity,  and  wantonness.  Likewise 
I was  made  to  warn  masters  and  mistresses,  fathers  and 
mothers  in  private  families,  to  take  care  that  their  children 
and  servants  might  be  trained  up  in  the  fear  of  the  Lord; 
and  that  they  them.selves  should  be  therein  examples  and 
patterns  of  sobriety  and  virtue  to  them.  For  I saw  that 
as  the  Jews  were  to  teach  their  children  the  law  of  God 
and  the  old  covenant,  and  to  train  them  up  in  it,  and  their 
servants,  yea  the  very  strangers  were  to  keep  the  Sabbath 
amongst  them,  and  be  circumcised,  before  they  might 
eat  of  their  sacrifices,  so  all  Christians,  and  all  that  made  a 
profession  of  Christianity,  ought  to  train  up  their  children 
and  servants  in  the  new  covenant  of  light,  Christ  Jesus, 
who  is  God’s  salvation  to  the  ends  of  the  earth,  that  all 
may  know  their  salvation.  And  they  ought  to  train 
them  up  in  the  law  of  life,  the  law  of  the  Spirit,  the  law  of 
love  and  of  faith,  that  they  might  be  made  free  from  the 
law  of  sin  and  death.  And  all  Christians  ought  to  be 
circumcised  by  the  Spirit,  which  puts  off  the  body  of  the 
sins  of  the  flesh,  that  they  may  come  to  eat  of  the  heavenly 
sacrifice,  Christ  Jesus,  that  true  spiritual  food,  which  none 
can  rightly  feed  upon  but  they  that  are  circumcised  by  the 
Spirit.  Likewise,  I was  exercised  about  the  star-gazers, 
who  drew  people’s  minds  from  Christ,  the  bright  and  the 
morning  star,  and  from  the  sun  of  righteousness,  by  whom 
the  sun,  and  moon,  and  stars,  and  all  things  else  were  made, 
who  is  the  wisdom  of  God,  and  from  whom  the  right  know- 
ledge of  all  things  is  received. 


1649]  THE  GOSPEL  IS  FREE  39 

But  the  black  earthly  spirit  of  the  priests  wounded  my 
life;  and  when  I heard  the  bell  toll  to  call  people  together 
to  the  steeplehouse,  it  struck  at  my  life,  for  it  was  just  like 
a market-bell  to  gather  people  together  that  the  priest 
might  set  forth  his  ware  to  sale.  Oh,  the  vast  sums  of 
money  that  are  gotten  by  the  trade  they  make  of  selling 
the  Scriptures,  and  by  their  preaching,  from  the  highest 
bishop  to  the  lowest  priest  ! What  one  trade  else  in  the 
world  is  comparable  to  it,  notwithstanding  the  Scriptures 
were  given  forth  freely,  and  Christ  commanded  his  ministers 
to  preach  freely,  and  the  prophets  and  apostles  denounced 
judgement  against  all  covetous  hirelings  and  diviners  for, 
money.  But  in  this  free  spirit  of  the  Lord  Jesus  was  I 
sent  forth  to  declare  the  word  of  life  and  reconciliation 
freely,  that  all  might  come  up  to  Christ,  who  gives  freely, 
and  who  renews  up  into  the  image  of  God  which  man  and 
woman  were  in  before  they  fell,  that  they  might  sit  down 
in  heavenly  places  in  Christ  Jesus.) 


CHAPTER  HI 


ow  as  I passed  to  Nottingham  <on  a First-day  in 
the  morning  with  Friends  to  a meeting,)  when 
I came  on  top  of  a hill,  as  I looked  upon  the  town 
the  great  steeplehouse  struck  at  my  life  when  I spied  it, 
a great  idol  and  idolatrous  temple.*  And  the  Lord  said 
unto  me,  ‘ Thou  must  go  cry  against  yonder  great  idol, 
and  against  the  worshippers  therein.’  So  I said  nothing 
of  this  to  the  Friends  that  were  with  me,  but  went  on  with 
them  to  the  meeting,  where  the  mighty  power  of  the  Lord 
God  was  amongst  us,  in  which  I left  Friends  sitting  in  the 
meeting,  and  I went  away  to  the  steeplehouse.^  And  when 
I came  there,  all  the  people  looked  like  fallow  ground, 
and  the  priest,  like  a great  lump  of  earth,  stood  in  his  pulpit 


' Church  of  St.  Mary,  Nicholas  Folkingham,  incumbent. 
S.J.,  p.  1. 


I 


40  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1649 

above.  He  took  for  his  text  these  words  of  Peter,  ‘ We 
have  also  a more  sure  word  of  prophecy,  whereunto 
ye  do  well  that  ye  take  heed,  as  unto  a light  that  shineth 
in  a dark  place,  until  the  day  dawn,  and  the  day-star  arise 
in  your  hearts.’  And  he  told  the  people  that  the  Scriptures 
were  the  touchstone  and  judge  by  which  they  were  to  try 
all  doctrines,  religions,  and  opinions,  and  to  end  contro- 
versy. Now  the  Lord’s  power  was  so  mighty  upon  me, 
and  so  strong  in  me,  that  I could  not  hold,  but  was  made 
to  cry  out  and  say,  ‘ Oh,  no,  it  is  not  the  Scriptures  ’,  and 
^was  commanded  to  tell  them  God  did  not  dwell  in  temples 
made  with  hands.^  But  I told  them  what  it  was,  namely, 
the  Holy  Spirit,  by  which  the  holy  men  of  God  gave  forth 
the  Scriptures,  whereby  opinions,  religions,  and  judgements 
were  to  be  tried;  for  it  led  into  all  Truth,  and  so  gave  the 
knowledge  of  all  Truth.  For  the  Jews  had  the  Scriptures, 
and  yet  resisted  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  rejected  Christ  the 
bright  morning  star,  and  they  persecuted  Christ  and  his 
apostles,  and  took  upon  them  to  try  their  doctrines  by  the 
Scriptures,  but  erred  in  judgement,  and  did  not  try  them 
aright,  because  they  tried  without  the  Holy  Ghost.  Now 
as  I spoke  thus  amongst  them,  the  officers  came  and  took 
me  away  and  put  me  into  prison,  a pitiful  stinking  place, 
^where  the  wind  brought  all  the  stench  of  the  house  of  office 
in  the  place,  where  the  stench  of  the  place  was  in  my  throat 
and  head  many  days  after."^ 

But  that  day  the  Lord’s  power  sounded  so  in  their  ears 
that  they  were  amazed  at  the  voice,  and  could  not  get  it 
out  of  their  ears  for  some  time  after,  they  were  so  reached 
by  the  Lord’s  power  in  the  steeplehouse.  At  night  they 
took  me  out  of  prison  and  had  me  before  the  mayor,^ 
aldermen  and  sheriffs  of  the  town ; and  when  I was  brought 
before  them,  the  mayor  was  in  a peevish,  fretful  temper, 

^ William  Nix  was  mayor  and  John  Reckless  and  Richard  Watkinson 
sheriffs. 

F b Short  Account,  MS.  Portfolio  36.172.  See  Bulletin 

Vol.  39,  p.  27. 

® SJ.,  p.  2. 


1649]  ARRESTED  AT  NOTTINGHAM  41 

but  the  Lord’s  power  allayed  him.  Then  they  examined 
me  at  large,  and  I told  them  how  the  Lord  had  moved  me 
to  come.  Then  after  some  discourse  between  them  and 
me,  they  sent  me  back  to  prison.  But  some  time  after, 
the  head  sheriff,  whose  name  was  John  Reckless,  sent  for 
me  to  his  house.  And  when  I came  in,  his  wife  met  me 
in  the  hall,  and  said,  ‘ Salvation  is  come  to  our  house.’ 
And  she  took  me  by  the  hand,  and  was  much  wrought 
upon  by  the  power  of  the  Lord  God,  and  her  husband; 
"^and  all  their  family  were  wrought  upon  by  the  power  of 
the  Lord,  and  they  believed  in  the  Truth;  and  this  was 
the  first  day  of  the  week."^  And  I lodged  at  the  sheriff’s 
house,  and  great  meetings  we  had  in  his  house.  And  some 
persons  of  considerable  condition  in  the  world  came  to 
them,  and  the  Lord’s  power  appeared  eminently  amongst 
them.  And  this  sheriff  sent  for  the  other  sheriff,  and 
for  a woman  they  had  had  dealings  with  in  the  way  of  trade ; 
and  he  told  her  before  the  other  sheriff,  that  they  had 
wronged  her  in  their  dealings  with  her  (for  the  other  sheriff 
and  he  were  partners),  and  that  they  ought  to  make  her 
restitution.  This  he  spoke  cheerfully;  but  the  other 
sheriff  denied  it,  and  the  woman  said  she  knew  nothing  of  it. 
But  the  friendly  sheriff  said  it  was  so,  and  that  the  other 
knew  it  well  enough;  and  then,  having  discovered  the  matter, 
and  acknowledged  the  wrong  done  by  them,  he  made 
restitution  to  the  woman,  and  exhorted  the  other  sheriff 
to  do  the  like. 

The  Lord’s  power  was  with  this  friendly  sheriff,  and 
wrought  a mighty  change  in  him,  and  great  openings  he  had. 
The  next  market-day,  ^being  the  seventh  day  of  the  week,^^ 
as  he  was  walking  with  me  in  the  chamber,  in  his  slippers, 
he  said,  ‘ I must  go  into  the  market  and  preach  repentance 
to  the  people  ’ ; and  accordingly  he  went,  in  his  slippers, 
into  the  market,  and  into  several  streets,  and  preached 
repentance  to  the  people,  very  many  being  wrought  upon. 
Several  others  also  in  the  town  were  moved  to  speak  to  the 
mayor  and  magistrates,  and  to  the  people,  exhorting  them 

^ ^ p.  2. 


42  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1649 

to  repent.  Hereupon  the  magistrates  grew  very  angry, 
and  sent  for  me  from  the  sheriff’s  house,  and  committed 
me  to  the  comm^on  prison.  When  the  Assize  came  on, 
there  was  one  moved  to  come  and  offer  up  himself  for  me, 
body  for  body,  yea,  life  also.  But  when  I should  have  been 
brought  before  the  judge,  the  sheriff’s  man  being  somewhat 
long  in  fetching  me  to  the  Sessions-house,  the  judge  was 
risen  before  I came.  At  which  I understood  the  judge 
was  somewhat  offended  and  said  he  would  have  admonished 
the  youth  if  he  had  been  brought  before  him;  for  I was 
then  imprisoned  by  the  name  of  a youth.  So  I was 
returned  to  prison  again,  and  put  into  the  common  gaol. 
And  the  Lord’s  power  was  great  among  Friends;  but  the 
people  began  to  be  very  rude;  wherefore  the  governor 
of  the  castle^  sent  down  soldiers  and  dispersed  them; 
and  after  that  they  were  quiet.  But  both  priests  and  people 
were  astonished  at  the  wonderful  power  that  broke  forth; 
and  several  of  the  priests  were  made  tender,  and  some  did 
confess  to  the  power  of  the  Lord.) 

^When  I was  a prisoner  in  the  same  place  there  came  a 
woman  to  me  to  the  prison  and  two  with  her  and  said  that 
she  had  been  possessed  two  and  thirty  years.  And  the 
priests  had  kept  her  and  had  kept  fasting  days  about  her, 
and  could  not  do  her  any  good,  and  she  said  the  Lord 
said  unto  her,  ‘Arise,  for  I have  a sanctified  people; 
haste  and  go  to  them,  for  thy  redemption  draweth  nigh.’ 
And  when  I came  out  of  prison  I bade  Friends  have  her  to 
Mansfield.  At  that  time  our  meetings  were  disturbed 
by  wild  people,  and  both  they  and  the  professors  and 
priests  said  that  we  were  false  prophets  and  deceivers, 
and  that  there  was  witchcraft  amongst  us.  The  poor 
woman  would  make  such  a noise  in  roaring,  and  sometimes 
lying  along  upon  her  belly  upon  the  ground  with  her  spirit 
and  roaring  and  voice,  that  it  would  set  all  Friends  in  a 
heat  and  sweat.  And  I said,  ‘ All  Friends,  keep  to  your 
own,  lest  that  which  is  in  her  get  into  you  ’,  and  so  she 
affrightened  the  world  from  our  meetings. 

^ Colonel  John  Hutchinson  (1615-1664). 


1649]  TWO  WOMEN  HEALED  43 

Then  they  said  if  that  were  cast  out  of  her  while  she  were 
with  us,  and  were  made  well,  then  they  would  say  that  we 
were  of  God.  This  said  the  world,  and  I had  said  before 
that  she  should  be  set  free. 

Then  it  v/as  upon  me  that  we  should  have  a meeting  at 
Skegby  at  Elizabeth  Hooton’s^  house;  and  we  had  her  there. 
And  there  were  many  Friends  almost  overcome  by  her 
with  the  stink  that  came  out  of  her;  roaring  and  tumbling 
on  the  ground,  and  the  same  day  she  was  worse  than  ever 
she  was.  Another  day  we  met  about  her,  and  about  the 
first  hour  the  Life  rose  in  Friends  and  said  it  was  done. 
She  rose  up,  and  her  countenance  changed  and  became 
white;  and  before  it  was  wan  and  earthly;  and  she  sat  down 
at  my  thigh  as  I was  sitting,  and  lifted  up  her  hands  and 
said,  ‘ Ten  thousand  praise  the  Lord  ’,  and  did  not  know 
where  she  was,  and  so  she  was  well;  and  we  kept  her  about 
a fortnight  in  the  sight  of  the  world  and  she  wrought  and 
did  things,  and  then  we  sent  her  away  to  her  friends.  And 
then  the  world’s  professors,  priests,  and  teachers  never 
could  call  us  any  more  false  prophets,  deceivers,  or  witches 
after,  but  it  did  a great  deal  of  good  in  the  country  among 
people  in  relation  to  the  Truth  and  to  the  stopping  the 
mouths  of  the  world  and  their  slanderous  aspersions.® 

<Now  after  I was  set  at  liberty  from  Nottingham  gaol, 
where  I had  been  kept  prisoner  a pretty  long  time,  I travelled 
as  before  in  the  work  of  the  Lord.  And  coming  to 
Mansfield-Woodhouse^  tjtiere  was  a distracted  Vv^oman  under 
a doctor’s  hand,  wit>.  ner  hair  loose  all  about  her  ears. 
He  was  about  to  let  tier  blood,  she  being  first  bound,  and 
many  people  being  about  her  holding  her  by  violence; 
but  he  could  get  no  blood  from  her.  And  I desired  them 
to  unbind  her  and  let  her  alone,  for  they  could  not  touch 
the  spirit  in  her,  by  which  she  was  tormented.  So  they 
did  unbind  her;  and  I was  moved  to  speak  to  her  in  the 
name  of  the  Lord  to  bid  her  be  quiet  and  still,  and  she  was 

^ Elizabeth  Hooton  (c.  1600-1672),  Fox’s  first  convert  and  preacher 
of  Quakerism,  died  in  Jamaica. 

" ^ SJ.,  pp.  2,  3. 


44  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1649 

SO.  The  Lord’s  power  settled  her  mind,  and  she  mended 
and  afterwards  received  the  Truth,  and  continued  in  it  to 
her  death.  And  the  Lord’s  name  was  honoured,  to  whom 
the  glory  of  all  his  works  belongs.  Many  great  and  wonder- 
ful things  were  wrought  by  the  heavenly  power  in  those 
days,  for  the  Lord  made  bare  his  omnipotent  arm,  and 
manifested  his  power,  to  the  astonishment  of  many,  by 
the  healing  virtue  whereof  many  have  been  delivered  from 
great  infirmities,  and  the  devils  were  made  subject  through 
his  name,  of  which  particular  instances  might  be  given 
beyond  what  this  unbeUeving  age  is  able  to  receive  or  bear. 
Blessed  for  ever  be  the  name  of  the  Lord  and  everlastingly 
honoured  and  over  all  exalted,  and  magnified  be  the  arm 
of  his  glorious  power,  by  which  he  hath  wrought  gloriously; 
and  let  the  honour  and  praise  of  all  his  works  be  ascribed 
to  him  alone. 

Novv'  while  I was  at  Mansfield-Woodhouse,  I was  moved 
to  go  to  the  steeplehouse  there  on  a Tirst-day,  out  of  the 
meeting  in  Mansfield,  and  when  the  priest  had  done^  I 
declared  the  Truth  to  the  priest  and  people.  But  the  people 
fell  upon  me>  %ith  their  fists,  books,  and  without  com- 
passion or  mercy  beat  me  down  in  the  steeplehouse  and 
almost  smothered  me  in  it,  being  under  them.  And  sorely 
was  I bruised  in  the  steeplehouse,  and  they  threw  me  against 
the  walls  and  when  that  they  had  thrust  and  thrown  me 
out  of  the  steeplehouse,  when  I came  into  the  yard  I fell 
down,  being  so  sorely  bruised  ,^^^1  beat  among  them. 
And  I got  up  again  and  then  tneir  punched  and  thrust 
and  struck  me  up  and  down  and  they  set  me  in  the  stocks 
and  brought  a whip  to  whip  me,  but  did  not.  And  as  I 
sat  in  the  stocks  they  threw  stones  at  me,  and  my  head, 
arms,  breast,  shoulders,  back,  and  sides  were  so  bruised 
that  I was  mazed  and  dazzled  with  the  blows.  And  I 
was  hot  when  they  put  me  in  the  stocks.^  <After  some  time  | 
they  had  me  before  the  magistrate,  at  a knight’s  house^  ' 
and  examined  me,  where  were  many  great  persons,)  ^and 

^ Said  to  be  the  house  of  Sir  John  Digby,  at  Mansfieid-Woodhouse.  ; 

^ ^5./.,  p.  12. 


1649]  ‘ THEY  WOULD  KILL  ME  ’ 45 

I reasoned  with  them  of  the  things  of  God  and  of  God 
and  his  teachings,  and  Christ’s,  and  how  that  God  that 
made  the  world  did  not  dwell  in  temples  made  with  hands ; 
and  of  divers  things  of  the  Truth  I spake  to  them,  and 
they,s  < seeing  how  evilly  I had  been  used,  set  me  at  liberty. 
The  rude  people  were)  ^ready  to  fall  upon  me  with  staves 
but  the  constable  kept  them  off.  And  when  they  had  set 
me  at  liberty,  they  threatened  me  with  pistols,  if  ever  I came 
again  they  would  kill  me  and  shoot  me;  and  they  would 
carry  their  pistols  to  the  steeplehouse.  And  with 
threatening  I was  freed.  And  I was  scarce  able  to  go  or 
well  to  stand,  by  reason  of  ill-usage.  Yet  with  much 
ado  I got  about  a mile  from  the  town,  and  as  I was  passing 
along  the  fields  Friends  met  me.  I was  so  bruised  that 
I could  not  turn  in  my  bed,  and  bruised  inwardly  at  my 
heart,  but  after  a while  the  power  of  the  Lord  went  through 
me  and  healed  me,  that  I was  well,  glory  be  to  the  Lord 
for  ever.s 

<That  day  some  people  were  convinced  of  the  Lord’s 
Truth  and  turned  to  his  teaching,  at  which  I rejoiced. 

Then  I went  out  of  Nottinghamshire,  into  Leicestershire, 
several  Friends  accompanying  me.  And  there  were  some 
Baptists  in  that  country  whom  I desired  to  see  and  speak 
with,  because  they  were  separated  from  the  public  worship. 
So  one  Samuel  Oates, ^ who  was  one  of  their  chief  teachers, 
and  others  of  the  heads  of  them,  with  several  others  of 
their  company,  came  to  meet  us  at  Barrow;  and  there  we 
discoursed  with  them.  And  one  of  them  said  that  what 
was  not  of  faith  was  sin.  Whereupon  I asked  them  what 
faith  was,  and  how  it  was  wrought  in  man.  But  they  turned 
off  from  that  and  spoke  of  their  baptism  in  water.  Then 
I asked  them  whether  their  mountain  of  sin  was  brought 
down  and  laid  low  in  them,  and  their  rough  and  crooked 
ways  made  smooth  and  straight  in  them,  for  they  looked 
upon  the  Scriptures  as  meaning  outward  mountains  and 

^ The  father  of  the  notorious  Titus  Oates  was  Samuel  Oates  (1610- 
1683),  and  for  a time  a Baptist  preacher. 

e g 5./.,  p.  12. 


4 


46  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1649 

ways.  But  I told  them  they  must  find  them  in  their  own 
hearts;  which  they  seemed  to  wonder  at.  And  we  asked 
them  who  baptized  John  the  Baptist,  and  who  baptized 
Peter,  John,  and  the  rest  of  the  apostles,  and  put  them  to 
prove  by  Scripture  that  these  were  baptized  in  water,  but 
they  were  silent.  Then  I asked  them,  seeing  Judas,  who 
betrayed  Christ  and  was  called  the  son  of  perdition,  had 
hanged  himself,  what  son  of  perdition  was  that  which 
Paul  spoke  of,  that  sat  in  the  temple  of  God,  exalted  above 
all  that  is  called  God,  and  what  temple  of  God  that  was 
in  which  this  son  of  perdition  sat,  and  whether  he  that 
betrays  Christ  within,  in  himself,  be  not  one  in  nature 
with  that  Judas  that  betrayed  Christ  without.  But  they 
could  not  tell  what  to  make  of  this,  nor  what  to  say  to  it. 
So  after  we  had  some  discourse  together  we  parted,  and 
some  of  them  were  loving  to  us. 

On  the  First-day  of  the  week  following  we  came  to 
Bagworth,  and)  was  moved  to  go  from  a meeting  with 
other  Friends  to  the  steeplehouse,  and  some  Friends 
they  let  in,  and  me  they  kept  out.  And  they  shut  the  doors 
and  shut  out  besides  many  of  their  own  people.  And 
after  they  had  their  sermon  as  they  call  it,  they  opened  the 
door,  and  I went  in,  and  began  to  speak  the  Truth  to  them 
and  they  heard  me  awhile,  and  then  they  rushed  me  out 
and  I spoke  to  them  in  the  steeplehouse  yard  the  Truth 
of  God;  and  they  had  much  ado  to  hold  their  hands  off 
us.  There  we  had  good  service  and  the  Truth  came 
over  all.^  <Afterwards  we  had  a meeting  in  the 
steeplehouse  yard  amongst  several  people  that  were  in 
high  notions. 

Passing  away  I heard  of  a people  that  were  in  prison 
in  Coventry  for  religion.  And  as  I walked  towards  the 
gaol,  the  word  of  the  Lord  came  to  me  saying,  ‘ My  love 
was  always  to  thee,  and  thou  art  in  my  love.’  And  I 
was  ravished  with  the  sense  of  the  love  of  God  and  greatly 
strengthened  in  my  inward  man.  But  when  I came  into 
the  gaol,  where  those  prisoners  were,  a great  power  of 
^ ^ S.J.,  pp.  12-13. 


1649]  DISPUTE  AT  COVENTRY  47 

darkness  struck  at  me,  and  I sat  still,  having  my  spirit 
gathered  into  the  love  of  God.  At  last  these  prisoners 
began  to  rant  and  vapour  and  blaspheme,  at  which  my 
soul  was  greatly  grieved.  They  said  they  were  God, 
but  another  of  them  said,  ‘ We  could  not  bear  such  things.  ’ 
So  when  they  were  calm,  I stood  up  and  asked  them  whether 
they  did  such  things  by  motion,  or  from  Scripture;  and 
they  said,  ‘ From  Scripture.’  Then,  a Bible  lying  by, 
I asked  them  for  that  Scripture;  and  they  showed  me  that 
place  where  the  sheet  was  let  down  to  Peter,  and  it  was 
said  to  him,  what  was  sanctified  he  should  not  call  common 
or  unclean.  Now  when  I had  showed  them  that  that  Scripture 
made  nothing  for  their  purpose,  they  brought  another 
Scripture  which  spoke  of  God’s  reconciling  all  things  to 
himself,  things  in  heaven  and  things  in  earth.  I told 
them  I owned  that  Scripture  also,  but  showed  them  that 
that  was  nothing  to  their  purpose  neither.  Then  seeing 
they  said  they  were  God,  I asked  them,  if  they  knew  whether 
it  would  rain  tomorrow.  They  said  they  could  not  tell. 
I told  them  God  could  tell.  Again,  I asked  them  if  they 
thought  they  should  be  always  in  that  condition,  or  should 
change,  and  they  answered  they  could  not  tell.  Then  said 
I unto  them,  ‘ God  can  tell,  and  God  doth  not  change. 
You  say  you  are  God,  and  yet  you  cannot  tell  whether 
you  shall  change  or  no.’  So  they  were  confounded, 
and  quite  brought  down  for  the  time.  Then  after  I had 
reproved  them  for  their  blasphemous  expressions,  I went 
away,  for  I perceived  they  were  Ranters,  and  I had  met 
with  none  before.  And  I admired  the  goodness  of  the 
Lord  in  appearing  so  unto  me  before  I went  amongst 
them.  Not  long  after  this,  one  of  these  Ranters,  whose 
name  was  Joseph  Salmon,  put  forth  a paper  or  book  of 
recantation,^  upon  which  they  were  set  at  liberty. 

From  Coventry  I went  to  a place  called  Atherstone,  and) 
‘when  I was  two  miles  off  it  the  bell  rang  upon  a market 
day  for  a lecture,  and  it  struck  at  my  life,  and  I was  moved 
to  go  to  the  steeplehouse.  And  when  I came  into  it  I 

^ Heights  in  Depths  and  Depths  in  Heights,  1651. 


48  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1649 

found  a man  speaking,  and  as  I stood  among  the  people 
the  glory  and  life  shined  over  all,  and  with  it  I was  crowned. 
And  when  the  priest  had  done  I spoke  to  him  and  the  people 
the  truth  and  the  light  which  let  them  see  all  that  ever 
they  had  done,  and  of  their  teacher  within  them,  and  how  the 
Lord  was  come  to  teach  them  himself,  and  of  the  Seed 
Christ  in  them ; how  they  were  to  mind  that,  and  the  promise 
that  was  to  the  Seed  of  God  within  them,  which  is  Christ. 
And  they  were  generally  pretty  quiet,  only  some  few  raged, 
and  it  set  them  in  a hurry  and  under  a rage.  Some  said 
I was  mad,  and  spoke  to  my  outward  relations  to  tie  me  up. 
And  I passed  away  in  peace  in  the  power  of  the  Lord  God, 
and  the  Truth  came  over  all  and  reached  in  the  hearts  of 
many  people. 

Then  I was  moved  to  go  to  Market  Bosworth  in  Leicester- 
shire on  a lecture  day,  being  the  market  day.  <He  that 
preached  that  day  was  Nathaniel  Stephens,  who  was  priest 
of  the  town  where  I was  born.  He  raged  much)  when  I 
spoke  to  him  and  the  people  in  the  steeplehouse  and  yard 
of  the  truth  and  light  within  them  to  guide  them  to  Christ 
from  sin.^  <And  he  told  the  people  I was  mad  (though 
he  had  said  before  to  one  Colonel  Purefoy^  that  there  never 
was  such  a plant  bred  in  England),  and  he  bid  the  people 
they  should  not  hear  me.)  ^And  the  clerk  bid  us  go  out 
of  the  steeplehouse,  for  he  was  to  lock  the  door.  When 
we  were  in  the  market  place  Friends  asked  where  was  the 
place  to  try  the  ministers  but  in  the  steeplehouse,  and  bid 
them  to  come  forth  and  prove  their  call  and  ministry. 
But  the  people  of  the  town  and  market  fell  upon  us  and 
stoned  us  very  sore  and  abused  us,  hundreds  of  them  with 
stones,  a great  way  out  of  the  town,  that  it  was  a wonder 
that  we  escaped  with  our  lives;  and  so  we  passed  away 
in  the  Truth  of  God,  to  the  shame  of  both  priests  and 
professors,  for  there  were  many  there;  and  Friends  had  but 
little  harm.j  <Howbeit  some  people  were  made  loving 
that  day,  and  others  were  confirmed,  seeing  the  rage  of  both 

^ George  Purefoy,  squire  of  Drayton. 

i i Cf.  5./.,  p.  13.  i.. 


i Cf.  S.J.,  p.  13. 


1649]  ‘ A NAKED  SWORD  ’ 49 

priests  and  professors;  and  some  cried  out  that  the  priest 
durst  not  stand  to  prove  his  ministry. 

And  as  I travelled  through  markets,  fairs,  and  divers 
places,  I saw  death  and  darkness  in  all  people,  where  the 
power  of  the  Lord  God  had  not  shaken  them.  And  as 
I was  passing  on  in  Leicestershire  I came  to  Twycross, 
v/here  there  were  excise-men,  and  I was  moved  of  the  Lord 
to  go  to  them  and  warn  them  to  take  heed  of  oppressing 
the  poor,  and  people  were  much  affected  with  it.  Now 
there  was  in  that  town  a great  man,  that  had  long  lain 
sick  and  was  given  over  by  the  physicians;  and  some  Friends 
in  the  tov/n  desired  me  to  go  to  see  him.  And  I went 
up  to  him  and  was  moved  to  pray  by  him);  ^spoke  to 
him  in  his  bed,  and  the  power  of  the  Lord  entered  him 
that  he  was  loving  and  tender.^ 

^And  I left  him  and  came  down  among  the  family  in 
the  house,  and  spake  a few  words  to  the  people  that  they 
should  fear  the  Lord  and  repent  and  prize  their  time 
and  the  like  words,  and  there  came  one  of  his  servants 
with  a naked  sword  and  run  at  me  ere  I was  aware  of  him, 
and  set  it  to  my  side,  and  there  held  it,  and  I looked  up 
at  him  in  his  face  and  said  to  him,  ‘ Alack  for  thee,  it’s 
no  more  to  me  than  a straw.’  And  then  he  went  away 
in  a rage,  with  threatening  words,  and  I passed  away, 
and  the  power  of  the  Lord  came  over  all,  and  his  master 
mended,  according  to  my  belief  and  faith  that  I had  seen 
before.  And  he  then  turned  this  man  away  that  run  at 
me  with  the  sword,^  <and  afterwards  he  was  very  loving 
to  Friends;  and  when  I came  to  that  town  again  both  he 
and  his  wife  came  to  see  me. 

After  this  I was  moved  to  go  into  Derbyshire,  where  the 
mighty  pov/er  of  God  was  among  Friends.  And  I went 
to  Chesterfield  where  one  Thomas  Bretland  was  priest. 
He  was  one  that  saw  beyond  the  common  sort  of  priests, 
for  he  had  been  partly  convinced,)  who  was  above  the 
priests  and  had  spoken  much  in  behalf  of  Truth  before 
he  was  priest  there.  The  priest  of  the  town  being  dead, 

^ S.J.,  p.  15. 


50  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1650 

he  had  got  the  parsonage  and  choked  himself  with  it. 
And  was  moved  of  the  Lord  by  his  power  to  go  to  the 
steeplehouse^  <and  to  speak  to  him  and  the  people  in  the 
great  love  of  God  that  they  might  com.e  off  from  all  men’s 
teaching  unto  God’s  teaching,  and  he  was  not  able  to> 
oppose.  ^And  when  I had  spoken  what  was  upon  me  to 
speak,  they  put  me  forth  of  the  steeplehouse^  and  had  me 
before  the  Mayor^  <and  threatened  to  send  me  with  some 
others  to  the  House  of  Correction).  ^And  the  Mayor 
had  some  speech  with  me  about  coming  to  the  steeplehouse 
and  I said  to  him,  ‘ Whether  it  is  better  to  obey  God  or 
man,  judge  ye.  The  apostles  suffered  for  declaring 
against  the  temple  and  did  bring  people  to  Christ  from 
the  traditions.’  So  he  caused  the  watchman  to  put  us 
out  of  the  town  about  the  eleventh  hour  of  the  night.^ 
The  judgements  of  the  Lord  came  on  that  priest  soon 
after  and  he  was  cut  off  and  died,  but  there  were 
several  convinced  of  the  Lord’s  Truth,  and  the  Lord’s 
power  began  to  spread  mightily  up  and  down  in  those 
parts. 

And  then  that  priest  Stephens,  of  Drayton,  my  native 
place,  he  preached  and  told  my  relations  that  I was  carried 
up  with  a whirlwind  into  heaven,  and  after  was  found 
full  of  gold  and  silver;  and  so  my  relations  wrote  a letter 
to  me  to  come  and  show  myself,  and  so  I answered  the 
letter,  and  they  showed  it  to  the  priest,  and  the  priest 
said,  anyone  might  write  a letter,  but  where  was  the  man. 
So  my  relations  did  conclude  it  was  so,  for,  said  they, 
when  he  went  from  us  he  had  a great  deal  of  gold  and  silver 
about  him,  nevertheless  they  sent  to  me  again.  And 
after,  1 went  homewards,  and  one  or  two  went  along  with 
me;  "^‘and  one  said  he  had  been  a professor  forty  years,  and 
he  had  not  tasted  of  the  love  of  God  so  much,  for  his  heart 
was  opened  with  it  and  we  came  to  a town  where  we  met 
many  professors;  and  many  were  convinced  at  Kidsley 
Park. 

^ The  Mayor  of  Chesterfield  was  Ralph  Clark. 

1 1 S.J.,  pp.  3-4.  “ 5./.,  p.  4. 


1650]  ARRESTED  AT  DERBY  51 

Then  we  passed  "through  Friends"  to  Derby  and  lay 
at  a doctor’s  house.  His  wife  was  convinced  and  several 
in  the  town;  and  as  I was  walking  in  my  chamber,  the 
[steeplehouse]  bell  rung,  and  it  struck  at  my  life,  at  the 
very  hearing  of  it;  and  I asked  the  woman  of  the  house 
what  the  bell  rung  for,  and  she  said  there  was  to  be  a great 
lecture  that  day  and  abundance  of  the  officers  of  the  army, 
and  priests,  and  preachers  were  to  be  there,  and  a colonel 
that  was  a preacher.^  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  go  up 
to  them,  and  when  they  had  done,  I spake  to  them  what  the 
Lord  commanded  me,  "of  the  Truth,  and  the  day  of  the 
Lord,  and  the  light  within  them,  and  the  spirit  to  teach 
and  lead  them  to  God ;"  and  they  were  pretty  quiet.  There 
came  an  officer  to  me  and  took  me  by  the  hand  and  said 
I must  go  before  the  magistrates,  and  the  other  two  that 
were  with  me,  and  so  when  we  came  before  them  about  the 
first  hour  (afternoon,  they  asked  me  why  we  came  thither. 
I said  Gpd  m^oved  us  to  do  so,  and  I told  them,  ‘ God  dwells 
not  in  temples  made  with  hands.’)  I told  them  also  all 
their  preaching,  baptism,  and  sacrifices  would  never 
sanctify  them,  and  I had  many  words  with  them.  And  I 
told  them  they  were  not  to  dispute  of  God  and  Christ,  but 
to  obey  him.  The  power  of  God  was  thundered  among 
them  and  they  flew  like  chaff,  and  they  put  me  in  and  out 
of  the  room  from  the  first  hour  to  the  ninth  hour  at  night 
in  examinations,  having  me  backward  and  forward,  and, 
said  <in  a deriding  manner  > that  I was  taken  up  in  raptures, 
as  they  called  it. 

At  last  they  asked  me  whether  I was  sanctified. 

I said,  ‘ Sanctified  ? yes  ’,  for  I was  in  the  Paradise  of 
God. 

They  said,  had  I no  sin  ? 

‘ Sin  ? ’ said  I,  ‘ Christ  my  Saviour  hath  taken  away 
my  sin,  and  in  him  there  is  no  sin.’ 

(They  asked  how  we  knew  that  Christ  did  abide  in  us. 

I said,  ‘ By  his  Spirit  that  he  has  given  us.’ 

^ Nathaniel  Barton. 

" SJ.,  p.  4. 


52  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1650 

They  temptingly  asked  if  any  of  us  were  Christ. 

I answered,  ‘ Nay,  we  are  nothing,  Christ  is  all.’ 

They  said,  ‘ If  a man  steal  is  it  no  sin  ? ’ 

I answered,  ‘ All  unrighteousness  is  sin.’> 

And  many  such  like  words  they  had  with  me.  And  so 
they  committed  me  as  a blasphemer  and  as  a man  that  had 
no  sin,  and  committed  another  man  with  me  <to  the  House 
of  Correction  in  Derby  for  six  months) ; as  by  the  mittimus 
may  be  seen: 

<To  the  Master  of  the  House  of  Correction  in  Derby,  greeting. 

We  have  sent  you  herewithal  the  bodies  of  George  Fox,  late 
of  Mansfield,  in  the  county  of  Nottingham,  and  John  Fretwell, 
late  of  Stainsby,  in  the  county  of  Derby,  husbandman,  brought 
before  us  this  present  day,  and  charged  with  the  avowed  uttering 
and  broaching  of  divers  blasphemous  opinions  contrary  to  a 
late  Act  of  Parliament,  which,  upon  their  examination  before  us, 
they  have  confessed.  These  are  therefore  to  require  you, 
forthwith  upon  sight  hereof,  to  receive  them,  the  said  George 
Fox  and  John  Fretwell,  into  your  custody,  and  them  therein 
safely  to  keep  during  the  space  of  six  months,  without  bail  or 
mainprize,  or  until  they  shall  find  sufficient  security  to  be  of  the 
good  behaviour,  or  be  thence  delivered  by  order  from  ourselves. 
Hereof  you  are  not  to  fail. 

Given  under  our  hands  and  seals  this  30th  day  of  October 
1650. 

Ger.  Bennet.^ 

Nath.  Barton.) 


And  then  many  people  came  from  far  and  near  to  see 
a man  that  had  no  sin;  and  then  did  the  priests  roar  up 
for  sin,  in  their  pulpits,  and  preach  up  sin,  that  people 
said  never  was  the  like  heard.  It  was  all  their  works 
to  plead  for  it. 

So  after  some  time  that  man  that  was  imprisoned  v/ith 
me  did  not  stand,  but  got  in  with  the  keeper  and  made 
way  to  the  justice  to  go  see  his  mother,  and  so  got  his  liberty; 
and  then  they  reported  that  he  should  say  that  I had 

^ Gervase  Bennct  (d.  1670)  of  Sneiston. 


1650]  ‘ MY  SPIRIT  WAS  DOUBLED  ’ 53 

bewitched  him  and  deceived  him.  And  then  my  spirit 
was  doubled  upon  me^  when  that  man  was  gone.  And 
some  Friends  would  have  removed  me  to  the  Parliament, 
it  being  then  in  the  days  of  the  Commonwealth.  Then 
the  priests  and  justices  and  professors  and  keeper  were  all 
in  great  rage  against  me.  The  keeper  watched  my  words 
and  asked  me  questions  to  ensnare  me,  sometimes  would 
ask  me  such  silly  questions  as  whether  the  door  was  latched 
or  not — things  to  get  something  to  make  sin  of  it.  But 
I was  kept  watchful  and  chaste,  and  they  admired  at  it. 
And  several  times  I had  motions  from  the  Lord  to  go  into 
the  town,  in  time  of  fairs  and  markets,  to  speak  to  the 
people  (though  I v/as  in  prison),  and  I would  tell  the  keeper 
and  ask  him  to  let  me  go,  and  he  would  not;  and  then  I 
said  to  him,  ‘ Then  let  it  be  upon  thee,  the  iniquity  of  the 
people  be  upon  thee  ’ ; and  the  Lord  said  to  me  that  I 
was  not  to  be  removed  from  that  place  yet,  but  was  set 
as  a king  for  the  body’s^  sake,  and  for  the  true  hope  that 
doth  purify  and  the  true  faith  that  gives  the  victory  and 
the  true  belief  that  overcomes  the  world. 

<Not  long  after  my  commitment,  I was  moved  to  write 
both  to  priests  and  magistrates  of  Derby.^  And  first 
I directed  these  follov/ing  lines  to  the  priests: 

O Friends,  I was  sent  unto  you  to  tell  you  that,  if  you  had 
received  the  gospel  freely,  you  would  minister  it  freely  without 
money  or  price;  but  you  make  it  a trade  and  sale  of  what  the 
prophets  and  apostles  have  spoken;  and  so  you  corrupt  the 
Truth.  And  you  are  the  men  that  lead  silly  women  captive, 
who  are  ever  learning  and  never  able  to  come  to  the  knowledge 
of  the  Truth;  you  have  a form  of  godliness,  but  you  deny  the 
power  ...  You  show  forth  the  vain  nature;  you  stand  in  the 
steps  of  them  that  crucified  my  Saviour  and  mocked  him; 
you  are  their  children,  you  show  forth  their  fruit.  They  had 
the  chief  place  in  the  assemblies  and  so  have  you;  they  loved 
to  be  called  Rabbi,  and  so  do  you.  G.F, 

^ Cf.  II  Kings,  ii.  9. 

^ i.e.  the  body  of  believers. 

3 In  full  in  Ellwood,  p.  33;  and  Bicent.,  i,  52. 


54  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1650 

1 wrote  to  the  magistrates  who  committed  me  to  this 
efTect : 

Friends,  I am  forced,  in  tender  love  unto  your  souls,  to 
write  unto  you,  and  to  beseech  you  to  consider  what  you  do, 
and  what  commands  of  God  call  for.  He  doth  require  justice 
and  mercy,  to  break  every  yoke  and  to  let  the  oppressed  go  free. 
But  who  calleth  for  justice  or  loveth  mercy,  or  contendeth  for  the 
Truth  ? Is  not  judgement  turned  backward,  and  doth  not 
justice  stand  afar  off  ? Is  not  Truth  silenced  in  the  streets,  or 
can  equity  enter  ? And  do  not  they  that  depart  from  evil 
make  themselves  a prey  ? O consider  what  ye  do  in  time, 
and  take  heed  whom  ye  imprison  . . . 

G.F. 

After  I had  thus  far  cleared  my  conscience  to  them, 
I waited  in  the  holy  patience,  leaving  the  event  to  God  in 
whose  will  I stood.  And  after  some  time  I was  moved 
to  write  again^  to  the  justices  that  had  committed  me  to 
prison  to  lay  their  evils  before  them,  that  they  might  repent. 
One  of  them  that  signed  the  mittimus,  to  wit  Nathaniel 
Barton,  was  a colonel,  a justice,  and  a preacher. 

And  as  I had  written  unto  them  jointly,  so,  after  some 
respite  of  time,  I writ  to  each  of  them  by  himself.  To 
Justice  Bennet  thus : 

Friend,  Thou  dost  profess  God  and  Christ  in  words,  see 
how  thou  dost  follow  him.  To  take  off  burdens,  to  visit  them 
that  be  in  prison,  and  show  mercy,  clothe  thy  own  flesh,  and  deal 
thy  bread  to  the  hungry;  these  are  God’s  commandments. 
To  relieve  the  fatherless,  and  to  visit  the  widows  in  their  afflic- 
ations,  and  to  keep  thyself  unspotted  of  the  world;  this  is  pure 
religion  before  God.  . . . His  servant  thou  art;  whom  thou 
dost  obey,  whether  it  is  of  sin  unto  death  or  of  obedience  unto 
righteousness.  Think  upon  Lazarus  and  Dives,  the  one  fared 
sumptuously  every  day,  the  other  was  a beggar.  See  if  thou 
be  not  Dives.  Be  not  deceived,  God  is  not  mocked  with  vain 
words;  ‘evil  communication  corrupteth  good  manners’;  awake 
to  righteousness,  and  sin  not.^  G.F. 

^ Ellwood,  p.  34;  Bicent.,  i,  53. 

2 In  full,  Ellwood,  p.  34;  Bicent.,  i,  54. 


55 


1650]  A LETTER  TO  THE  MAYOR 

That  to  justice  Barton  was  in  these  words: 

Friend,  Thou  that  preachest  Christ  and  the  Scripture  in 
words,  when  any  come  to  follow  that  which  thou  hast  spoken 
of,  and  to  live  the  life  of  the  Scriptures,  then  they  that  speak 
the  Scriptures,  but  do  not  lead  their  lives  according  thereunto, 
persecute  them  that  do.  Mind  the  prophets,  and  Jesus  Christ 
and  his  apostles,  and  all  the  holy  men  of  God.  What  they  spoke 
was  from  the  life;  but  they  that  had  not  the  life,  but  the  words, 
persecuted  and  imprisoned  them  that  lived  the  life,  which  they 
had  backslidden  from.  G.F. 

And  it  was  upon  me  to  write  to  the  mayor  of  Derby^  also ; 
who,  though  he  did  not  sign  the  mittimus,  had  a hand 
with  the  rest  in  sending  me  to  prison,  and  to  him  I writ 
in  this  manner: 

Friend,  Thou  art  set  in  place  to  do  justice ; but,  in  imprisoning 
my  body,  thou  hast  done  contrary  to  justice,  according  to  your 
own  law.  Oh,  take  heed  of  pleasing  men  more  than  God, 
for  that  is  the  way  of  the  scribes  and  pharisees,  they  sought 
the  praise  of  men  more  than  God.  Remember  who . said, 
‘ I was  a stranger,  and  ye  took  me  not  in ; I was  in  prison  and  ye 
visited  me  not.’  O friend,  thy  envy  is  not  against  me,  but 
against  the  power  of  Truth.  I had  no  envy  to  you,  but  love. 
Oh,  take  heed  of  oppression,  ‘ for  the  day  of  the  Lord  is  coming, 
that  shall  burn  as  an  oven;  and  all  the  proud  and  all  that  do 
wickedly  shall  be  as  stubble;  and  the  day  that  cometh  shall 
burn  them  all  up,  saith  the  Lord  of  Hosts;  it  shall  leave  them 
neither  root  nor  branch  ... 

I writ  also  unto  the  court  at  Derby.^ 

To  the  ringers  who  used  to  ring  the  bells  in  the  steeple- 
house  in  Derby  I sent  these  few  lines:) 

To  the  ringers  of  St.  Peters  (so  called)  1650. 

Friends,  Oh,  take  heed  of  pleasures,  and  prize  your  time 
now  while  you  have  it,  and  do  not  spend  it  in  pleasures  nor 
carelessness.  The  time  will  come  that  you  will  say  you  had  time, 

^ Noah  Bullock. 

^ In  full,  Ellwood,  p.  35-6;  Bicent.,  i,  55.  A version,  signed  Eliza- 
beth Hooton,  is  in  Swarthmore  MSS.,  ii,  43. 

3 Ellwood,  p.  36;  Bicent.,  i,  55-6. 


56  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1650 

when  it  is  past.  Oh,  look  at  the  love  of  God  nov/,  while  you 
have  time;  for  it  bringeth  to  loathe  all  vanities  and  worldly 
pleasures.  Oh,  consider;  time  is  precious  ! Fear  God  and 
rejoice  in  him  who  hath  made  heaven  and  earth. ^ 

G.F. 

And  when  professors  came  to  me  to  dispute  and  dis- 
course, I would  feel  them,  before  they  came,  to  plead  for 
sin  and  imperfection.  And  I asked  them  whether  they 
believed.  And  they  said  ‘ Yes 

Then  I asked  them,  ‘ In  whom  ? ’ 

And  they  said,  ‘ In  Christ.’ 

And  I said  to  them,  ‘ If  you  believe,  you  are  passed  from 
death  to  life  and  so  from  the  sin  that  bringeth  death.’ 
They  said  they  believed  no  such  thing  that  any  could  be 
free  from  sin  while  upon  the  earth.  Then  I bid  them  keep 
from  babbling  about  the  Scriptures,  which  were  holy 
men’s  words,  ‘ whilst  you  plead  for  unholiness  ’. 

And  then,  it  may  be,  another  company  of  professors 
would  come,  and  they  also  would  be  pleading  for  sin. 
And  I would  ask  them  whether  they  had  hope. 

And  they  would  say,  ‘ Yes;  God  forbid  else  but  that  we 
should  have  hope.’  And  I asked  them,  ‘ What  hope  is  it, 
does  it  purify  you  as  he  is  pure,  Christ  in  you  the  hope  of 
glory  ? ’ And  they  could  not  endure  to  hear  of  purity, 
or  being  made  pure  here. 

Then  I bid  them  keep  from  talking  of  the  Scriptures, 
‘the  holy  men’s  words,  for  the  holy  men  pleaded  for  holiness 
in  heart  and  life  and  conversation  here;  and  you  plead  for 
impurity  and  sin  which  is  of  the  Devil,  what  have  you  to 
do  with  the  holy  men’s  words  ? ’ 

And  then,  it  may  be,  another  company  would  come, 
that  would  be  talking  of  the  Scriptures  and  pleading  for 
sin. 

And  I would  ask  them,  ‘ Have  you  any  faith  ? ’ And 
they  would  say,  ‘ Yes  ’,  and  that  they  were  Christians. 

And  I said,  ‘ What  faith  is  it  ? Will  it  give  victory 

^ MS.  Epistles  and  Queries  of  George  Fox  (Xx),  p.  265;  Ellwood, 
p.  36;  Bicent.,  i,  56. 


1650]  A PENITENT  GAOLER  57 

over  sin  and  over  the  Devil,  and  purify  your  hearts,  and 
bring  you  to  have  access  to  God  again  and  to  please  God, 
which  faith  is  held  in  a pure  conscience  ? ’ And  they 
could  not  endure  to  talk  of  purity  or  victory  over  sin  and 
the  Devil  here  upon  the  earth.  Then  I bid  them  give 
over  talking  and  babbhng  of  the  Scriptures  that  were  given 
forth  by  holy  men,  as  they  were  moved  by  the  Holy  Ghost. 

The  keeper^  being  a great  professor  was  in  a mighty  rage 
against  me,  yet  it  pleased  the  Lord  to  strike  him.  So 
one  day  as  I was  walking  in  my  chamber  I heard  a doleful 
noise,  and  I made  a stand,  and  he  was  speaking  to  his 
wife  how  that  he  saw  the  day  of  judgement,  and  he  saw 
George  there  and  was  afraid  of  him  because  that  he  had 
done  him  so  much  wrong,  and  spoke  so  much  against  him  to 
professors,  and  justices,  and  the  priests,  and  in  taverns 
and  alehouses.  So,  toward  evening  he  came  trembling 
up  into  my  chamber  and  said  to  me,  ‘ I have  been  as  a 
Hon  against  you,  but  now  I come  like  a lamb,  and  come 
like  the  gaoler  in  the  Acts  that  came  to  Paul  and  Silas, 
trembling.’  And  he  desired  that  he  might  lodge  with  me, 
and  I told  him  I was  in  his  power  and  he  might  do  what 
he  would,  and  he  said,  nay,  he  would  have  my  leave, 
and  he  could  desire  to  be  always  with  me,  but  not  to  have 
me  as  a prisoner,  and  said  that  he  had  been  plagued  and 
his  house  was  plagued,  for  my  sake,  like  Pharaoh’s  and 
Abimelech’s  concerning  Abraham  and  Isaac,  and  so  I 
suffered  him  to  lodge  with  me.  Then  he  told  me  all  his 
heart,  and  believed  what  I said  to  be  true  of  the  true 
faith,  and  hope,  etc.,  and  wondered  that  the  other  man 
did  not  stand  to  his  principle,  that  was  put  into  prison  with 
me,  and  said  he  was  a knave  and  I was  an  honest  man; 
and  the  [other]  ®poor  man  was  in  trouble  a great  while 
before  he  returned  to  the  power  of  God  again."^ 

And  so  the  keeper  confessed  all  to  me,  how  that  when 
I had  the  several  motions  from  the  Lord  to  go  out  and  speak 
to  people  and  he  would  not  let  me  go,  and  when  I laid  it 

^ Thomas  Sharman. 

^ ° SJ„  p.  5. 


58  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1650 

upon  him,  he  was  distracted  and  amazed  for  an  hour 
afterward,  and  was  much  troubled  and  in  such  a condition 
for  a time  that  one  might  have  killed  him  with  a crab,^  as 
he  said.  So  <when  the  morning  came)  he  went  to  the 
justices  and  told  them  he  and  his  house  had  been  plagued 
for  my  sake,  and  the  justices  said  that  the  plagues  were 
on  them  too  for  keeping  me  in  prison.  This  was  Justice 
Bennet  of  Derby  that  first  called  us  Quakers  because  we 
bid  them  tremble  at  the  word  of  God,  and  this  was  in  the 
year  1650.  And  the  justices  gave  leave  that  I should 
have  liberty  to  go  a mile.  And  I perceived  their  end, 
and  I told  the  gaoler  that  if  they  would  set  me  how  far 
a mile  was,  I might  walk  in  it  sometimes,  but  it’s  like  they 
thought  I would  go  away.  I told  them  I was  not  of  that 
spirit;  and  the  gaoler  confessed  it  after,  that  they  did  it 
with  that  intent  to  have  me  gone  away  to  ease  the  plague 
from  them,  and  they  said  I was  an  honest  man. 

And  this  gaoler  had  a sister  that  was  a tender  young 
woman;  and  she  came  up  into  my  chamber  to  visit  me  and 
went  down  and  told  them  what  an  innocent  people  we  were, 
and  did  none  any  hurt  but  did  good  unto  all,  and  to  them 
that  hated  us,  and  desired  them  to  be  tender  towards  us. 
And  a httle  after,  she  died. 

<Now  it  came  upon  me  to  write  a paper,  to  be  spread 
abroad.  And  it  was  as  followeth: 

The  Lord  doth  show  unto  man  his  thoughts,  and  discovereth 
all  the  secret  workings  in  man.  A man  may  be  brought  to  see 
his  evil  thoughts  and  running  mind  and  vain  imaginations, 
and  may  strive  to  keep  them  down,  and  to  keep  his  mind  in, 
but  cannot  overcome  them  nor  keep  his  mind  within  to  the  Lord. 
Now  in  this  state  and  condition,  submit  to  the  spirit  of  the 
Lord,  that  shows  them,  and  that  will  bring  to  wait  upon  the  Lord, 
and  he  that  hath  discovered  them  will  destroy  them.  Therefore 
stand  in  the  faith  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  is  the  author 
of  the  true  faith,  and  mind  him;  for  he  will  discover  the  root  of 
lusts,  and  evil  thoughts,  and  vain  imaginations,  and  how  they 
are  begotten,  conceived,  and  bred,  and  then  how  they  are  brought 


^ i.e.  apple,  cf.  p.  108. 


1650]  ‘ MIND  THE  FAITH  OF  CHRIST  ’ 59 

forth,  and  how  every  evil  member  doth  work.  He  will  discover 
every  principle  from  its  own  nature  and  root. 

So  mind  the  faith  of  Christ,  and  the  anointing  which  is  in  you 
to  be  taught  by  it,  which  will  discover  all  workings  in  you,  and 
as  he  teacheth  you,  so  obey  and  forsake,  else  you  will  not  grov>^ 
up  in  the  faith,  nor  in  the  life  of  Christ,  where  the  love  of  God 
is  received.  Now  love  begetteth  love,  its  own  nature  and  image: 
and  when  mercy  and  truth  do  meet,  what  joy  there  is  ! Mercy 
doth  triumph  in  judgement;  and  love  and  mercy  do  bear  the 
judgement  of  the  world  in  patience.  That  which  cannot  bear 
the  world’s  judgement  is  not  the  love  of  God,  for  love  beareth 
ail  things  and  is  above  the  world’s  judgement,  for  the  world’s 
judgement  is  but  foolishness  . . . The  fleshly  mind  doth  mind 
the  flesh,  and  talketh  fleshly.  Its  knowledge  is  fleshly  and  not 
spiritual,  but  savours  of  death  and  not  of  the  spirit  of  life. 
Now  some  men  have  the  nature  of  swine  wallowing  in  the  mire, 
and  some  men  have  the  nature  of  dogs  to  bite  both  the  sheep  and 
one  another;  and  some  men  have  the  nature  of  lions,  to  tear, 
devour,  and  destroy.  And  some  men  have  the  nature  of  wolves, 
to  tear  and  devour  the  lambs  and  sheep  of  Christ;  and  some  men 
have  the  nature  of  the  Serpent  (that  old  adversary),  to  sting, 
envenom,  and  poison.  ‘ He  that  hath  an  ear  to  hear,  let  him 
hear  ’,  and  learn  these  things  within  himself.  And  some  men 
have  the  natures  of  other  beasts  and  creatures,  minding  nothing 
but  earthly  and  visible  things,  and  feeding  without  the  fear  of  God. 
Some  men  have  the  nature  of  an  horse,  to  praunce  and  vapour 
in  their  strength,  and  to  be  swift  in  doing  evil ; and  some  men  have 
the  nature  of  tall,  sturdy  oaks,  to  flourish  and  spread  in  wisdom 
and  strength,  who  are  strong  in  evil,  which  must  perish  and 
come  to  the  fire.  Thus  the  evil  is  but  one  in  all,  but  worketh 
many  ways;  and  whatsoever  a man’s  or  woman’s  nature  is 
addicted  to  that  is  outward,  the  Evil  One  will  fit  him  with  that, 
and  will  please  his  nature  and  appetite  to  keep  his  mind  in  his 
inventions,  and  in  the  creatures,  from  the  Creator. 

Oh,  therefore  let  not  the  mind  go  forth  from  God  ! for  if 
it  do,  it  will  be  stained,  and  venomed,  and  corrupted  ! And 
if  the  mind  go  forth  from  the  Lord  it  is  hard  to  bring  it  in 
again;  therefore  take  heed  of  the  enemy,  and  keep  in  the  faith 
of  Christ.  Oh,  therefore  mind  that  which  is  eternal  and  invisible, 
and  him  who  is  the  Creator  and  mover  of  all  things  ! for  the 
things  that  are  made  are  not  made  of  things  that  do  appear; 
for  the  visible  covereth  the  invisible  sight  in  you.  But  as  the 


60  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1650 

Lord  who  is  invisible  doth  open  you  by  his  invisible  power 
and  spirit,  and  brings  down  the  carnal  mind  in  you,  so  the 
invisible  and  immortal  things  are  brought  to  light  in  you. 
Oh,  therefore,  you  that  know  the  light  walk  in  the  light  ! for 
there  are  children  of  darkness,  that  will  talk  of  the  light  and  of 
the  truth,  and  not  walk  in  it.  But  the  children  of  the  light  love 
the  light,  and  walk  in  the  light,  but  the  children  of  darkness 
walk  in  darkness,  and  hate  the  light;  and  in  them  the  earthly 
lusts  and  the  carnal  mind  choke  the  Seed  of  faith;  and  that 
bringeth  oppression  on  the  Seed,  and  death  over  them.  Oh, 
therefore,  mind  the  pure  spirit  of  the  everlasting  God  ! which 
will  teach  you  to  use  the  creatures  in  their  right  place,  and  which 
judgeth  the  evil ...  So  to  live  and  walk  in  the  spirit  of  God 
is  joy,  and  peace,  and  life;  but  the  mind  going  forth  into  the 
creatures,  or  into  any  visible  things  from  the  Lord,  this  bringeth 
death. 

Now  when  the  mind  is  got  into  the  flesh  and  into  death, 
then  the  accuser  gets  within,  and  the  law  of  sin  and  death  gets 
into  the  flesh.  And  then  the  life  suffers  under  the  law  of  sin 
and  death;  and  then  there  is  straitness  and  failings.  For  then 
the  good  is  shut  up,  and  then  the  self-righteousness  is  set  a-top. 
And  then  man  doth  work  in  the  outward  law,  and  he  cannot 
justify  himself  by  the  law  but  is  condemned  by  the  Light;  for  he 
cannot  get  out  of  that  state  but  by  abiding  in  the  Light,  and 
resting  in  the  mercy  of  God,  and  believing  in  him,  from  whom 
all  mercy  doth  flow.  For  there  is  peace  in  resting  in  the  Lord 
Jesus  . . . G.F.^ 

1 writ  another  paper^  also,  much  about  the  same  time, 
and  sent  it  forth  amongst  the  convinced  people.  But  many 
that  had  been  convinced  of  the  Truth  turned  aside,  because 
of  the  persecution  that  arose;  whereupon  I writ  a few 
lines^  for  the  comfort  and  encouragement  of  the 
faithful.  > 

And  when  I was  in  the  House  of  Correction  my  relations 
came  to  me  and  were  much  troubled  that  I should  be  in 
prison,  for  they  looked  upon  it  to  be  a great  shame  to  them 

^ In  full,  Ellwood  (ed.,  1694),  p.  38;  Bicent.,  i,  58-61. 

2 Printed,  Ellwood,  pp.  40-1;  Bicent.,  i,  61. 

3 Printed,  Ellwood,  pp.  40-1 ; Bicent.,  i,  61-2. 


1650]  ‘ MY  RELATIONS  CAME  ’ 61 

for  me  to  be  in  gaol.^  It  was  a strange  thing  to  be  im- 
prisoned then  for  religion.  They  went  to  the  justice  that 
cast  me  into  prison,  and  would  have  been  bound  in  one 
hundred  pounds ; and  others  in  Derby,  fifty  pounds  apiece, 
that  I might  have  gone  home  with  them  and  that  I should 
come  no  more  amongst  them  to  declare  against  the  priests. 
They  had  me  up  before  the  justice  with  them;  and  because 
I would  not  have  them  to  be  bound,  for  I was  innocent 
from  any  ill  behaviour  and  had  spoken  the  word  of  life 
and  Truth  unto  them.  Justice  Bennet  got  up  into  a rage; 
and  as  I was  kneeling  down  to  pray  to  the  Lord  to  forgive 
him,  he  ran  upon  me  with  both  his  hands  and  struck  me, 
and  cried,  ‘ Away  with  him  gaoler.  Take  him  away 
gaoler.’  And  some  thought  I was  mad  because  I stood 
for  purity,  perfection,  and  righteousness. 

<After  I had  been  before  the  justices,  and  they  had 
required  sureties  for  my  good  behaviour  (which  I could  not 
consent  should  be  given,  to  blemish  my  innocency),  it 
came  upon  me  to  write  to  the  justices  again.^  Some  little 
time  after,  I wrote  to  them  again,  thus : 

Friends, 

Would  ye  have  me  bound  to  my  good  behaviour  from  drunken- 
ness, or  swearing,  or  adultery,  and  the  like  ? The  Lord  hath 
redeemed  me  from  ail  these  things;  and  the  love  of  God  hath 
brought  me  to  loathe  all  wantonness,  blessed  be  his  name  ! 
They  who  are  drunkards  and  fighters  and  swearers  have  their 
liberty  without  bonds;  and  you  lay  your  law  upon  me,  whom 
neither  you,  nor  any  other  can  justly  accuse  of  these  things; 
praised  be  the  Lord  ! I can  look  at  no  man  for  my  liberty, 
but  to  the  Lord  alone,  who  hath  all  men’s  hearts  in  his  hand. 

And  after  some  time,  not  finding  my  spirit  clear  of  them, 
I writ  to  them  again,  as  folio weth: 

^ In  the  MS.  {Camb.  JnL,  i,  10,  13)  there  are  two  references  to  a visit 
from  relations,  which  probably  relate  to  the  same  visit.  They  are 
here  combined.  The  first  reference,  which  is  short  and  without 
detail  is,  in  Ellwood  ed.,  made  into  a second  visit,  introduced  by  these 
words.  After  it  was  bruited  abroad  that  I was  in  Derby  dungeon,  my 
relations  came  to  see  me  again  . . . Ellwood,  41,  46,  Bicent.,  i,  62,  69. 

2 Printed,  Ellwood,  p.  41;  Bicent.,  i,  62-3. 


JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX 


[1650 


62 

Friends, 

Had  you  known  who  sent  me  to  you,  ye  would  have  received 
me;  for  the  Lord  sent  me  to  warn  you  of  the  woes  that  are  coming 
upon  you;  and  to  bid  you  look  at  the  Lord  and  not  at  man. 
But  when  I told  you  my  experience,  what  the  Lord  had  done 
for  me,  then  your  hearts  were  hardened,  and  you  sent  me  to 
prison,  where  you  have  kept  me  many  weeks.  If  the  love  of 
God  had  broke  your  hearts,  then  would  ye  see  what  ye  have 
done;  ye  would  not  have  imprisoned  me  had  not  my  Father 
suffered  you;  and  by  his  power  I shall  be  loosed,  for  he  openeth 
and  shutteth;  to  him  be  all  glory  ! In  what  have  I misbehaved 
myself,  that  any  should  be  bound  for  me  ? All  men’s  words 
will  do  me  no  good,  not  their  bonds  neither,  to  keep  my  heart 
if  I have  not  a guide  within,  to  keep  me  in  the  upright  life  of 
God  . . 

1 was  moved  also  to  write  again  to  the  priests  of  Derby.^ 

Thus  having  cleared  my  conscience  to  the  priests,  it 

was  not  long  before  a concern  came  upon  me  again  to 
write  to  the  Justices.^ 

Besides  this,  I writ  to  Colonel  Barton  who  was  both  a 
justice  and  a preacher.^) 

And  many  times  when  they  were  setting  me  at  liberty, 
was  I moved  of  the  Lord  God  to  write  to  them,  and  then 
their  rages  would  be  up  and  they  would  keep  me  in  prison 
again. 

One  time  whilst  I was  in  gaol  there  was  a conjurer 
brought  to  prison  and  he  threatened  how  he  would  talk 
with  me  and  what  he  would  do  to  me — a wicked  ungodly 
man,  but  he  had  never  power  to  open  his  mouth  unto  me. 
And  one  time  the  gaoler  and  he  fell  out  and  he  threatened 
the  gaoler  to  raise  the  Devil  to  break  his  house  down  and 
made  the  gaoler  afraid;  and  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to 
go  in  his  power  and  thresh  him  in  it,  and  to  say,  ‘ Come, 
let’s  see  what  thou  canst  do  ’;  and  bid  him  do  his  worst; 
and  told  him  the  Devil  was  raised  high  enough  in  him 

^ In  full,  Ellwood,  p.  42;  Bicent.,  i,  63. 

2 Ellwood  ed.,  p.  43;  Bicent.,  i,  64. 

3 Ellwood,  p.  43;  Bicent.,  i,  64. 

4 Ellwood,  p.  44;  Bicent.,  i,  65. 


ONE  RICE  JONES 


1651] 


63 


already;  but  the  power  of  the  Lord  chained  him,  and  he 
slunk  away  and  went  from  me. 

And  when  I had  liberty  I went  into  the  market  and  streets 
and  warned  people  to  repentance,  and  so  returned  to  prison 
again.  I was  allowed  a mile  to  walk  out  by  myself. 

And  there  came  one  Rice  Jones  a soldier,  of  Nottingham, 
that  had  been  a Baptist,  and  several  others  with  him,  who 
were  going  to  Worcester  fight.  Says  he  to  me,  ‘ Thy 
faith  stands  in  a man  that  died  at  Jerusalem  and  there 
was  never  any  such  thing.’  I said  unto  him,  ‘ How  ! Did 
not  Christ  suffer  without  the  gates  at  Jerusalem  through 
the  professing  Jews,  and  chief  priests,  and  Pilate  ? ’ and 
he  denied  it  that  ever  Christ  suffered  there  outwardly. 
Then  I asked  him  whether  there  were  not  chief  priests  and 
Jews,  and  Pilate  there  outwardly.  Then  he  said  I was  a 
chief  priest;  and  I told  him  if  he  did  confess  there  was  a 
chief  priest  and  Jews  there  outwardly,  then  he  must  needs 
confess  that  Christ  was  persecuted  and  suffered  there  out- 
wardly under  them.  As  to  the  priests  outwardly  being 
there  he  would  not  deny,  and  said  he  would  say  little  to 
that.  And  yet  from  this  man  and  his  company  was  the 
slander  raised  upon  us  that  the  Quakers  should  deny 
Christ  that  died  and  suffered  at  Jerusalem,  which  was  all 
utterly  false,  and  never  the  least  thought  of  it  in  our  hearts. 
And  also  he  said  that  never  any  of  the  prophets,  nor  apostles, 
nor  holy  men  of  God  suffered  anything  outwardly,  but  all 
their  sufferings  were  inwardly.  And  I instanced  to  him 
many  of  the  prophets  and  apostles,  how  they  suffered  and  by 
whom  they  suffered.  So  I brought  the  power  of  the  Lord 
over  his  imaginations  and  whimsies ; and  he  went  his  ways. 

And  there  came  another  company  that  pretended  they 
were  triers  of  spirits;  and  I asked  them  a question,  what 
was  the  first  step  to  peace,  and  what  was  it  by  which  a man 
might  see  his  salvation ; and  they  were  up  in  the  air  and  said 
I was  mad.  So  such  came  to  try  spirits  as  did  not  know 
themselves  nor  their  own  spirits.  And  daily  trials  and 
disputes  had  I with  professors  of  all  sorts. 

And  there  were  several  sorts  of  religions  in  prison;  and 


64  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

on  the  First-days  when  I got  out  I would  go  and  visit  them 
in  their  meetings  in  the  prison. 

And  when  I was  in  the  House  of  Correction,  there  came 
a trooper  to  me  and  said,  as  he  was  sitting  in  the  steeplehouse 
hearing  the  priest  he  was  in  an  exceeding  great  trouble, 
and  the  voice  of  the  Lord  came  to  him  saying,  ‘ What,  dost 
not  thou  know  that  my  servant  is  in  prison  ? Go  to  him 
for  directions.’  And  he  came,  and  I spake  to  his  condition 
and  opened  his  understanding,  and  settled  his  mind  in  the 
light  and  spirit  of  God  in  himself;  and  I told  him,  that 
which  showed  him  his  sin  and  troubled  him,  for  it  would 
show  him  his  salvation;  for  he  that  shows  a man  his  sins 
is  he  that  takes  it  away.  So  the  Lord’s  power  opened  to 
him,  so  that  he  began  to  have  great  understanding  of  the 
Lord’s  Truth  and  mercies,  and  began  to  speak  boldly 
in  his  quarters  amongst  the  soldiers  and  others  concerning 
Truth.  The  Scriptures  were  very  much  opened  to  him 
so  that  he  said  that  his  two  Colonels,  Nathaniel  Barton 
and  Thomas  Saunders,  were  as  blind  as  Nebuchadnezzar 
to  cast  me,  the  servant  of  the  Lord,  into  prison.  For 
this  they  began  also  to  have  a spite  and  malice  against 
him,  that  when  he  came  to  Worcester  fight,  and  the  two 
armies  lay  one  nigh  the  other,  and  two  came  out  of  the 
King’s  army  and  challenged  two  out  of  the  Parliament 
army  to  fight  with  them,  his  two  Colonels  made  choice 
of  him  and  another  to  go  and  fight  with  them.  And  they 
went  forth  to  them,  and  his  companion  was  killed;  and  j 
after,  he  drove  the  two  within  musket  shot  of  the  town  and 
never  fired  his  own  pistol  at  them.  This  he  told  me  out  , 
of  his  own  mouth;  but  when  the  fight  was  over  he  saw  the 
deceit  and  hypocrisy  of  the  officers  and  he  laid  down  his  | 
arms  and  saw  to  the  end  of  fighting,  and  how  the  Lord  had  ; 
miraculously  preserved  him.  I 

My  time  being  nearly  out  of  being  committed  six  months  to  | 
the  House  of  Correction,  they  filled  the  House  of  Correction  | 
with  persons  that  they  had  taken  up  to  be  soldiers:^  ! 

^ During  April,  1651,  the  Commonwealth  forces  were  actively  i 
strengthened,  following  the  discovery  of  a Royalist  plot.  : 


1651]  REFUSES  A CAPTAINCY  65 

and  then  they  v/ould  have  had  me  to  be  a captain 
of  them  and  the  soldiers  cried  they  would  have  none  but 
me.  So  the  keeper  of  the  House  of  Correction  was  com- 
manded to  bring  me  up  before  the  Commissioners  and 
soldiers  in  the  market  place;  and  there  they  proffered  me 
that  preferment  because  of  my  virtue/  as  they  said,  with 
many  other  comphments,  and  asked  me  if  I would  not  take 
up  arms  for  the  Commonwealth  against  the  King.  But 
I told  them  I lived  in  the  virtue  of  that  life  and  power  that 
took  away  the  occasion  of  all  wars,  and  I knew  from 
whence  all  wars  did  rise,  from  the  lust  according  to  James’s 
doctrine.^  Still  they  courted  me  to  accept  of  their  offer 
and  thought  that  I did  but  compliment  with  them.  But 
I told  them  I was  come  into  the  covenant  of  peace  which 
was  before  wars  and  strifes  were.  And  they  said  they 
offered  it  in  love  and  kindness  to  me  because  of  my  virtue, 
and  such  like  <flattering  words  they  used),  and  I told  them 
if  that  were  their  love  and  kindness  I trampled  it  under  my 
feet.  <Then  their  rage  got  up  and)  they  said,  ‘ Take  him 
away  gaoler,  and  cast  him  into  the  dungeon  amongst 
the  rogues  and  felons  which  they  then  did  and  put  me 
into  the  dungeon  amongst  thirty  felons  in  a lousy,  stinking 
Plow  place  in  the  groundP  without  any  bed.  Here  they 
kept  me  <a  close  prisoner)  almost  a half  year,  unless  it 
were  at  times;  and  sometimes  they  would  let  me  walk  in 
the  garden,  for  they  had  a belief  of  me  that  I would  not  go 
away. 

And  in  this  time  I was  exceeding  much  oppressed  with 
judges  and  magistrates  and  courts,  and  was  moved  to  write 
to  the  judges  concerning  their  putting  men  to  death  for 
cattle  and  for  money  and  small  things,  several  times,  how 
contrary  to  the  law  of  God  it  was.  One  time,  I was  under 
great  sufferings  <in  my  spirit)  through  it,  <and  under  the 
very  sense  of  death;)  but  when  I came  out  of  it,  <standing 
in  the  v/ill  of  God  a heavenly  breathing  arose  in  my  soul  to 

^ Meaning  valour. 

^ James,  iv.  1. 

P P S.J.,  p.  5. 


66  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

the  Lord.  Then  did  I see)  the  heavens  opened  and  the 
glory  of  God  shined  over  all.  Two  men  suffered  for  small 
things,  and  1 was  moved  to  admonish  them  for  their  theft 
and  encourage  them  concerning  their  suffering,  it  being 
contrary  to  the  law  of  God;  and  a little  after  they  had 
suffered  their  spirits  appeared  to  me  as  I was  walking, 
and  I saw  the  men  were  well. 

<So  I wrote  to  the  judges  as  followeth:) 

I am  moved  to  write  unto  you  to  take  heed  of  putting  men 
to  death  for  stealing  cattle  or  money,  etc. : for  the  thieves  in  the 
old  time  were  to  make  restitution ; and  if  they  had  not  wherewith, 
they  were  to  be  sold  for  their  theft.  Mind  the  laws  of  God 
in  the  Scriptures  and  the  Spirit  that  gave  them  forth  and  let 
them  be  your  rule  in  executing  judgement;  and  show  mercy, 
that  you  receive  mercy  from  God,  the  judge  of  all.  And  take 
heed  of  gifts  and  rewards,  and  of  pride,  for  God  doth  forbid 
them,  and  they  do  blind  the  eyes  of  the  wise.  I do  not  write 
to  give  liberty  to  sin,  God  hath  forbidden  it;  but  that  you  should 
judge  according  to  his  laws,  and  shov/  mercy,  for  he  delighteth 
in  true  judgement  and  in  mercy.  I beseech  you  to  mind  these 
things,  and  prize  your  time  now  you  have  it,  and  fear  God  and 
serve  him,  for  he  is  a consuming  fire. 

And  there  was  a young  woman  that  was  to  be  put  to 
death  for  robbing  her  master;  and  judgement  was  given 
and  a grave  made  for  her  and  she  carried  to  execution. 
1 was  made  to  write  to  the  judge  and  to  the  jury  about  her, 
and  when  she  came  there  ^though  they  had  her  upon  the 
ladder  with  a cloth  bound  over  her  face,  ready  to  be  turned 
off,  yet)  they  had  not  power  to  hang  her  (as  by  the  paper 
which  I sent  to  be  read  at  the  gallows  may  be  seen),  but 
she  was  brought  back  again.  And  they  came  with  great  rage 
against  me  into  the  prison.  Afterwards  <in  the  prison) 
this  young  woman  came  to  be  convinced  of  God’s  ever- 
lasting Truth. 

And  I also  writ  to  the  judges  what  a sore  thing  it  was 
that  prisoners  should  lie  so  long  in  gaol,  and  how  that  they 
learned  badness  one  of  another  in  talking  of  their  bad  deeds, 
and  therefore  speedy  justice  should  have  been  done.  For 


1651]  URGED  AGAIN  TO  ENLIST  67 

I was  a tender  youth  and  dwelt  in  the  fear  of  God.  I was 
grieved  to  hear  their  bad  language  and  was  made  often 
to  reprove  them  for  their  words  and  bad  carriage  each 
towards  other. 

And  so  people  did  admire  that  I should  be  so  preserved 
and  kept,  for  they  could  never  catch  a word  nor  action  for 
almost  a whole  year  from  me,  to  make  anything  of;  for  the 
Lord’s  infinite  power  upheld  and  preserved  me  all  the  time. 
But  many  turned  off,  that  had  been  convinced,  because 
of  the  persecution. 

<So  Worcester  fight  came  on,  and  Justice  Bennet  sent 
the  constables  to  press  me  for  a soldier,  seeing  I would 
not  accept  of  a command.^  I told  them  I was  brought 
off  from  outward  wars.  They  came  down  again  to  give 
me  press-money  but  I would  take  none.  Then  I was 
brought  up  to  Sergeant  Hole’s,  kept  there  awhile,  and  then 
taken  down  again.  After  a while  at  night  the  constables 
fetched  me  up  again  and  brought  me  before  the  Commis- 
sioners, and  they  said  I should  go  for  a soldier,  but  I told 
them  that  I was  dead  to  it.  They  said  I was  alive.  I told 
them,  ‘ Where  envy  and  hatred  are  there  is  confusion.’ 
They  offered  me  money  twice,  but  I would  not  take  it. 
Then  they  were  wroth,  and  I v/as  committed  close  prisoner 
without  bail  or  mainprize.  Thereupon  I writ  to  them 
again,  directing  my  letter  to  Colonel  Barton,  who  was  a 
preacher,  and  the  rest  that  were  concerned  in  my  com- 
mitment.^ 

Now  when  they  had  gotten  me  into  Derby  dungeon, 
it  was  the  belief  and  saying  of  people  that  I should  never 
comxC  out:  but  I had  faith  in  God,  and  believed  I should 
be  delivered  in  his  time;  for  the  Lord  had  said  to  me  before, 
that  I was  not  to  be  removed  from  that  place  yet,  being 
set  there  for  a service  v/hich  he  had  for  me  to  do.) 

And  one  time,  him  that  should  have  been  the  lieutenant 

^ Cromwell’s  army  passed  near  Derby  towards  the  end  of  August, 
1651,  gathering  reinforcements  everywhere,  as  it  hurried  south  to 
intercept  the  Royalist  Scottish  army  at  Worcester  on  3rd  September. 

2 Ellwood,  p.  49;  Bicent.,  i,  73. 


68  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

but  refused  it,  they  cast  into  prison  also;  and  the  gaoler’s 
wife  said  she  would  let  him  go  out  to  walk  with  me  in  the 
backside.  As  I walked  a little  before  him  I heard  the 
hedge  crack,  and  I stepped  back  to  him  and  asked  him 
why  he  would  offer  to  do  so,  and  so  brought  him  in.  So 
he  went  forth  no  more  with  me;  but  when  he  walked 
forth  by  himself  he  ran  away,  but  they  fetched  him  again 
soon  after. 

<About  this  time  I was  moved  to  give  forth  the  following 
lines  to  go  amongst  the  convinced  and  tender  people,  to 
manifest  the  deceits  of  the  world,  and  how  the  priests  have 
deceived  the  people: 

To  all  you  that  love  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  with  a pure  and  naked 
heart,  and  the  generation  of  the  righteous: 

Christ  was  ever  hated;  and  the  righteous  for  his  sake.  Mind 
who  they  were  that  did  ever  hate  them;  he  that  was  born  after 
the  flesh  did  persecute  him  that  was  born  after  the  spirit;  and  so 
it  is  now.  And  mind  who  were  the  chiefest  against  Christ; 
even  the  great,  learned  men,  the  heads  of  the  people,  rulers,  and 
teachers,  that  professed  the  law  and  the  prophets,  and  looked 
for  Christ.  They  looked  for  an  outwardly  glorious  Christ  to 
hold  up  their  outward  glory ; but  Christ  spake  against  the  works 
of  the  world,  and  against  the  priests,  and  scribes,  and  Pharisees, 
and  their  hypocritical  profession.  He  that  is  a stranger  to  Christ 
is  an  hireling;  but  the  servants  of  Jesus  Christ  are  freemen  . . . ^ 

Again  a concern  came  upon  me  to  write  to  the  magistrates 
of  Derby;  which  I did  as  followeth:) 

Dear  Friends, 

I desire  you  to  consider  in  time  whom  you  do  imprison; 
for  the  magistrate  is  set  for  the  punishment  of  evil  doers,  but 
the  praise  of  them  that  do  well.  But  when  the  Lord  doth  send 
his  messengers  unto  you  to  warn  you  of  the  woes  that  will  come 
on  you,  except  you  repent,  then  you  persecute  them,  and  put 
them  in  prison,  and  say,  ‘ We  have  a law,  and  by  our  law  we 
may  do  it.’  For  you  indeed  justify  yourselves  before  men. 
But  God  knoweth  your  hearts;  for  he  will  not  be  worshipped 
with  your  forms  and  professions,  and  shows  of  religion.  But 

^ In  full,  Ellwood,  pp.  50-1 ; Bicent.,  i,  73-5. 


1651]  RELEASE  IS  NEAR  69 

consider,  ye  that  talk  of  God,  what  part  of  you  is  brought 
into  him,  for  they  are  his  children  that  do  his  will  ...  I desire 
you  to  consider  how  it  is  written,  that  when  the  church  is  come 
together  into  one  place  they  may  all  prophesy  one  by  one, 
that  ail  may  hear  and  all  may  learn,  and  all  may  be  comforted; 
and  if  anything  be  revealed  to  another  that  sitteth  by,  let  the 
first  hold  his  peace.  But  in  your  assembly  it  is  not  so;  but 
he  that  teaches  for  hire  must  speak,  and  none  must  contradict 
him.  Again,  it  was  to  the  apostles,  that  after  the  reading  of 
the  law  and  the  prophets,  the  rulers  sent  unto  them,  ‘ Men 
and  brethren,  if  ye  have  any  word  of  exhortation  for  the  people 
say  on.’  I desire  you  to  consider  in  silence,  and  strive 
not  against  the  Lord;  for  he  is  stronger  than  you  all. 
Though  you  refuse  to  let  his  people  go  and  hold  them  fast  for  a 
time,  yet,  when  the  Lord  cometh,  he  will  make  known  who  are 
his  . . 

<Great  was  the  exercise  and  travail  in  spirit  that  I went 
under  during  my  imprisonment  here  because  of  the  wicked- 
ness that  was  in  this  town.)  And  a great  judgment  was 
upon  the  town,  and  I saw  the  power  of  God  went  away 
from  them,  as  the  waters  ran  from  the  town  dam  when  the 
flood  gates  were  up,  for  they  were  an  hardened  people; 
and  yet  there  were  some  convinced.  <And  I mourned  over 
them;  and  it  came  upon  me  to  give  forth  the  following 
lines  as  a lamentation  for  them: 

O Derby  ! as  the  v/aters  run  away  when  the  floodgates  are 
up,  so  doth  the  visitation  of  God’s  love  pass  away  from  thee, 
O Derby  ! Therefore  look  where  thou  art,  and  how  thou  art 
grounded;  and  consider,  before  thou  art  utterly  forsaken.  The 
Lord  moved  me  twice  before  I came  to  cry  against  the  deceits 
and  vanities  that  are  in  thee,  and  to  warn  all  to  look  at  the  Lord, 
and  not  at  man  ...  it  doth  break  my  heart  to  see  how  God  is 
dishonoured  in  thee,  O Derby 

Now  after  that  I had  seen  the  visitation  of  God’s  love 
pass  away  from  this  place,  I knew  that  my  imprisonment 
here  would  not  continue  long;  but  I saw  that  when  the 
Lord  should  bring  me  forth,  it  would  be  as  the  letting  of  a 

^ In  full,  Swarthmore  MSS.,  vii,  94;  Ellwood,  p.  51 ; Bicent.,  i,  75-6. 

^ In  full,  Ellwood,  p.  52;  Bicent.,  i,  76. 


70  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

lion  out  of  a den  amongst  the  wild  beasts  of  the  forest. 
For  all  professions  stood  in  a beastly  spirit  and  nature, 
pleading  for  sin,  and  for  the  body  and  of  sin  and  imper- 
fection as  long  as  they  lived.  And  they  all  kicked  and 
yelled,  and  roared,  and  raged,  and  ran  against  the  life  and 
spirit  v/hich  gave  forth  the  Scriptures,  which  they  professed 
in  words.  And  so  it  was. 

They  could  not  agree  what  to  do  with  me  > ; and  sometime 
they  would  have  me  up  before  the  Parliament,  and  another 
time  they  would  have  banished  me  to  Ireland.  At  first 
they  called  me  a deceiver  and  seducer  and  a blasphemer; 
and  then  when  God  brought  his  plagues  upon  them  they 
said  I was  an  honest  and  virtuous  man.  But  their  good 
report  and  bad  report,  their  well  or  ill  speaking  was  nothing 
to  me;  for  the  one  did  not  lift  me  up,  nor  the  other  cast 
me  down,  praised  be  the  Lord. 

<At  length  they  were  made  to  turn  me  out  of  gaol  about 
the  beginning  of  winter  in  the  year  1651  >,  "iwho  had  been 
kept  a year,  within  three  Vv^eeks,  in  four  prisons,  the  House 
of  Correction,  and  at  the  town  prison  and  the  county  gaol 
and  dungeon,  and  then  in  the  high  gaol  where  I was  kept 
till  I was  set  freely  at  liberty.  And  this  was  in  the  month 
called  October,^  in  the  Commonwealth’s  days.  And  then 
the  light  and  truth  and  glory  of  the  Lord  flowed  and 
spread  abroad.^i 


CHAPTER  IV 

^ND  when  I came  out  of  Derby  prison  1 came  near  Burton 
/\  upon  Trent  where  some  were  convinced,  and  so 
± IL  to  BusheP-House  where  I had  a meeting.  And  I went 
up  into  the  country  where  there  were  friendly  people.  But 
there  was  a raging,  wicked  professor  had  an  intent  to 
have  done  me  a mischief,  but  the  Lord  prevented  him. 

^ About  8th  October,  165L 
^ Probably  Bishop  Hill,  a farm  at  Hanbury. 
q ^ p.  5, 


1651]  WOE  UNTO  LICHFIELD  ! 71 

So  I passed  through  the  country,  where  I had  meetings 
and  the  Lord’s  power  and  spirit  accompanied  me,  and 
1 came  into  Leicestershire  towards  my  own  country  (where 
the  priests  reported  I was  taken  up  above  the  clouds  and 
after  found  again  full  of  gold  and  silver)  that  they  might 
see  their  lies.  This  was  priest  Stevens  aforesaid  that  had 
said  to  Colonel  Purefoy  that  never  such  a plant  was  bred 
in  England. 

And  as  I was  one  time  walking  in  a close  with  several 
Friends  I lifted  up  my  head  and  I espied  three  steeplehouse 
spires.  They  struck  at  my  life  and  I asked  Friends  what 
they  were,  and  they  said,  Lichfield.  The  word  of  the  Lord 
came  to  me  thither  I might  go,  <so,  being  come  to  the  house 
we  were  going  to>  I bid  friends  that  were  with  me  walk 
into  the  house  from  me;  and  they  did  and  as  soon  as  they 
were  gone  (for  I said  nothing  to  them  whither  I would  go) 
I went  over  hedge  and  ditch  till  I came  within  a mile  of 
Lichfield.  When  I came  into  a great  field  where  there  were 
shepherds  keeping  their  sheep,  I was  commanded  of  the 
Lord  to  pull  off  my  shoes  of  a sudden;  and  I stood  still, 
and  the  word  of  the  Lord  was  like  a fire  in  me;  and  being 
winter,  I untied  my  shoes  and  put  them  off;  and  when  I 
had  done  I was  commanded  to  give  them  to  the  shepherds 
and  was  to  charge  them  to  let  no  one  have  them  except 
they  paid  for  them.  And  the  poor  shepherds  trembled 
and  were  astonished. 

So  I went  about  a mile  till  I came  into  the  town,  and  as 
soon  as  I came  within  the  town  the  word  of  the  Lord  came 
unto  me  again  to  cry,  ‘ Woe  unto  the  bloody  city  of  Lich- 
field ! ’ ; so  I went  up  and  down  the  streets  crying,  ‘ Woe 
unto  the  bloody  city  of  Lichfield  ! ’ Being  market  day  I 
went  into  the  market  place  and  went  up  and  down  in 
several  places  of  it  and  made  stands,  crying,  ‘ Woe  unto  the 
bloody  city  of  Lichfield  ! ’,  and  no  one  touched  me  nor  laid 
hands  on  me.  As  I went  down  the  town  there  ran  like  a 
channel  of  blood  down  the  streets,  and  the  market  place  was 
like  a pool  of  blood. 

And  so  at  last  some  friends  and  friendly  people  came  to 


72  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

me  and  said,  ‘ Alack  George  ! where  are  thy  shoes  ? ’ and 
I told  them  it  was  no  matter;  so  when  I had  declared  what 
was  upon  me  and  cleared  myself,  I came  out  of  the  town 
in  peace  about  a mile  to  the  shepherds:  and  there  I went 
to  them  and  took  my  shoes  and  gave  them  some  money, 
but  the  fire  of  the  Lord  was  so  in  my  feet  and  all  over  me 
that  I did  not  matter  to  put  my  shoes  on  any  more  and  was 
at  a stand  whether  I should  or  no  till  I felt  freedom  from 
the  Lord  so  to  do. 

And  so  at  last  I came  to  a ditch  and  washed  my  feet  and 
put  on  my  shoes;  and  when  I had  done,  I considered  why 
I should  go  and  cry  against  that  city  and  call  it  a bloody 
city;  for  though  the  Parliament  had  the  minster  one  while 
and  the  King  another  while,  and  much  blood  had  been 
shed  in  the  town,  yet  that  could  not  be  charged  upon  the 
town.  But  as  I went  through  the  town  there  ran  like  a 
channel  of  blood  down  the  streets  and  the  market  place  was 
like  a pool  of  blood;  this  I saw  as  I went  through  it  crying, 

‘ Woe  to  the  bloody  city  of  Lichfield.’ 

But  after,  I came  to  see  that  there  were  a thousand 
martyrs  in  Lichfield  in  the  Emperor  Diocletian’s  time. 
And  so  I must  go  in  my  stockings  through  the  channel  of 
their  blood  in  their  market  place.  So  I might  raise  up  the 
blood  of  those  martyrs  that  had  been  shed  and  lay  cold 
in  their  streets,  which  had  been  shed  above  a thousand 
years  before.  So  the  sense  of  this  blood  was  upon  me, 
for  which  I obeyed  the  word  of  the  Lord.  And  the  ancient 
records  will  testify  how  many  of  the  Christian  Britons 
suffered  there. 

And  much  more  might  I write  of  this  thing  and  of  the 
sense  of  the  blood  of  the  martyrs  that  hath  been  slain  in 
this  nation  both  in  and  under  the  ten  persecutions  and  since, 
for  the  name  of  Christ’s  sake.  But  I leave  it  to  the  Lord 
and  his  book,  out  of  which  all  shall  be  judged;  for  his  book 
is  a true  record,  and  his  Spirit  is  a true  register,  or  recorder. 
And  then  I passed  up  and  down  and  had  meetings  amongst  | 
friendly  people  in  several  places.  And  my  relations  were 
offended  at  me. 


1651]  IN  BEVERLEY  MINSTER  73 

After  some  time  I came  into  Nottinghamshire  again  to 
Mansfield  and  Derbyshire,  visiting  friends.  Then  passing 
into  Yorkshire  I preached  repentance,  through  Doncaster 
and  several  other  places,  and  then  came  to  Balby;  where 
Richard  Farnsworth  was  convinced  and  several  others.^ 
So  I passed  through  the  countries  to  several  places,  preach- 
ing repentance  and  the  word  of  life  to  them,  and  went 
into  the  country  about  Wakefield  where  James  Nayler 
lived,  where  he  and  Thomas  Goodaire  and  William 
Dewsbury  and  many  more  were  convinced.^ 

From  thence  I passed  through  the  country  towards 
Captain  Pursloe’s  by  Selby.^  And  one,  John  Leek  there, 
had  been  to  visit  me  in  Derby  prison,  being  convinced. 
And  I had  a horse,  but  was  fain  to  leave  my  horse,  not 
knowing  what  to  do  with  him,  for  I was  moved  to  go  to 
many  great  houses  to  admonish  them  and  to  exhort  them 
to  turn  to  the  Lord. 

And  so  as  I passed  on  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  go  to 
Beverley  steeplehouse,  a great  professing  place,  on  the 
seventh  day  at  night,  and  being  very  wet,  I went  to  an  inn ; 
and  as  soon  as  I came  to  the  door,  a young  woman  came 
to  the  door.  ‘ What  ! is  it  you  ? ’ said  she  as  though  she 
had  seen  me  before,  ‘ Come  in  ’,  said  she:  for  the  Lord’s 
power  bowed  their  hearts.  So  I refreshed  myself  and  went 
to  bed,  and  the  next  morning  my  clothes  were  sore  wet. 

^ Viz.  Thomas  Killam  (d.  1690),  John  Killam,  Thomas  Aldam 
(c.  1616-1660),  all  early  publishers  of  Quakerism.  W.  Dewsbury, 
Works,  1688,  p.  (ix). 

2 This  was  at  Lieut.  Roper’s  house,  believed  to  be  at  Stanley. 
There,  writes  Fox  (Dewsbury,  Works,  1688,  p.  (x)),  James  Nayler 
came  to  see  him  and  was  convinced  after  some  discussion;  and  after 
one  evening  meeting,  ‘ it  being  a moonshine  night  I walked  into  the 
field  and  William  Dewsbury  and  his  wife  came  to  me  into  the  field 
and  confessed  to  the  Truth  and  received  it.’  Both  Nayler  (c.  1618- 
1660)  and  Dewsbury  (1621-1688)  were  leaders  in  the  first  spread  of 
Quakerism.  Nayler,  through  a dangerous  extravagance,  was  bar- 
barously punished  by  Parliament  for  blasphemy,  and  estranged  from 
Friends,  but  was  later  re-united.  Dewsbury  spent  nearly  twenty 
years  in  prisons. 

3 Probably  Richard  Pursglove  of  Cranswick. 


74  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

In  the  morning  I paid  for  what  I had  and  went  up  to  the 
steeplehouse,  and  there  was  a man  preaching.^  And 
when  he  had  done,  I was  moved  to  speak  to  him  and  the 
people  in  the  mighty  power  of  God,  ^of  the  truth  of  God  and 
the  day  of  the  Lord,  and  the  Light  of  Christ  within  them, 
and  of  the  spirit,  and  of  God’s  teaching  by  the  spirit,  and 
that  God  that  made  the  world  did  not  dwell  in  the  temples 
made  with  hands.®  The  power  of  the  Lord  was  so  strong  as 
it  struck  a mighty  dread  amongst  the  people.  The  Mayor 
came  down  to  me  and  took  me  by  the  hand  and  reasoned 
moderately  with  me,  but  they  none  of  them  had  any  power 
to  meddle  with  me,  ^they  were  in  an  amazement^  and  so 
I passed  away  out  of  the  town.^  In  the  afternoon,  about 
two  miles  off,  I went  to  another  steeplehouse,  and  when  the 
priest  had  done,  I was  moved  to  speak  to  him  and  the 
people  very  largely,  and  showed  them  the  way  of  life  and 
truth,  and  the  way  of  reprobation  and  election;  and  how 
that  they  should  find  Esau  and  Ishmael  in  themselves 
though  they  found  so  much  fault  of  them  without  them. 
The  priest  said  he  was  but  a child  and  could  not  dispute 
with  me:  I told  him  I did  not  come  to  dispute  but  to  hold 
forth  the  word  of  life  and  truth  unto  them,  that  they  might 
all  know  the  one  Seed  which  the  promise  of  God  was  to, 
both  in  the  male  and  female.  And  the  people  were  very 
loving  and  they  would  have  had  me  come  again  in  the 
week  day  and  preach  amongst  them:  but  I directed  them 
to  their  teacher  Christ  Jesus,  and  so  passed  away. 

I came  to  an  inn  where  they  were  loath  to  receive  me 
unless  I would  go  first  to  a constable,  which  was  the 
custom  of  their  country.  I was  not  free  so  to  do,  but  told 
them  I was  an  innocent  man  and  should  lie  out  rather,  so 
at  last  they  received  me,  and  I stayed  there  all  night. 

The  next  day  I came  to  Cranswick  to  Captain  Pursloe’s. 

^ John  Pomroy,  lecturer  at  Beverley. 

^ A Short  Account,  MS.  Portfolio  36.172,  see  Bulletin  F.H.A., 
Vol.  39,  p.  27,  adds  that  he  ‘ refreshed  himself  with  some  hips  and 
hawes  that  he  got  about  the  hedges  ’. 

^ ^ S.J.,  p.  6. 


1651]  AT  JUSTICE  hotham's  75 

And  he  went  with  me  to  Justice  Hotham’s/  a pretty  tender 
man,  that  had  some  experience  of  God’s  working  in  his 
heart.  After  that  I had  some  discourse  with  him  of  the 
things  of  God,  he  took  me  into  his  closet,  and  said  he  had 
known  that  principle  this  ten  year,  and  he  was  glad  that 
the  Lord  did  now  publish  it  abroad  to  people.  And  so 
after  a while  there  came  in  a priest  with  whom  I had  some 
discourse  concerning  the  Truth,  but  his  mouth  was  quickly 
stopped,  for  he  was  nothing  but  a notion  <ist,  and  not  in 
possession  of  what  he  talked  of.) 

And  after  a while  there  came  in  a great  woman  of 
Beverley,  that  had  some  business  with  Justice  Hotham. 
And  she  said  unto  him  that  the  last  sabbath  day  (as  she 
called  it)  there  was  an  angel  or  spirit  came  into  the  body 
of  the  church  (meaning  the  steeplehouse),  and  spoke 
strange  things,  and  the  wonderful  things  of  God,  to  the 
astonishment  of  all  that  were  in  the  steeplehouse;  and  when 
he  had  done  it  he  passed  away;  and  that  they  did  not 
know  whence  he  came  nor  whither  it  went;  but  it  astonished 
all  the  priests,  and  professors,  and  magistrates  of  the  town. 
And  Justice  Hotham  gave  me  this  relation,  but  I said 
nothing  to  him  till  the  woman  was  gone.  And  when 
she  was  gone  I gave  him  a full  relation  how  I had  been  at 
Beverley  steeplehouse  and  had  spoken  to  the  priest  and 
people  the  last  First-day,  which  was  the  day  she  spoke 
of  it  to  him. 

And  there  were  some  great  high  priests  and  other  doctors 
in  the  country  that  Justice  Hotham  had  acquaintance  with 
and  would  fain  have  them  speak  with  me,  and  said  he 
would  send  for  them  under  pretence  it  was  a patient  at 
his  house  that  wanted  physic;  but  I told  him  it  was  no 
matter  for  sending  for  them  upon  that  account,  and  that 
he  should  not  do  so. 

So  when  the  next  First-day  came  Justice  Hotham  walked 
out  with  me  into  the  fields,  and  then.  Captain  Pursloe 
coming  up  after  us.  Justice  Hotham  left  us  and  went  home 
and  Captain  Pursloe  went  into  the  steeplehouse  with  me. 

^ Durant  Hotham  (1619-1691),  of  Winthorpe  in  Lockington  parish. 


76  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

<And  when  the  priests  had  done)  had  a brave  service 
with  the  priests  and  people,  and  the  Truth  came  over  all 
in  laying  open  the  false  teachers  and  priests,  and  the  Truth 
and  the  true  teachers,  and  the  light  and  the  spirit  of  Christ 
in  them,  and  that  God  that  made  the  world  dwelt  not  in 
temples  made  with  hands,  but  their  bodies  were  the  temples 
of  the  Holy  Ghost/'^  And  some  then  received  the  Truth 
at  that  place  and  were  convinced,  and  stand  to  this  day 
and  have  a fine  meeting  thereaways. 

And  in  the  afternoon  I went  to  the  great  high  priest, 
their  doctor,  that  Justice  Hotham  said  he  would  send  for 
to  speak  with  me,  to  the  steeplehouse  three  miles  off,  where 
he  preached,  and  sat  me  down  in  the  steeplehouse  till  the 
priest  had  done.  And  he  took  a text,  which  was,  ‘ Ho, 
every  one  that  thirsteth,  let  him  come  freely,  without 
money  and  without  price.’  And  so  I was  moved  of  the 
Lord  God  to  say  unto  him,  ‘ Come  down,  thou  deceiver 
and  hireling,  for  dost  thou  bid  people  come  freely  and  take 
of  the  water  of  life  freely,  and  yet  thou  takest  three  hundred  | 
pounds  off  them  for  preaching  the  Scriptures  to  them.  I 
Mayest  thou  not  blush  for  shame  ? Did  the  prophet 
Isaiah  and  Christ  so  do  that  spoke  those  words  and  gave  ; 
them  forth  freely  ? Did  not  Christ  command  his  ministers, 

“ Freely  you  have  received,  freely  give  ” ? ’ And  so  the  | 
priest,  like  a man  amazed,  packed  away;  and  this  was  the 
man  Justice  Hotham  would  have  sent  for  to  have  spoken  ' 
with  me,  as  aforesaid.  And  so  after  the  priest  had  left 
his  flock,  I had  as  much  time  as  I could  desire  to  speak  i 
to  the  people,  and  I directed  them  to  the  grace  of  God 
that  would  teach  them  and  bring  them  salvation,  and  | 
directed  them  from  darkness  to  the  light  and  to  the  spirit  j 
of  God  their  free  teacher. 

And  after,  at  night,  I came  to  Justice  Hotham’s  house,  j 
and  when  I came  in,  he  took  me  in  his  arms  and  said  his  ! 
house  was  my  house,  and  he  was  exceeding  glad  at  the  work  | 
of  the  Lord  and  his  power. 

And  when  I turned  back  again  to  Hotham’s  house  he 

b...  ...b  5./.,  p.  8. 


1651]  A CHURN  OF  CREAM  77 

told  me  what  reasonings  he  had  in  himself  concerning  his 
not  going  with  me  to  the  steeplehouse;  for  if  he  had  gone 
to  the  steeplehouse  with  me,  the  officers  would  have  put 
me  to  him,  and  then  he  should  have  been  so  put  to  it  and 
he  should  not  have  known  what  to  have  done.  And  when 
Captain  Pursloe  came  up  he  was  glad  that  he  was  come 
to  go  with  me,  though  neither  of  them  was  dressed,  nor 
had  their  bands  about  their  necks.  It  was  a strange  thing 
then  to  see  a man  come  into  the  steeplehouse  without  a 
band;  yet  Captain  Pursloe  went  in  without  his  band;  the 
Lord’s  power  and  truth  so  affected  him,  he  minded  not 
such  things. 

And  afterwards  I passed  away  through  the  country  ^north- 
wards and  there  were  no  Friends ; and  sometimes  I lay  out 
all  night  though  in  the  winter-season,  and  at  night  I came 
in  my  travels  to  a house,  being  weary,*^  and  there  was  a 
rude  company  of  people  and  I asked  the  woman  if  she  had 
any  meat;  and  she  was  something  strange  because  I said 
‘ thee  ’ and  ‘ thou  ’ to  her;  I asked  her  if  she  had  any 
milk  but  she  denied  it,  and  I asked  her  if  she  had  any  cream, 
though  I did  not  greatly  like  such  meat  but  only  to  try  her, 
and  she  denied  it  also.  And  there  stood  a churn  in  her 
house;  and  a little  boy  put  his  hand  into  the  churn  4n 
which  there  was  a great  deal  of  cream,  and  plucked  it 
down  before  my  face,  and  it  did  run  like  a pool  in  the  floor 
of  the  housed  and  so  it  manifested  the  woman  to  be  a liar. 
The  woman  was  amazed  and  took  the  child  and  whipped 
it  sorely,  and  blessed  herself ; but  I reproved  her  for  her  lying 
and  deceit.  So  I walked  out  of  her  house  after  the  Lord 
God  had  manifested  her  deceit  and  perverseness,  and 
came  to  a stack  of  hay  and  lay  in  the  haystack  all  night 
in  the  snow  and  rain,  being  but  three  days  before  the  time 
called  Christmas. 

And  so  the  next  day  I came  into  York^  where  there  were 
several  people  that  were  very  tender;  and  upon  the  First-day 
I was  commanded  of  the  Lord  to  go  to  the  great  minster 

^ 23rd  December,  1651. 

^ ® 5./.,  p.  16. 


78  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

and  speak  to  priest  Bowles^  and  all  his  hearers  in  their 
great  cathedral;  and  so  when  the  priest  had  done  I told 
them  and  him  I had  something  from  the  Lord  God  to  speak 
to  the  priest  and  people.  ‘ Then  say  on  quickly  ’ says 
a professor,  for  it  was  very  cold  weather  of  frost  and  snow. 
And  so  I told  them  this  was  the  word  of  the  Lord  God 
unto  them : that  they  lived  in  words  but  that  God  Almighty 
looked  for  fruits  amongst  them:  so  as  soon  as  the  words 
were  out  of  my  mouth  they  hurried  me  out  and  threw 
me  down  the  stairs,  but  I got  up  again  without  any  hurt 
and  I went  to  my  lodging  again.  Several  were  convinced 
there,  for  the  very  groans  of  the  weight  and  oppression 
that  was  upon  the  spirit  of  God  in  me  would  open  people, 
and  strike  at  them,  and  make  them  confess  that  my  very 
groans  did  reach  to  them,  for  my  life  was  burdened  with 
their  profession  'without  possession  and  words  without 
fruit.  And  so  I passed  out  of  York,  after  several  had 
received  the  Truth  and  were  convinced  of  God’s  Truth 
and  his  teaching. 

And  I saw  towards  Cleveland  that  there  was  a people 
that  had  tasted  of  the  power  of  God:  and  I saw  then  there 
was  a Seed  in  that  country  and  that  God  had  humble  people 
there. 

And  that  night  I passed  on  and  a Papist  overtook  me 
and  told  me  of  his  religion  and  of  their  meetings,  and  I 
let  him  speak  all  that  was  in  his  mind.  That  night  I 
stayed  at  an  ale  house,  and  the  next  morning  I was  moved 
of  the  Lord  to  speak  the  word  of  the  Lord  to  him,  and  I 
went  to  his  house  and  declared  against  his  religion 
and  all  their  ways.  I told  him  that  God  was  come  to 
teach  his  people  himself;  and  this  put  the  Papist  in 
such  a rage  that  he  could  not  endure  to  stay  in  his  own 
house. 

And  the  next  day  I came  to  Burraby,^  and  there  was  a 
priest  and  several  friendly  people  that  met  together  and  the 
people  were  convinced  and  have  stood  ever  since,  and  there 

^ Edward  Bowles,  M.A.  (1613-1662),  Presbyterian. 

^ Probably  Borrow  by,  north  of  Thirsk. 


RANTERS 


1651] 


79 


is  a great  meeting  in  that  town.  The  priest  was  made  to 
confess  to  Truth,  though  he  came  not  into  it. 

And  the  next  day  I passed  to  Cleveland  amongst  those 
people  that  had  tasted  of  the  power  of  God,  but  were  all 
shattered  to  pieces  and  the  heads  of  them  turned  Ranters. 
Now  they  had  had  great  meetings,  so  I told  them  after  that 
they  had  had  such  meetings  they  did  not  wait  upon  God 
to  feel  his  power  to  gather  their  minds  together  to  feel  his 
presence  and  power  and  therein  to  sit  to  wait  upon  him, 
for  they  had  spoken  themselves  dry  and  had  spent  their 
portions  and  not  lived  in  that  which  they  spake,  and  now 
they  were  dry.  They  had  some  kind  of  meetings  but  took 
tobacco  and  drank  ale  in  them  and  so  grew  light  and  loose. 

But  my  message  unto  them  was  from  the  Lord  that  they 
might  all  come  together  again  and  wait  to  feel  the  Lord’s 
power  and  spirit  in  themselves  to  gather  them  to  Christ  and 
to  be  taught  of  him  who  says,  ‘ Learn  of  me.’  For  after, 
when  they  had  declared  that  which  the  Lord  had  opened 
to  them,  then  the  people  were  to  receive  it,  and  the  speakers 
and  they  were  to  live  in  that  themselves.  But  when  they 
had  no  more  to  declare  but  to  go  to  seek  forms  without 
life,  that  made  themselves  dry  and  barren  and  the  people 
also.  Thence  came  all  their  loss,  for  the  Lord  would 
renew  his  mercies  and  his  strength  if  they  would  wait 
upon  him.  But  the  heads  of  them  all  came  to  nothing; 
but  most  of  the  people  came  to  be  convinced  and  received 
God’s  everlasting  Truth,  and  stand  a meeting  to  this  day 
and  sit  under  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ’s  teaching,  their 
Saviour. 

And  so,  upon  the  First-day  after,  the  word  of  the  Lord 
came  to  me  to  go  to  the  steeplehouse;  and  so  when  the 
priest  had  done,  I spake  the  Truth  to  him  and  the  people 
and  directed  them  to  their  teacher  Christ  Jesus,  their  free 
teacher  that  bought  them.  And  so  the  priest  came  to  me, 
with  whom  I had  a little  discourse,  but  he  v/as  soon  stopped 
and  silent,  after  which  I passed  away,  having  had  several 
meetings  amongst  those  people. 

^And  I was  moved  to  go  to  Stokesly  steeplehouse,  and 


80  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

when  the  priest  had  done  I spoke  to  him  as  I was  moved 
and  to  the  people  the  Truth  of  God,  and  they  were  moderate 
and  I let  them  see  their  true  teacher,  and  how  that  their 
teacher  was  found  in  the  steps  of  the  false  teachers,  and 
how  the  Lord  was  come  to  teach  his  people  himself,  and 
the  light  which  Christ  did  enlighten  withal  they  might 
come  to  in  themselves,  and  so  by  it  come  to  Christ;  so 
when  we  were  gone  out  of  the  steeplehouse  into  the  street, 
the  priest  sent  for  me  to  his  house,  and  I sent  to  him  and  bad 
him  come  into  the  street  among  the  people  to  try  his  ministry 
and  himself,  and  it  was  in  the  snow  in  the  winter,  and  he 
did  not  come,  and  so  I passed  away  in  the  Truth  that 
reacheth  in  all  hearts.^ 

After  this  I passed  through  the  country  to  a market 
town,  where  I met  with  many  professors  with  whom  I had 
a great  deal  of  reasoning;  and  1 asked  them  many  questions 
and  they  were  made  to  confess  they  had  never  such  deep 
questions  asked  in  their  Uves.  It  being  very  deep  snow, 
I passed  through  the  country  to  a place  called  Staithes, 
where  I met  with  many  professors  and  Ranters.  Great 
meetings  I had  amongst  them,  and  a great  convincement 
there  was.  One  old  man,  about  a hundred  years  old, 
and  a chief  constable,  and  a priest,  one  Philip  Scafe,^ 
received  the  Truth,  that  since  is  become  a pretty  minister 
of  God’s  free  gospel. 

And  then  I went  to  the  steeplehouse,  where  was  a high 
priest,  that  did  much  oppress  the  people  with  tithes.  And 
when  I spoke  unto  him,  he  fled  away  after  I had  laid  his 
oppressing  of  the  people  upon  him.  For  if  the  people 
went  a hundred  miles  oflF  a-fishing,  he  would  make  them 
pay  the  tithe  money,  though  they  catched  the  fish  at  such 
a distance  and  carried  the  fish  to  Yarmouth  to  sell.  And 
the  chief  of  the  parish  were  very  light  and  vain,  so  after 
I spoke  the  word  of  life  to  them  I slighted  their  light  spirits, 
seeing  they  did  not  receive  it.  But  the  word  of  the  Lord 
stuck  with  some  of  them  so  that  at  night  some  of  the  heads  of 

^ Philip  Scafe  or  Scarth  (d.  1693),  minister  at  Robin  Hood’s  Bay. 

d d SJ.,  p.  9. 


1651]  THE  ranter’s  vision  81 

the  parish  came  to  me  and  were  most  of  them  convinced  and 
satisfied,  and  confessed  to  Truth.  So  the  Truth  began  to 
spread  up  and  down  the  country  and  great  meetings  we  had, 
that  the  priest  began  to  rage,  and  the  Ranters  began  to  be 
stirred.  They  sent  to  me  that  they  would  have  a dispute 
with  me,  both  the  oppressing  priest  and  the  leader  of  all  the 
Ranters,  and  a day  was  set,  and  the  Ranter,  <whose  name 
was  Thomas  Bushel)  came  and  his  company,  and  another 
priest,  Levens®,  a Scot,  but  not  the  oppressing  priest  of 
Staithes.  And  the  priest  that  was  convinced  and  a great 
number  of  people  met,  and  so  when  we  were  set,  the 
Ranter  said  to  me  that  he  had  a vision  of  me:  that  I was 
sitting  in  a great  chair,  and  that  he  was  to  come  and  put 
off  his  hat  and  bow  down  to  the  ground  before  me,  and 
so  he  did;  and  many  other  flattering  words  he  said.  When 
he  had  done  I told  him  it  was  his  own  figure:  and  said 
unto  him,  ‘ Repent,  thou  beast.  ’ He  said  it  was  jealousy  in 

me  to  say  so.  Then  I asked  him  the  ground  of  jealousy 
and  how  it  came  to  be  bred  in  man,  and  the  nature  of  a 
heathen,  what  made  it,  and  how  that  was  bred  in  man; 
for  I saw  him  directly  in  that  nature  of  the  beast,  and  there- 
fore I would  have  known  from  him  how  that  came  to  be 
bred  in  him.  So  I told  him  he  should  give  me  an  account 
of  things  done  in  the  body  before  we  came  to  discourse 
of  things  done  out  of  the  body.  So  I stopped  up  his  mouth 
that  he  could  say  no  more  and  all  his  fellow  Ranters  were 
stopped  up,  for  he  was  the  head  of  them. 

Then  I called  for  the  oppressing  high  priest  but  he  came 
not  but  only  the  Scottish  priest  aforesaid:  and  his  mouth 
was  stopped  presently  with  a very  few  words,  as  being  out 
of  the  life  of  what  he  did  profess. 

And  then  I laid  the  Ranters,  ranking  them  with  the 
old  Ranters  in  Sodom;  and  all  the  priests  I manifested  to 
be  amongst  all  their  fellow  hirelings  and  bearing  rule 
amongst  people  by  their  means,  seeking  for  their  gain 
from  their  quarter,  and  teaching  for  their  gain  and  filthy 
lucre,  and  divining  for  money;  and  so  brought  all  the 

^ S.J.,  p.  8, 


82  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

prophets  and  Christ  and  the  apostles  over  the  heads  of 
them  and  showed  them  how  they  (to  wit,  the  prophets, 
Christ,  and  the  apostles)  had  discovered  them  by  their 
marks  and  fruits.  And  so  I directed  people  to  their  teacher, 
Christ  Jesus  their  saviour,  when  these  mountains  were  laid 
low,  and  so  did  set  up  Christ  in  the  hearts  of  his  people. 

And  so  all  was  quiet  and  their  mouths  stopped:  though 
it  broiled  within,  but  the  life  had  stopped  it  up  that  it  could 
not  break  out. 

After  the  meeting  was  done  this  Scotch  priest  desired 
me  to  walk  with  him  a-top  of  the  cliffs,  so  I took  William 
Ratcliffe,^  his  brother-in-law,  alongst  with  me,  which  was 
in  some  measure  convinced,  and  told  him,  ‘ It  may  be  he 
will  report,  after  I am  gone,  that  which  I did  not  say  to  him  ’, 
and  therefore  I desired  to  have  some  friendly  man  by  to 
hear  what  we  did  say.  So  as  I went  he  asked  me  concerning 
the  light  of  Christ  and  what  the  soul  was,  and  I answered 
him  fully.  So  he  went  away  and  meeting  with  the  other 
priest,  Philip  Scafe,  that  was  convinced,  in  madness  brake 
his  cane  upon  the  ground,  and  said  if  ever  he  met  me  or 
saw  me  again  he  would  have  my  life  or  I should  have  his ; 
he  would  give  his  head  if  I was  not  knocked  down  within 
a month.  So  Friends  perceived  his  intent  was  when  he 
desired  to  have  walked  with  me  alone,  either  to  have  thrust 
me  down  over  cliff  or  to  have  stabbed  me:  and  when 
that  was  frustrated  that  made  him  rage  and  mad.  For 
before  this  came  to  pass,  I being  one  day  at  his  house, 
I saw  a dog-like  nature  in  him;  and  I was  moved  to  tell 
him  he  was  a dog,  and  so  his  nature  showed  itself : but  I 
feared  not  his  prophesies  nor  his  threats.  But  I feared 
God  Almighty,  though  many  weak  Friends  feared  much 
that  this  priest  would  have  done  me  some  mischief  or  have 
set  on  others.  But  after  some  years  this  Scottish  priest 
and  his  wife  came  to  be  convinced  and  I was  at  their  house 
about  twelve  years  after  this. 

After  this  there  came  another  high  priest  to  me  which 
was  reputed  above  all  in  the  country;  and  so  as  I was 

^ 5./.,  p.  8. 


DISPUTES  WITH  PRIESTS 


83 


1651] 

speaking  in  the  meeting  that  the  Gospel  was  the  power  of 
God  and  how  it  brought  life  and  immortality  to  light  in 
men,  and  turning  people  from  the  darkness  to  the  light, 
this  high  priest  said  the  Gospel  was  mortal.  But  I told 
him  the  true  minister  said  the  Gospel  was  the  power  of  God 
and  how  could  he  make  the  power  of  God  mortal.  Upon 
that  the  other  priest,  Philip  Scafe,  that  was  convinced  and 
had  felt  the  power  of  God  which  was  immortal,  took  him 
up  and  reproved  him.  So  a great  dispute  the  convinced 
priest  and  the  high  priest  had,  the  convinced  priest  holding 
that  the  Gospel  was  immortal,  and  the  other  high  priest 
held  that  it  was  mortal.  But  the  Lord’s  power  stopped 
his  mouth,  and  these  things  mightily  convinced  the  people 
to  see  the  darkness  that  was  in  the  high  priest  and  the  light 
that  was  in  the  other  convinced  priest. 

But  people  generally  waited  to  see  the  fulfilling  of  the 
other  Scottish  priest’s  prophecy  that  I should  be  knocked 
down  before  the  month’s  end.  Some  were  afraid,  but  I 
bid  them  fear  God  and  not  man,  for  I was  not  afraid  of  him. 

And  then  there  was  another  priest  sent  to  have  a dispute 
with  me  Sunder  a cover,  hearing  I v/as  to  go  out  of  the 
country,^  and  Friends  went  with  me  up  to  the  house 
where  he  was,  and  when  we  came  there  he  went  out  of 
the  house  and  hid  him  under  a hedge.  When  they  went 
to  look  for  him  they  found  him,  but  could  not  get  him  to 
me.  And  I went  to  a steeplehouse  hard  by,  and  the  priest 
and  people  were  in  a great  rage.  This  priest  had  threatened 
Friends  what  he  would  do,  but  when  I came  there  he  would 
not  stand,  but  fled,  the  Lord’s  power  so  came  over  him 
and  them. 

<Yea,  the  Lord’s  everlasting  pov/er  was  over  the  world 
and  did  reach  to  the  hearts  of  people,  and  made  both  priests 
and  professors  tremble.  It  shook  the  earthly  and  airy  spirit, 
in  which  they  held  their  profession  of  religion  and  worship, 
so  that  it  was  a dreadful  thing  unto  them,  when  it  was  told 
them,  ‘ The  man  in  leathern  breeches  is  come.’^  At  the 

^ Fox  wore  a suit  of  leather,  doublet  and  breeches, 

^ g 5./.,  p.  8. 


84  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

hearing  thereof  the  priests,  in  many  places,  would  get  out 
of  the  way,  they  were  so  struck  with  the  dread  of  the 
eternal  power  of  God ; and  fear  surprised  the  hypocrites.  > 

So  we  passed  away  to  Whitby  and  Scarborough  where 
we  had  some  service  for  the  Lord,  and  there  are  become 
large  meetings  there  since;  and  from  thence  I passed  over 
the  Wolds  to  Malton  where  we  had  great  meetings,  and 
at  the  town’s  end  thereabouts. 

<At  one  town,)  a priest  challenged  to  dispute  with  me. 
The  Lord’s  power  seized  upon  the  people,  and  one,  who 
had  been  a wild,  drunken  man,  was  reached  therewith, 
so  as  he  came  as  lowly  as  a lamb ; though  he  and  his  com- 
panions had  before  sent  for  drink  of  purpose  to  make  the 
rude  people  drunk  <that  they  might  abuse  us>;  but 
the  Lord  confounded  them  all.  And  so  I went  to  meet  the 
priest  aforesaid,  but  he  would  not  come  forth,  the  Lord 
confounded  him  and  them  all.  And  I was  moved  to  go  to 
a steeplehouse  there  and  the  Lord’s  power  came  over 
them  all. 

And  the  First-day  there  came  one  of  the  highest  Indepen- 
dent professors,  a woman,  that  said  before  she  was  con- 
vinced that  she  could  willingly  have  gone  to  the  hanging 
of  me.  And  she  was  confounded  and  convinced  and  stands 
a Friend  to  this  day. 

And  so  I turned  to  Malton  again ; and  very  great  meetings 
there  were,  and  several  people  would  have  come  but  they 
durst  not  for  their  relations  (for  it  was  a strange  thing  then 
to  preach  in  houses  and  not  to  go  to  church  as  they  called 
it);  and  much  desired  I was  to  go  to  their  steeplehouses. 
There  was  a high  priest  kept  a lecture  there,  and  another 
priest  had  written  to  me  and  invited  me  to  his  steeplehouse, 
calling  me  his  brother.  So  I went  into  the  steeplehouse, 
and  there  were  not  passing  eleven  hearers;  and  the  priest 
was  preaching  to  them,  but  after  it  was  known  in  the  town 
that  I was  in  the  steeplehouse,  it  was  presently  filled  with 
people.  And  when  the  chief  priest  had  done  (there  being 
two  priests  in  the  steeplehouse),  the  priest  that  had  been 
preaching  sent  the  priest  that  sent  the  letter  to  me,  to  have 


1651]  IN  MALTON  STEEPLEHOUSE  85 

me  come  and  go  up  into  the  pulpit;  and  I sent  back  word 
unto  him  that  I need  not  go  up  into  it.  Then  he  sent  me 
word  again  he  desired  me  to  go  up  into  it  for  it  was  a better 
place  and  there  I might  be  seen  of  the  people.  And  I sent 
him  word  again  I could  be  seen  and  heard  well  enough 
there,  for  I came  not  to  hold  up  those  places  nor  their 
maintenance  and  trade.  Then  they  began  to  be  in  a rage 
and  said  the  false  prophets  should  come  in  the  last  times, 
because  I would  not  go  up  into  their  pulpit. 

And  it  grieved  many  of  the  people  to  hear  them  say  so. 
^And  because  I would  not  some  of  the  people  began  to 
call  me  a deliverer  and  there  began  to  be  a tumult,  upon 
which  I started  up  and  desired  all  to  be  quiet,  and  stepped 
up  in  a high  seat,  and  cried  for  audience,^  and  declared 
unto  them  the  marks  of  the  false  prophets  and  how  they 
were  come.  And  I set  the  true  prophets,  Christ  and  the 
apostles,  over  them  and  showed  them  how  these  were  out 
of  the  steps  of  <the  true  prophets  and  of  Christ  and  his 
apostles,)  and  then  directed  all  people  to  their  teacher, 
Christ  Jesus,  who  would  turn  them  from  the  darkness  to 
the  light,  and  opening  the  Scriptures  to  them,  and  bringing 
them  to  the  Spirit  of  God  in  themselves,  by  which  they  might 
know  <who  were  the  false  prophets)  and  so  had  a large 
time  amongst  them  and  parted  in  peace. 

<Now  the  Lord  had  showed  me,  while  I was  in  Derby 
prison,  that  I should  speak  in  steeplehouses  to  gather 
people  from  thence ; and  a concern  sometimes  would  come 
upon  my  mind  about  the  pulpits  that  the  priests  lolled  in. 
For  the  steeplehouses  and  pulpits  were  offensive  to  my  mind, 
because  both  priests  and  people  called  them  ‘ the  house  of 
God  ’,  and  idolized  them,  reckoning  that  God  dwelt  there 
in  the  outward  house.  Whereas  they  should  have  looked 
for  God  and  Christ  to  dwell  in  their  hearts,  and  their 
bodies  to  be  made  the  temples  of  God;  for  the  apostle 
said,  ‘ God  dwelleth  not  in  temples  made  with  hands  ’ : 
but  by  reason  of  the  people’s  idolizing  those  places,  it  was 
counted  an  heinous  thing  to  declare  against  them. 

^ ^ Cf.SJ.,  p.  10. 


86  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

And  after  some  time  I went  into  the  country  to  Pickering 
where  the  Justices  kept  their  Sessions  in  the  steeplehouse, 
Justice  Robinson^  being  chief.  I kept  a meeting  in  the 
schoolhouse  at  the  same  time,  and  abundance  of  priests 
and  professors  came  to  it  asking  questions,  and  were 
answered  to  their  satisfaction;  and  four  chief  constables 
and  abundance  of  others  were  convinced  that  day.  And 
so  news  was  carried  in  to  Justice  Robinson  that  his  priest 
was  overthrown  and  convinced,  that  he  had  a love  unto  more 
than  all  the  priests. 

And  so  after  the  meeting  was  done  we  went  to  an  inn, 
and  many  priests  came  in  and  Robinson’s  priest  would  have 
paid  for  my  dinner,  and  would  have  wiped  my  shoes, 
but  I charged  Friends  that  no  such  thing  should  be  done. 
But  he  offered  to  Friends  that  I should  have  his  steeple- 
house  to  preach  in  if  I would  come;  but  I denied  it,  and 
told  him  and  the  people  that  I came  to  bring  them  off 
from  such  things  to  Christ.  And  so  the  next  morning, 
I went  up  with  the  four  chief  constables,  and  some  others, 
to  see  Justice  Robinson;  and  he  met  me  at  his  chamber 
door;  and  I told  him  I could  not  honour  him  with  man’s 
honour,  and  he  said  he  did  not  look  for  it.  So  I went 
into  his  chamber  and  told  him  the  state  of  the  false  prophets 
and  of  the  true  prophets,  Christ  and  the  apostles,  and  set 
them  over  the  other  and  directed  his  mind  to  Christ  his 
teacher,  and  opened  to  him  the  parables,  and  how  election 
and  reprobation  stood,  and  that  election  stood  in  the  second 
birth  and  reprobation  stood  in  the  first,  and  what  the 
promise  of  God  was  to,  and  what  the  judgement  of  God  was 
to : and  he  confessed  all.  And  he  was  so  opened  with  the 
Truth  that  one  other  justice  opposing  a little  he  informed 
him. 

And  so  at  my  parting  he  said  it  was  very  well  that  I did 
exercise  that  gift  which  God  had  given  to  me.  And  he 
called  the  chief  constables  aside  and  would  have  given 
them  some  money  to  have  given  me,  saying  he  would  not 
have  me  be  at  any  charge  in  their  country;  and  the  chief 

^ Luke  Robinson,  M.P.,  of  Thornton  Riseborough. 


A FRIENDLY  PRIEST 


87 


1651] 

constables  told  him  that  they  themselves  could  not  get 
me  to  take  any  money.  So  they  refused  his  money  and 
accepted  of  his  love  and  kindness. 

And  from  thence  I passed  up  into  the  country  with  the 
priest  aforesaid  that  called  me  brother  (in  whose  school 
house  I had  declared  <at  Pickering));  and  as  v/e  passed 
through  the  country  and  came  into  a town  to  bait,  the  bells 
rang,  and  so  I asked  them  what  the  bells  rang  for  and  they 
said  for  me  to  go  and  preach  in  the  steeplehouse. 

And  so,  as  I walked  up  to  the  steeplehouse,  the  people 
were  gathered  about  the  steeplehouse  yard;  and  the  old 
priest  would  have  had  me  to  have  gone  into  the  steeple- 
house and  I said,  nay,  it  v/as  no  matter;  but  it  was  some- 
thing strange  to  people  that  I would  not  go  into  the  house 
of  God,  as  they  called  it. 

So  I < stood  up  in  the  steeplehouse  yard  and)  declared 
to  the  people. 

I came  not  to  hold  up  their  idols,  temple,  nor  tithes,  nor 
priests,  but  to  declare  against  them;  and  opened  to  the  people 
all  their  traditions,  and  that  that  piece  of  ground  was  no  more 
holy  than  another  piece  of  ground.  <I  showed  them  that  the 
apostles’  going  into  the  Jews’  synagogues  and  temples,  which 
God  had  commanded,  was  to  bring  people  off  from  that  temple 
and  those  synagogues,  and  from  the  offerings,  and  tithes,  and 
covetous  priests  of  that  time;  and  that  such  as  came  to  be  con- 
vinced of  the  Truth,  and  converted  to  it  and  believed  in  Jesus 
Christ,  whom  the  apostles  preached,  met  together  afterwards 
in  dwelling-houses;  and  that  all  who  preach  Christ,  the  word 
of  life,  ought  to  preach  freely,  as  the  apostles  did,  and  as  he  had 
commanded.  So  I was  sent  of  the  Lord  God  of  Heaven  and 
earth  to  preach  freely,  and  to  bring  people  off  from  these  out- 
ward temples  made  with  hands,  which  God  dv/elleth  not  in, 
that  they  might  know  their  bodies  to  become  the  temples  of 
God  and  of  Christ;  and  to  draw  people  off  from  all  their  super- 
stitious ceremonies,  and  Jewish  and  heathenish  customs,  tradi- 
tions, and  doctrines  of  men;  and  from  all  the  world’s  hireling 
teachers,  that  take  tithes  and  great  v/ages,  preaching  for  hire 
and  divining  for  money,  whom  God  and  Christ  never  sent,  as 
themselves  confess  when  they  say  they  never  heard  God’s 
voice  nor  Christ’s  voice.  Therefore  I exhorted  the  people 


88  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1651 

to  come  off  from  all  these  things,  and  directed  them  to  the  spirit 
and  grace  of  God  in  themselves,  and  to  the  light  of  Jesus  in 
their  own  hearts,  that  they  might  come  to  know  Christ,  their 
free  teacher,  to  bring  them  salvation,  and  to  open  the  Scriptures 
to  them. 

Thus  the  Lord  gave  me  a good  opportunity  amongst 
them  to  open  things  largely  unto  them.  All  was  quiet, 
and  many  were  convinced ; blessed  be  the  Lord.  > 

^Some  places  where  the  priests  were  paid,  they  fled  away 
from  the  town  when  as  I came  to  it;  and  the  people  would 
break  open  the  doors  if  I would  go  into  the  steeplehouse,  if 
the  churchwardens  would  not  open  it.  But  I would  not 
let  them,  but  spake  to  them  in  the  yards  or  any  where, 
the  Truth  of  God,  and  in  love  it  was  received;  and  many 
justices  were  loving  in  Yorkshire,  and  the  Truth  spread.^ 
And  then  I passed  on  where  there  was  another  great 
meeting  and  this  old  priest  went  along  with  me,  and  there 
came  all  sorts  of  professors  to  it  purposely  to  dispute. 
And  I sat  of  a haystack  and  spoke  nothing  for  some 
hours  for  I was  to  famish  them  from  words.  So  the 
professors  spake  <ever  and  anon>  to  this  old  priest  and 
asked  him  several  times  when  I would  speak  and  begin; 
and  he  bid  them  wait  and  told  them  that  the  people  waited 
upon  Christ  a long  while  before  he  spoke.  And  at  last 
I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  speak,  and  they  were  all  reached 
by  the  Lord’s  power  and  word  of  life,  and  there  was  a 
general  convincement  amongst  them. 

And  from  thence  I passed  along  with  the  old  priest  and 
several  others.  And  as  we  were  going  some  people  called 
to  the  old  priest  and  said,  ‘ Mr.  Boys,  we  owe  you  twenty 
shillings  for  tithe;  come  and  take  it.’  And  the  old  priest 
threw  up  his  hands  to  them  and  said  he  had  enough,  he 
would  have  none  of  it ; they  might  keep  it,  and  praised  the 
Lord  he  had  enough. 

And  so  we  passed  on  to  this  old  priest’s  steeplehouse  in 
the  moors,  and  when  we  came  to  it  the  old  priest  went  before 
me  and  held  open  the  pulpit  door;  and  I forbade  him  and 
i i 5./.,  p.  14. 


1651]  FRIENDLY  PRIEST  BOYS  89 

told  him  I should  not  go  into  it.  The  steeplehouse  was 
exceeding  much  painted/  and  I told  him  and  the  people 
that  the  painted  beast  had  a painted  house  and  opened  to 
him  the  ground  of  all  those  houses  and  their  superstition 
and  their  ways,  and  the  end  of  the  apostles  going  into  the 
temple  and  synagogues,  which  God  had  commanded, 
which  was  not  to  hold  them  up  but  to  bring  them  to  Christ, 
the  substance.  So  was  my  end  of  coming  there,  not  to 
hold  up  these  temples,  priests,  and  tithes,  which  God  had 
never  commanded,  but  to  bring  them  off  all  these  things  to 
Christ  the  substance;  and  so  showed  them  the  true  worship 
which  Christ  had  set  up,  and  < distinguished)  Christ  the 
true  way  from  all  the  false  ways;  and  opened  the  parables 
to  them,  turning  them  from  the  darkness  to  the  light  that 
with  it  they  might  see  themselves  and  their  sins  and  Christ, 
their  saviour  that  saves  them  from  their  sins. 

And  so  after  we  passed  away  to  one  Burdett’s^  house 
where  we  had  a great  meeting.  And  this  old  priest  accom- 
panied me  and  left  his  steeplehouse,  for  he  had  been  looked 
upon  as  a great  high  priest  above  Common  Prayer  Men 
and  Presbyters  and  Independents:  and  many  times  before 
he  was  convinced  he  would  have  gone  into  their  steeple- 
houses  to  have  preached  and  they  would  complain  to 
Justice  Hotham  of  him.  He  would  bid  them  distrain 
his  horse  for  travelling  on  the  First-days,  for  Hotham 
spoke  that  to  put  them  off  with,  for  they  knew  he  used 
none  but  travelled  on  foot.  So  at  last  he  would  get  into 
the  steeplehouse  and  get  into  the  pulpit,  and  after  the  psalm 
was  sung,  up  would  Boys  start  to  preach,  for  he  had  been 
a zealous  man  in  his  way  before  he  was  convinced.  I had 
several  discourses  with  him  before  he  came  to  be  con- 
vinced, and  one  day  I asked  him  a question  which  was: 
what  it  was  that  Christ  put  his  sheep  forth  from,  that  heard 
his  voice  and  followed  him,  for  them  that  was  unput-forth 
by  Christ  could  not  hear  his  voice;  which  set  the  man  so 
that  he  could  not  answer  it — with  other  suchlike  questions. 

^ Probably  Pickering  where  there  are  noted  frescoes. 

2 Burdett  lived  at  Egton  Bridge. 


90  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

And  after  this  I came  up  through  the  country  towards 
Cranswick  to  Captain  Pursloe  and  Justice  Hotham’s. 
Justice  Hotham  was  glad  that  the  Lord’s  power  and  truth 
was  spread  and  so  many  had  received  it,  and  that  Justice 
Robinson  was  so  civil.  And  moreover  he  said,  if  God 
had  not  raised  up  this  principle  of  light  and  life,  the  nation 
had  been  overspread  with  Ranterism  and  all  the  justices 
in  the  nation  could  not  stop  it  with  all  their  laws,  because 
they  would  have  said  as  they  said  and  done  as  they  com- 
manded them  and  yet  kept  their  principle  still.  But 
this  principle  of  Truth  overthrows  the  root  and  ground  of 
their  principle,  and  overthrows  their  principle,  which  they 
could  not  have  done  with  all  their  laws,  as  he  said,  and  he 
was  glad  the  Lord  had  raised  up  this  principle  of  life  and 
Truth. 

And  from  thence  I passed  up  into  Holderness  Howards 
the  land’s  end;j  and  came  to  a justice’s  house,  one  Pearson, 
where  there  was  a very  tender  woman  that  believed  in  the 
Truth  and  said  she  could  have  left  all  and  followed  me. 
And  from  thence  I passed  to  Ulrome  to  George  Hartas’s^ 
where  many  of  that  town  were  convinced.  And  on  the 
First-day  I was  moved  to  go  into  the  steeplehouse.  The 
priest  had  got  another  priest  to  help  him  and  a many 
professors  and  contenders  was  gathered,  but  the  Lord’s 
power  was  over  all  and  a great  deal  of  good  service  I 
had  for  the  Lord.  The  priests  fled  away,  and  some  of  those 
great  professors  were  convinced,  and  stood  honest,  faithful 
men,  men  of  account  <in  that  place). 

And  from  thence  I passed  up  in  the  country  and  had 
some  service  in  the  towns  at  night  amongst  people  and  the 
next  day  Friends  and  friendly  people  left  me  and  I passed 
alone,  ^and  as  I went  I spoke  through  the  towns  and  by  the 
sea  side  and  to  people  in  the  fields,  of  the  day  of  the  Lord 
that  was  coming  upon  all  ungodliness  and  unrighteousness, 
and  how  that  Christ  was  come  to  teach  his  people  himself, 
and^  warning  them  to  repent.  And  so  I turned  into  a 

^ This  was  in  March,  1 652. 

j j S.J.,  p.  6. 


^ k SJ.,  p.  6. 


AT  PATRINGTON 


91 


1652] 

town  towards  night,  called  Patrington;  and  as  I was  going 
along  the  town,  preaching  and  speaking,  I warned  the  priest 
that  was  in  the  street  and  people  to  repent  and  turn  to  the 
Lord.  ^Some  heard  and  others  said  that  I was  mad,^ 
and  it  grew  dark  before  I came  to  the  end  of  the  town. 
And  a great  deal  of  people  gathered  about  me  and  I declared 
the  Truth  and  the  word  of  life  to  them.  And  after,  I 
went  to  an  inn  and  desired  them  to  let  me  have  a lodging 
and  they  would  not;  and  I desired  them  to  let  me  have  a 
little  meat  and  milk  and  i Vv^ould  pay  them  for  it,  but  they 
would  not.  So  I walked  out  of  the  town  and  a company 
of  fellows  followed  me  and  asked  me  what  news,  and  I bid 
them  repent  and  fear  the  Lord,  ^and  prize  their  time,  for 
I saw  their  question  was  tempting.^ 

And  after  I was  passed  a pretty  way  out  of  the  town  I 
came  to  another  house  and  desired  them  to  let  me  have  a 
little  meat  and  drink  and  lodging  for  my  money,  but  they 
would  not  neither  but  denied  me.  And  I came  to  another 
house  and  desired  the  same,  but  they  refused  me  also; 
and  then  it  grew  so  dark  that  I could  not  see  the  highway; 
but  I discovered  a ditch  and  got  a little  water  and  refreshed 
myself  and  got  over  the  ditch  and  sat  amongst  the 
furze  bushes,  being  weary  with  travelling,  till  it  was 
day. 

And  at  break  of  day  I got  up  and  passed  on  in  the  fields, 
^when  I could  see  my  way,^  and  there  came  a man  v/ith  a 
great  pike  and  went  along  with  me  to  a town.  He  raised 
the  town  and  the  constable  and  chief  constable  upon  me, 
before  the  sun  was  up,  ^having  a warrant  that  they  had  made 
at  Patrington;^  and  so  I declared  God’s  everlasting  Truth 
amongst  them  and  warned  them  to  repent,  and  that  the  day 
of  the  Lord  was  coming  upon  all  sin  and  wickedness.  And 
they  seized  me  with  watch-bills  and  pikes  and  staves  and 
halberds,  and  guarded  me  back  again  to  Patrington,  about 
three  miles,  and  when  I came  there  all  the  town  was  up  in  an 
uproar,  and  the  priest  and  constables  <were  consulting 
together),  and  so  I had  an  opportunity  to  declare  the  words 

^ ^ S./.,  pp.  6,  7. 


92  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

of  life  and  Truth  amongst  them  again,  and  warned  them  to 
repent.  And  at  last  a professor,  a tender  man,  called  me 
to  his  house,  and  I took  a little  bread  and  milk,  having 
not  eaten  before  for  some  days.  Then  they  guarded  me 
about  nine  miles  to  a justice,  and  when  I v/as  come  near 
his  door  there  came  a man  riding  after  me  and  asked  whether 
I was  the  man  that  was  apprehended.  And  I asked  him 
wherefore  he  asked,  and  he  said,  ‘ For  no  hurt  ’,  and  I 
told  him  I was,  and  he  rid  away  to  the  justice  before  me. 
And  before  I was  brought  in  before  him,  the  guard  said 
it  was  well  if  the  justice  was  not  drunk  before  we  came  to 
him  for  he  used  to  be  drunk  very  early.  And  when  I was 
brought  before  him  “he  bad  me  put  off  my  hat,  and  I 
took  it  off  in  my  hand,  and  said  to  him,  ‘ Doth  this  trouble 
thee  ? ’ And  I put  it  on  again and  I said  ‘ thou  ’ to 
him,  and  he  asked  the  man  <that  rid  thither  before  me> 
whether  I was  not  mazed  or  fond.  And  he  said,  no,  it 
was  my  principle.  So  I warned  him  to  repent  and  come  to 
the  light  that  Christ  had  enlightened  him  withal,  that  with  it 
he  might  see  all  his  evil  words  and  actions  that  he  had  done 
and  acted,  and  his  ungodly  ways  he  had  walked  in,  and 
ungodly  words  he  had  spoken,  and  so  return  to  Christ 
Jesus  whilst  he  had  time,  and  whilst  he  had  time  to  prize  it : 
and  then  said  he,  ‘ Ay,  ay;  the  Light  that  is  spoken  of  in 
the  third  of  John.’  And  I desired  him  that  he  would 
obey  it  and  mind  it,  for  I laid  my  hand  upon  him  and 
admonished  him,  and  he  was  brought  down  by  the  power 
of  the  Lord,  and  all  the  watchmen  stood  amazed.  So 
after,  he  took  me  into  a little  parlour  with  the  other  man 
and  desired  to  see  what  I had  in  my  pockets  of  letters  or 
intelligence,  and  I plucked  out  my  linen  and  showed  him 
I had  no  letters:  so  he  said,  ‘ He  is  not  a vagrant  by  his 
linen.  ’ 

So  he  set  me  at  liberty  and  I went  back  again  to  Patrington 
with  the  man  aforesaid,  who  lived  at  Patrington,  that  asked 
whether  I was  the  man  that  was  apprehended,  and  when 
I came  there  he  would  have  had  me  have  a meeting  at  the 
“ “ S.J.,  p.  7. 


AT  PATRINGTON 


1652] 


93 


cross,  but  1 said  it  was  no  matter,  his  house  would  serve. 
He  desired  I would  go  and  lie  down  upon  a bed  or  in  the 
bed,  for  they  had  got  a report  that  I would  not  lie  in  any 
bed;  that  he  and  his  wife  might  say  they  had  seen  me  lie 
in  a bed  or  upon  a bed;  because  at  that  time  I lay  many 
times  without  doors. 

So  on  the  First-day  I had  a great  meeting  there  at  his 
house.  And  I went  out  of  the  meeting,  and  said  nothing 
to  any  one,  and  went  to  the  steeplehouse  and  declared 
the  Truth  to  both  priest  and  people;  and  the  people  did 
not  molest  me  so  I brought  the  power  of  God  over  them 
and  came  again  to  the  meeting,  where  there  were  many 
that  were  convinced  of  the  Lord’s  everlasting  Truth  and 
stand  to  this  day.  And  they  were  exceeding  sorry  and 
grieved  that  they  should  not  receive  me  nor  give  me  lodging 
(when  I was  there  before). 

So  1 passed  through  the  country  to  the  farthest  land  in 
that  country,  warning  people  to  repent  both  in  towns  and 
country,  and  directed  them  to  their  teacher  Christ  Jesus. 
And  on  the  First-day  I came  to  one  Colonel  Overton’s^ 
house  and  had  a great  meeting  of  the  prime  of  the  people 
of  that  country;  which  were  generally  convinced  and 
received  the  Truth  and  the  word  of  life.  Many  things  were 
opened  to  them  of  the  Scriptures  that  they  never  heard 
in  their  lives;  and  so  many  were  convinced  and  settled  in 
God’s  truth. 

And  so  I came  to  Patrington  again  and  visited  those 
Friends  that  were  convinced;  and  they  informed  me  how 
that  a tailor  and  some  wild  blades  had  made  that  warrant 
to  carry  me  before  that  justice.  So  the  tailor  came  to  ask 
me  forgiveness,  fearing  I would  trouble  them;  and  the 
constables  were  afraid  lest  I should  trouble  them;  but  I 
forgave  them  and  warned  them  to  mend  their  lives  and  turn 
to  the  Lord. 

And  when  I was  at  Ulrome  before  in  the  steeplehouse, 
there  came  a professor  and  gave  me  a push  in  the  breast 
in  the  steeplehouse  and  bid  me  get  out  of  the  church. 

^ Robert  Overton  was  imbued  with  Fifth  Monarchism. 


94  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

‘ Alack,  poor  man  said  I,  ‘ dost  thou  call  the  steeplehouse 
the  church  ? the  church  is  the  people  whom  God  has 
purchased  with  his  blood,  and  not  the  house.’  And  Justice 
Hotham,  hearing  of  the  abuse  of  this  man  unto  me,  sent 
a warrant  for  him  and  bound  him  over  to  the  Sessions: 
he  was  so  affected  with  the  truth  and  zealous  to  keep  the 
peace  of  the  country.  And  he  had  asked  me  before 
whether  any  people  had  meddled  with  me  or  abused  me,  i 
but  I was  not  to  tell  him  any  thing  but  was  to  forgive  all. 

And  I went  to  several  great  houses  warning  them  to  | 
repent  and  some  received  me  lovingly  and  some  slighted 
me.  And  so  I passed  through  the  country  and  at  night 
came  to  another  town  and  desired  lodging  and  meat  and 
I would  pay  for  it.  They  would  not  let  me  lodge  except 
I would  go  to  the  constable,  v>^hich  was  the  custom,  they 
said,  of  all  lodgers  at  inns  if  strangers;  so  I told  them  I 
should  not  go,  for  I was  an  innocent  man,  and  that  custom 
was  for  suspicious  persons,  but  I was  innocent,  and  if 
they  would  let  me  have  lodging  and  meat  I would  pay  for  it. 
And  so  I warned  them  to  repent  and  declared  unto  them  the 
day  of  their  visitation  and  salvation  and  turned  them  to  the 
hght  of  Christ  and  spirit  of  God,  and  so  passed  away, 
and  the  people  was  something  tendered  and  troubled  after- 
wards. And  when  it  grew  dark  I spied  a haystack  and 
sat  under  it  all  night  till  morning. 

And  the  next  day  I passed  into  Hull  and  admonished 
and  warned  people  as  I went  of  their  salvation  and  to  turn 
to  Christ  Jesus.  And  at  night  I got  lodging,  but  was  very 
sore  with  travelling  a-foot  so  far. 


CHAPTER  V 


D SO  after,  I passed  through  the  country  and  came  to 


Balby ; and  so  visited  Friends  up  and  down  in  those 


parts,  and  then  passed  into  the  edge  of  Nottingham- 
shire and  visited  Friends  there. 

was  moved  to  go  from  a meeting  in  Nottinghamshire 
to  a steeplehouse,  and  when  the  priest  had  done,  I spake 
to  him  and  the  people;  and  the  priest  went  away,  but  the 
people  stayed  and  heard  the  Truth  declared  to  them  till 
it  was  within  the  night;  and  I was  moved  to  kneel  down 
in  the  steeplehouse  and  pray  among  the  people;  and  there 
came  a woman  behind  me  and  kissed  the  crown  of  my  head 
when  I was  praying  in  the  dark;  and  she  was  one  of  the 
world.  And  there  combined  together  a company  of  men 
to  hale  me  out,  and  they  did,  but  it  was  well  and  the  Truth 
came  over  all  for  there  were  many  then  that  had  a love 
to  the  Truth,  and  it  made  them  to  love  it  the  more.  We 
had  a meeting  in  that  town,  and  so  I passed  away  in  the 
truth  of  God  and  that  was  over  all.^  And  on  the  First-day 
I went  to  a steeplehouse  this  side  of  Trent,  and  in  the 
afternoon  I went  to  another  on  the  other  side  of  Trent, 
declaring  to  them  the  word  of  life  and  bringing  them  to 
their  teacher,  Christ  Jesus,  who  was  their  saviour  and  died 
for  them,  that  they  might  hear  him.  And  so  I went 
into  the  country  and  had  several  meetings  up  and  down 
thereaways,  and  came  to  a place  where  there  came  a great 
man,  and  a priest,  and  many  professors,  but  the  Lord’s 
truth  came  over  them  all,  and  they  went  their  ways,  and 
so  I went  into  the  meeting,  and  there  came  a man  that  had 
been  at  a meeting,  and  he  raised  an  accusation  and  made 
a noise  up  and  down  the  country  and  said  that  I said  I 
was  Christ. 

^ a 5./.,  p.  15. 


95 


96  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

And  I went  to  Gainsborough,  and  there,  a Friend  having 
been  speaking  in  the  market,  the  market  and  town  were 
all  in  an  uproar.  And  I went  into  a friendly  man’s  house 
and  the  people  rushed  into  it  and  it  was  filled  with  pro- 
fessors and  disputers.  And  so  this  false  accuser  came 
in  before  them  all,  and  the  rude  people,  and  accused  me 
openly  before  all  the  people,  that  I said  I was  Christ  and 
had  brought  a-many  witnesses  to  prove  it;  and  so  set  a 
rage  in  the  people  that  they  had  much  to  do  to  keep  their 
hands  off  me.  And  in  the  eternal  power  of  God  I was 
moved  of  the  Lord  God  to  stand  up  atop  of  the  table  and 
tell  them  that  Christ  was  in  them  except  they  were  repro- 
bates; and  it  was  the  eternal  power  of  Christ  and  Christ 
that  spake  in  me  that  time  to  them.  And  generally  with 
one  consent  all  the  people  did  acknowledge  the  thing, 
and  gave  testimony  to  it,  and  confessed  to  it — yea,  even 
the  very  professors  and  all  them  that  were  in  a rage  against 
me — and  I said  that  if  the  power  of  God  and  the  Seed 
spoke  in  man  or  woman  it  was  Christ.  And  so  I called 
him  Judas,  and  all  were  satisfied  except  himself,  and  a 
professor,  and  his  own  false  witnesses.  So  I told  him 
again  that  he  was  Judas  and  that  it  was  the  word  of  the 
Lord  and  of  Christ  to  him,  and  Judas’s  end  should  be  his. 
And  so  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all  and  all  the  people 
parted  in  peace,  but  this  Judas  went  away  and  hanged 
himself  shortly  after,  and  a stake  was  driven  into  his  grave. 

And  after,  the  wicked  priest  went  and  raised  a slander 
upon  us  and  said  that  a Quaker  had  hanged  himself  in 
Lincolnshire  and  had  a stake  driven  through  him.  This 
they  printed  to  the  nation,  adding  sin  unto  sin,  which 
the  Truth  was  clear  of;  for  he  was  no  more  a Quaker 
than  the  priest  that  printed  it.^ 

And  so  I passed  out  of  the  country  in  the  Lord’s  power, 
and  came  into  Yorkshire  again.  But  many  were  convinced 
of  the  Lord’s  everlasting  Truth  and  settled  therein  in 
Lincolnshire,  and  received  the  Lord’s  teaching  and  Gospel. 

^ Probably  Gotten  Crosland,  of  Ackworth,  near  Pontefract,  Yorks.; 
see  Gilpin:  The  Quakers  Shaken,  1653. 


1652]  BEATEN  AT  WARMSWORTH  97 

And  after  this  I went  to  Warms  worth  steeplehouse  in 
Yorkshire  in  the  forenoon,  ^'and  some  friends  followed  me. 
And  they  shut  the  door  and  kept  me  out.  After  a while 
they  let  in  Thomas  Aldam  to  his  seat  and  then  shut  it  again. 
And  the  priest  said  he  would  catechise  him  and  fell  upon 
him  asking  him  questions.  And  at  last  they  opened  the 
door  and  I went  in;  and  as  soon  as  I came  in,  he  lost  his 
matter  and  stopped  his  preaching  and  said,  ‘ What  come 
you  hither  for  ? ’ And  he  asked  again  the  same  question ; 
and  he  asked,  ‘ What  have  you  to  say,  what  have  you  to 
say  ? ’ He  was  in  such  a maze,  he  cried,  ‘ Come,  come, 
I will  prove  them  false  prophets,  in  Matthew  7 and  24.’ 
But  he  was  so  confounded  he  could  not  find  the  chapter, 
but  fell  asking  me  questions  again,  what  we  came  hither  for. 
And  I stood  still  all  this  while,  not  making  any  disturbance 
among  them,  and  at  last  I said,  ‘ Seeing  here  are  so  many 
questions  asked,  I may  answer  them.’  And  then  I began 
to  speak  forth  the  Truth  amongst  them,  and  of  the  false 
prophets  and  how  he  was  in  the  steps  of  them,  and  I held 
forth  Christ.  And  as  soon  as  I began,  the  people  violently 
rushed  upon  me  and  thrust  me  out  of  the  steeplehouse 
again  and  locked  the  door  on  me.  And  I stayed  in  the 
steeplehouse  yard  till  they  came  forth,  and  as  soon  as  they 
had  done  and  were  come  forth  I began  to  speak  to  the  priest 
and  people  the  Truth,  and  how  he  was  in  the  footsteps 
of  the  Pharisees.  And  the  priest  shook  me  and  the  people 
run  upon  me  and  beat  me  sore  with  their  crab-tree  staves 
and  threw  clods  and  stones  at  me  and  threw  me  about.^ 
But  I warned  them  and  him  of  the  day  of  the  Lord,  and 
turned  them  to  Christ  and  to  repent.  But  I received  not 
much  hurt,  for  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  them  all. 

And  so  after,  1 went  to  another  steeplehouse  in  the 
afternoon,  but  the  priest  had  done  before  I came  there 
and  so  I did  admonish  them,  and  turned  them  to  their 
teacher,  Christ  Jesus;  and  after  returned  back  again  to 
Balby,  and  went  to  Doncaster,  where  formerly  I had 
preached  repentance  unto  them  on  a market  day,  which 

b ^ Cf.  S.J.,  p.  11. 


98  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

had  made  a great  noise  and  a dread  in  the  country.  And 
on  the  First-day  I went  to  the  steeplehouse  and  after  the 
priest  had  done  I spoke  to  him  and  the  people  what  the 
Lord  God  commanded  me,  and  they  were  in  a great  rage 
and  hurried  me  out  and  threw  me  down  the  stairs,  and  haled 
me  before  the  mayor  and  magistrates.  A great  examina- 
tion I had  and  a great  deal  of  work  with  them,  and  they 
threatened  my  life  if  ever  I came  there  again,  and  that  they 
would  leave  m.e  to  the  mercy  of  the  people,  "my  blood 
be  upon  my  own  head.<^  Nevertheless,  I declared  Truth 
unto  them  and  turned  them  from  the  darkness  to  the  light 
of  Christ,  whether  they  would  hear  or  forbear,  and  how  that 
God  and  Christ  was  come  to  teach  his  people  himself. 
And  after  a while  they  put  me  out  amongst  the  rude 
multitude,  and  some  Friends  were  with  me.  They  threw 
stones  at  us  down  the  streets;  and  there  was  an  innkeeper 
that  was  a bailiff  came  and  took  us  into  his  house;  and 
they  broke  his  head  that  the  blood  run  down  his  face  with 
the  stones  that  they  threw  at  us,  ^and  he  was  Lot,  I told 
him,  that  ventured  himself  and  took  us  into  his  house 
from  the  rude  multitude;  and  we  stayed  there  awhile  in 
his  house  and  showed  the  people  the  priests’  fruits;  and  I 
about  his  house  the  rude  people  waited,  then  we  went  to  I 
Balby  about  a mile  off  and  the  rude  people  stoned  us  down 
the  lane,  a great  way  out  of  the  town,^  but,  blessed  be  the 
Lord,  we  did  not  receive  much  hurt. 

And  the  next  First-day  I went  to  Tickhill  and  there  the 
Friends  of  that  side  gathered  together  and  there  was  a 
meeting;  and  a mighty  brokenness  with  the  power  of  God 
there  was  amongst  the  people.  ®And  when  Friends  were 
in  the  meeting  and  fresh  and  full  of  the  power  of  God  i 
I was  moved  to  go  to  the  steeplehouse,  and  the  priest^  had 
done.  And  he  and  most  of  the  heads  of  the  parish  were 
got  up  into  the  chancel,  and  I went  up  amiong  them.  And 
when  I began  to  speak,  they  fell  upon  me,  and  the  clerk  | 
up  with  his  Bible  as  I was  speaking  and  hit  me  in  the  face 

^ John  Gosh  eld. 

« S.J.,  p.  10. 


d 


Cf.  S.J.,  p.  10. 


1652]  STONED  AT  TICKHILL  99 

that  my  face  gushed  out  with  blood,  and  it  run  off  me  in  the 
steeplehouse.  And  then  they  cried,  ‘ Take  him  out  of  the 
church  ’,  and  they  punched  me  and  thrust  me  out  and  beat 
me  sore  with  books,  fists  and  sticks,  and  threw  me  over 
a hedge  into  a close  and  there  beat  me  and  then  threw  me 
over  again.  And  then  they  beat  me  into  a house,  punching 
me  through  the  entry,  and  there  I lost  my  hat  and  never 
had  it  again,  and  after  dragged  me  into  the  street,  stoning 
and  beating  me  along,  sorely  blooded  and  bruised.  And 
the  priest  beheld  a great  part  of  this  his  people’s 
doings.® 

And  so  after  a while  I got  into  the  meeting  again  amongst 
Friends,  and  the  priest  and  people  coming  by  the  Friend’s 
house,  I went  forth  with  Friends  into  the  yard  and  there 
I spoke  to  the  priest  and  people,  ^they  being  in  the  street 
and  I in  the  Friend’s  yard  on  a wall.  My  spirit  was  revived 
again  by  the  power  of  God;  for,  through  their  bruising, 
beating,  blooding,  stoning,  and  throwing  me  down,  I was 
almost  mazed  and  my  body  sore  bruised,  but  by  the  power 
of  the  Lord  I was  refreshed  again,  to  him  be  the  glory.^ 
And  the  priest  scoffed  at  us  and  called  us  Quakers;  but 
I declared  to  them  the  word  of  life  and  showed  to  them  the 
fruits  of  their  teachers  and  how  they  dishonoured  Chris- 
tianity. And  the  Lord’s  power  was  so  over  them  all,  and 
the  word  of  life  was  declared  in  so  much  power  and  dread 
to  them,  that  the  priest  fell  a-trembling  himself,  so  that 
one  said  unto  him,  ‘ Lock  how  the  priest  trembles  and 
shakes,  he  is  turned  a Quaker  also.’ 

And  Friends  were  very  much  abused  that  day  by  the  priest 
and  his  people.  The  justices  hearing  of  it,  two  or  three  of 
them  came  and  sat  to  hear  and  examine  the  business; 
and  he  that  had  shed  my  blood  was  afraid  of  having  his 
hand  cut  off  for  striking  me  in  the  steeplehouse,  but  I 
forgave  him  and  did  not  appear  against  him.  So  I came 
without  my  hat  to  Balby,  about  seven  or  eight  miles. 

(Great  rage  got  up  in  priests  and  people,  and  in  some 
of  the  magistrates  of  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire  >; 

® ® Cf.  5./.,  pp.  10,  11.  f f S.J.,  pp.  10,  11. 


100  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

the  priest  of  Warmsworth^  procured  a warrant  for  me  and 
Thomas  Aldam  from  the  justices,  and  it  was  to  be  executed 
in  all  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire.  I had  a vision  of  a 
sman  and  a§^  bear  and  two  great  mastiff  dogs ; that  I should 
pass  by  them  and  they  should  do  me  no  hurt  and  so  I 
did,  Sand  they  smiled  upon  me.s  The  constable  took 
Thomas  Aldam  with  the  warrant  and  carried  him  to  York,^ 
and  I went  with  Thomas  Aldam  towards  York  twenty 
miles,  and  he  had  the  warrant  for  me  in  his  pocket  but  he 
said  he  saw  me  before  but  he  was  loath  to  trouble  men  that 
were  strangers,  but  Thomas  Aldam  was  his  neighbour; 
^he  desired  me  that  I should  not  tell  any  one  that  he  saw  me, 
and  I told  him  I could  not  lie  and  so  we  parted.^  So  the 
Lord’s  power  restrained  him  that  he  was  not  able  to  meddle 
with  me  till  we  came  to  Lieutenant  Roper’s,  where  we  had  a 
great  meeting  of  many  considerable  men.  The  Truth  was 
wonderfully  declared  amongst  them  and  the  Scriptures 
and  Christ’s  words  and  the  parables  were  opened  unto  them 
and  the  state  of  the  church  in  the  apostles’  days  and  the 
apostacy  since;  and  the  Truth  was  mightily  opened  to  them 
that  those  great  men  did  generally  confess  and  beheve  that 
this  Truth  must  go  over  the  whole  world.  | 

And  there  were  James  Nayler,  Thomas  Goodaire  and  ] 
William  Dewsbury  that  had  been  convinced  the  year  before  ' 
and  Richard  Farnsworth  and  the  constable  aforesaid,  and 
Thomas  Aldam  stayed  the  meeting  and  afterwards  went 
towards  York  prison,  ^ where  they  kept  him  two  years,^  ' 
but  did  not  meddle  with  me. 

And  so  I went  to  Wakefield;  and  there  on  the  First-day 
after,  I went  to  a steeplehouse  where  James  Nayler  had  been 
a member  of  an  Independent  church.^  And  when  I came 
in,  when  the  priest'^  had  done,  the  people  bid  me  come  up 

^ Thomas  Rookby. 

^ Aldam ’s  imprisonment  began  in  May,  1652. 

3 Woodchurch  (West  Ardsley). 

4 Christopher  Marshall  (1614-1673),  ejected  minister. 

g g S.J.,  p.  11.  ^ ^ S.J.,  pp.  11,  12. 

i i S.J.,  p.  12. 


AT  WAKEFIELD 


1652] 


101 


to  the  priest  and  when  I came  up  Uo  the  pulpiti  and  began 
to  declare  the  v/ord  of  life  to  him  and  showed  them  the 
deceit  of  the  priest,  they  rushed  me  out,  of  a sudden,  at 
the  other  door,  and  fell  a-punching  and  beating  of  me,  and 
called,  ‘ Let  us  have  him  to  the  stocks  but  the  Lord’s 
power  was  over  them  and  they  were  not  suffered  to 
put  me  in.  ^And  this  was  the  greatest  professor  in 
Yorkshire.^ 

And  so  I passed  away  to  the  meeting  where  were  a great 
many  professors  and  friendly  people  gathered  and  a great 
convincement  there  was  that  day,  and  people  satisfied  with 
the  Lord’s  teaching  which  they  were  turned  to.  <Here 
we  got  some  lodging  for)  we  had  lain  out,  four  of  us,  under 
a hedge  the  night  before,  for  there  were  few  Friends  to 
receive  us  there. 

And  this  priest’s  name  was  Christopher  Marshall, 
whom  the  Lord  not  long  after  cut  off  in  his  wickedness.^ 
And  James  Nayler  was  a member  of  his  church,  whom  he 
excommunicated  not  long  after.  And  he  raised  a-many 
wicked  slanders  upon  me,  that  I carried  bottles  and  that 
I made  people  drink  of  my  bottles,  and  that  made  them  to 
follow  me,  and  that  I rid  of  a great  black  horse,  and  that 
I was  seen  in  one  country  upon  my  black  horse  in  one 
hour  and  in  the  same  hour  in  another  country  three  score 
miles  off,  and  that  I would  give  a fellow  money  to  follow 
me  when  I was  on  my  black  horse.  And  with  these  hellish 
lies  he  fed  his  people  to  make  them  speak  evil  of  the  Truth 
which  was  in  Jesus,  that  I had  declared  amongst  them; 
for  I went  on  foot  and  had  no  horse  at  that  time,  <which 
the  people  generally  knew).  But  by  his  lies  he  preached 
many  of  his  hearers  away  from  him,  and  the  Lord’s 
power  came  over  them  all  and  delivered  us  out  of  their 
hands. 

And  the  same  day  Richard  Farnsworth  went  to  another 
high  priest’s  steeplehouse  to  declare  unto  them  the  word  of 
Truth  and  a great  service  he  had  amongst  them,  that  the 

^ He  died  in  1673. 

j 3 SJ„  p.  9. 


k k sj,^  p.  9. 


102  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

people  said  we  made  more  noise  in  the  country  than  the 
coming  up  of  the  Scotch  Army/  the  Lord’s  power  was  so 
mighty  over  all. 

After  this  I came  to  a place  called  High  Town 
[Liversedge],  where  there  was  a woman  had  been  convinced 
a little  before,  and  so  we  went  to  her  house  and  had  a 
meeting.  The  townspeople  riz  and  we  declared  the  Truth 
to  them  and  the  world  of  life  and  had  some  service  with 
them  for  the  Lord;  and  they  passed  away  peaceably. 

But  there  was  a widow  woman,  one  Green,  in  the  town, 
who  went  to  a great  man,  called  a gentleman,  who  <was 
reported  to  have)  killed  two  men  and  a woman,  and 
informed  him  against  us,  though  he  was  no  officer.  The 
next  morning  we  drew  up  some  queries  to  send  to  the  priest, 
and  when  we  had  done,  just  as  we  were  passing  away,  the 
townspeople  came  up  running  and  some  friendly  people 
and  told  us  that  this  murdering  man  was  sharpening  a 
crook  to  pluck  us  out  of  the  house,  and  pike  to  stab  us; 
and  was  coming  up  with  his  sword  by  his  side,  but  we 
were  passing  away  and  so  missed  him,  ffiut  we  were  gone  | 
hardly  a quarter  of  an  houd  when  he  came  to  the  house,  and 
people  concluded,  if  we  had  not  been  gone  he  would  have  j 
murdered  some  of  us.  j 

And  so  that  night  we  lay  in  a wood,  it  being  exceeding 
rainy,  and  we  were  much  wet;  in  the  morning  I was  moved 
to  come  back  to  the  town  again,  and  they  gave  us  a full 
relation  of  this  wicked  man.  So  we  passed  away  to  Brad- 
ford, and  there  we  came  to  a house  where  we  met  Richard 
Farnsworth,  from  v/hom  we  had  parted  before.  And  so 
when  we  came  in  they  set  us  on  meat,  and  as  I was  going 
to  sup  of  their  posset,  the  word  of  the  Lord  came  to  me, 

‘ Eat  not  thy  bread  with  such  as  has  an  evil  eye.’  And 
I got  up  from  the  table  and  ate  nothing.  The  woman 
was  a Baptist;  and  after  I had  admonished  her  and  the  family 

^ This  doubtless  refers  to  the  march  into  England  of  the  Scots 
under  Prince  Charles  in  1651,  which  ended  in  the  battle  of  Worcester 
on  3rd  September. 

1 ^ S.J„  p.  15. 


1652]  ‘ THE  PEOPLE  FELL  UPON  US  ’ 103 

of  the  house  to  turn  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  and  hearken 
to  him  their  teacher  I passed  away. 

And  so  we  passed  through  the  country  preaching  repen- 
tance to  the  people  and  came  into  a market  town  in  Derby- 
shire on  the  market  day,  and  there  was  a lecture.  And  I 
went  into  the  steeplehouse  where  there  was  a many  priests 
and  professors  and  people.  The  priest  took  his  text 
out  of  Jeremiah  5,  the  latter  part  of  the  chapter,  ‘ My 
people  love  to  have  it  so.’  ^And  when  the  priest  had  done 
I spake  to  him  and  the  people  of  the  Truth  and  the  light 
and  the  day  of  the  Lord,  and  of  God’s  work  in  them,  and 
the  Truth  in  them,  and  the  Spirit  and  the  teacher  within 
them,  and  of  their  teachers  without  them  and  how  that  the 
priest  had“  left  out  the  other  part  of  the  verse,  ‘ The  prophets 
prophesy  falsely  and  the  priests  bear  rule  by  their  means, 
and  my  people  love  to  have  it  so.’  ^And  when  I told  the 
priest  of  his  wronging  the  Scriptures  and  that  he  did  not 
speak  it  all,  for  if  he  had  it  had  been  his  own  condition, 
he  fled  away,  and  the  people  fell  upon  us  and  put  us  out, 
and  so  we  passed  away  in  the  Truth. At  night  we  came 
to  a country  house;  and  there  being  no  alehouse  near  they 
desired  us  to  stay  there  all  night,  v/here  we  had  a good 
service  for  the  Lord,  declaring  his  Truth  amongst  them; 
for  the  Lord  had  said  unto  me  if  I did  but  set  up  one  in 
the  same  spirit  that  the  prophets  and  apostles  were  in  that 
gave  forth  the  Scriptures,  he  or  she  should  shake  all  the 
country  in  their  profession  ten  miles  about  them;  and  if 
they  did  own  God  and  Christ  and  his  prophets  and  apostles, 
they  must  own  him  or  her.  For  all  people  had  the  Scrip- 
tures, but  were  not  in  that  same  light  and  power,  and  spirit 
that  they  were  in  that  gave  forth  the  Scriptures  and  so  they 
neither  knew  God,  nor  Christ,  nor  the  prophets,  nor  the 
apostles,  nor  Scriptures,  neither  had  they  unity  one  with 
another  being  out  of  the  power  and  spirit  of  God. 

And  the  next  day  we  passed  on,  warning  people  as  we 
met  them  of  the  day  of  the  Lord  that  was  coming  upon 
them.  As  we  went  I spied  a great  high  hill  called  Pendle 
™ S.J.,  p.  14. 


104  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

Hill,  and  I went  on  the  top  of  it  with  much  ado,  it  was  so 
steep;  but  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  go  atop  of  it;  and 
when  I came  atop  of  it  I saw  Lancashire  sea;  and  there  atop 
of  the  hill  I was  moved  to  sound  the  day  of  the  Lord;^ 
and  the  Lord  let  me  see  a-top  of  the  hill  in  what  places 
he  had  a great  people  <to  be  gathered.  As  I went  down,  > 
on  the  hill  side  I found  a spring  of  water  and  refreshed 
myself,  for  I had  eaten  little  and  drunk  little  for  several 
days. 

And  so  at  night  we  came  to  an  alehouse  and  stayed  all 
night  and  declared  much  to  the  man  of  the  house,  and  writ 
a paper  to  the  priests  and  professors  concerning  the  day 
of  the  Lord  and  how  Christ  was  come  to  teach  people 
himself  by  his  power  and  spirit  and  to  bring  them  off  all 
the  world’s  ways  and  teachers  to  his  own  free  teaching, 
who  had  bought  them  and  was  the  Saviour.  And  the  man 
of  the  house  did  spread  the  paper  up  and  down  and  was 
mightily  affected  with  Truth.  And  the  Lord  opened  to  me 
at  that  place,  and  let  me  see  a great  people  in  white  raiment 
by  a river’s  side^  coming  to  the  Lord,  and  the  place  was 
near  John  Blaykling’s  where  Richard  Robinson  lived. ^ 

And  the  next  day  we  passed  on  ^among  the  fell  countries’^ 
and  at  night  we  got  a little  ferns  or  brackens  and  lay  upon 
a common  and  the  next  morning  went  to  a town  where 
Richard  Farnsworth^  parted  with  me  and  I was  alone 
again. 

So  I came  up  Wensleydale;  and  at  the  market  town  in 
that  dale^  there  was  a lecture  on  the  market  day.  I went 
into  the  steeplehouse,  and  after  the  priest  had  done  I 
declared  the  day  of  the  Lord  to  the  priest  and  people, 

^ Sound  may  here  carry  the  meaning  to  estimate  or  seek  to 
ascertain^  rather  than  the  usual  one  to  make  a sound.  See  also 
p.  302,  note  3. 

2 The  river  Lune. 

3 John  Blaykling  (1625-1705)  of  Draw-well  farm,  Richard  Robinson 
(d.  1673)  of  Brigflatts,  both  near  Sedbergh,  N.W.  Yorkshire. 

4 Of  Tick  Hill,  Yorks.,  d.  1666. 

5 Probably  Hawes,  a town  near  the  head  of  the  dale. 

" ° 5./.,  p.  17, 


1652]  HIS  VISION  ON  PENDLE  HILL  105 

®and  bid  them  repent  and  take  heed  of  deceitful  merchan- 
dise;® and  turned  them  from  the  darkness  to  the  light  and 
from  the  power  of  Satan  unto  God,  that  they  might  come 
to  God  and  Christ’s  teaching  freely.  I declared  freely  and 
largely  the  word  of  life  to  the  people  and  had  not  much 
persecution,  and  afterwards  passed  up  the  dales  warning 
people  to  fear  God  and  declaring  his  Truth  to  them  ^through 
all  the  towns  as  I went.  And  people  took  me  for  a mad 
man  and  distracted,  and  some  followed  me  and  questioned 
with  me  and  were  astonished,®  and  at  last  I came  to  a great 
house  where  there  was  a schoolmaster,  and  they  got  me 
into  the  house;  and  I declared  the  Truth  to  them,  asking 
them  questions  about  their  religion  and  worship,  and  they 
had  me  into  a parlor  and  locked  me  in  and  said  I was  a 
young  man  that  was  mad  and  was  got  away  from  my 
relations  and  they  would  keep  me  till  they  could  send  to  my 
relations.  PBut  they  being  astonished  at  my  answers 
and  the  Truth  I spoke  to  them  I convinced  them  of  that, 
and  they  let  me  forth  and  would  have  had  me  to  have  stayed 
all  night,  but  I was  not  to  stay  but  admonished  them  and 
turned  them  to  the  light  of  Christ  by  which  they  might 
come  to  see  their  salvation,  and  so  passed  away  and  wan- 
dered in  the  night. 

And  at  last  I came  to  a little  alehouse  <upon  a common) 
where  there  were  some  fellows  drinking.  And  I walked 
up  and  down  in  the  house  and  after  a time  they  began  to 
drink  to  me.  I would  not  drink  with  them  and  I spoke 
to  them  the  Truth,  warning  them  of  the  mighty  day  of  the 
Lord  that  was  coming  and  bid  them  take  heed  of  that  which 
showed  them  sin  and  evil  in  their  hearts,  upon  which  one 
rose  against  me  with  a club.  And  they  held  one  another 
and  then  they  were  quiet.  I was  walking  out  as  to  have 
lien  all  night  out  doors,  and  he  that  would  have  struck  me 
followed  me,p  with  a batch  of  knives  by  his  side,  under 
pretence  that  he  would  have  whispered  with  me.  But  I 
kept  him  off  and  warned  him  to  repent.  So  the  Lord  pre- 
served me  by  his  power  from  him,  and  he  Vv^ent  into  the 

® ® 5./.,  p.  17.  p P Cf.  5./.,  p.  17. 


106  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

house  again.  "^And  I was  moved  to  go  into  the  house 
again  and  so  staid  there  all  night.^  The  next  morning  i 
passed  away  and  came  through  other  dales  and  warned 
and  exhorted  people  to  repent  and  turn  to  the  Lord,  and 
several  were  convinced.  I came  to  one  house,  to  a kinsman 
of  John  Blaykling  and  he  would  have  given  me  money 
but  ^1  was  moved  to  shake  my  hand  at  it^  and  would  not 
receive  it. 

So  I came  through  the  dales  to  a man’s  house,  one 
Tennant,^  and  1 was  moved  to  speak  to  the  family,  and  as 
I was  turning  away  from  them  I was  moved  to  turn  again 
and  to  declare  God’s  everlasting  Truth  to  him  and  he  was 
convinced,  and  his  family,  and  lived  and  died  in  the  Truth. 
And  after  this  I went  into  Dent  where  many  were  convinced 
also.  So  I came  to  Major  Bousfield’s  in  Garsdale  where  j 
he  and  several  more  received  me,  and  some  were  con-  | 
vinced  and  stand  to  this  day.  And  I passed  through  ^ 
Grisedale  and  several  other  of  those  dales,  where  some 
v/ere  convinced. 

And  from  Major  Bousfield’s  I came  to  Richard  Robin- 
son’s; and  as  I was  passing  along  the  way  I asked  a man,  ; 
which  was  Richard  Robinson’s;  he  asked  me  from  whence  | 
1 came  and  I told  him,  ‘ From  the  Lord  ’,  and  when  I | 
came  to  Richard  Robinson’s  I declared  the  everlasting  ' 
Truth  to  him  ^and  he  was  convinced.^  And  yet  a dark 
jealousy  riz  up  in  him,  after  I was  gone  to  bed,  that  I might  ; 
be  somebody  that  was  come  to  rob  his  house,  and  he  locked  ■ 
all  his  doors  fast. 

And  the  next  day,  being  the  First-day  I went  to  a Separate 
meeting^  at  Justice  Benson’s,^  where  the  people  were  gener- 
ally convinced ; this  was  the  place  that  I had  seen  a people 
coming  forth  in  white  raiment.  A mighty  meeting  there 
was  and  is  to  this  day,  near  Sedbergh,  which  I gathered  in 
the  name  of  Jesus. 

^ James  Tennant  (d.  1674)  of  Scarhouse  in  Langstrothdale. 

^ Ttiat  is,  a meeting  of  separated  people,  or  Seekers. 

3 Gervase  Benson  (d.  1679)  lived  at  Borrats,  at  Sedbergh.  The 
meeting  was  held  at  his  house  on  Whit  Sunday  the  6th  June,  1652. 

^ ^ S.J.,  p.  17. 


1652]  THE  NATURE  OF  THE  CHURCH  107 

And  in  the  week^  there  was  a great  fair  at  Sedbergh  for 
hiring  servants  ''and  many  young  people  came  to  be  hired/ 
I went  to  the  fair  and  declared  through  the  fair  the  day  of  the 
Lord,  and  after  I had  done  I went  into  the  steeplehouse 
yard  ^and  got  up  by  a tree,^  and  most  of  the  people  of  the 
fair  came  to  me,  and  abundance  of  priests  and  professors. 
There  I declared  the  everlasting  Truth  of  the  Lord  and  the 
word  of  life  for  several  hours,  and  that  the  Lord  Christ 
Jesus  was  come  to  teach  his  people  himself  and  bring  them 
olf  all  the  world’s  ways  and  teachers  to  Christ,  their  way 
to  God;  and  I laid  open  all  their  teachers  and  set  up  the 
true  teacher,  Christ  Jesus;  and  how  they  were  judged  by  the 
prophets,  Christ,  and  the  apostles;  and  to  bring  them  off 
the  temples  made  with  hands,  that  they  themselves  might 
know  they  were  the  temples  of  God.  And  never  a priest 
had  power  to  open  his  mouth.  But  at  last  a captain  said, 
why  v/ould  I not  go  into  the  church,  for  that  was  a fit 
place  to  preach  in.  I said  unto  him  I denied  their  church 
Tor  the  church  was  in  God  as  in  1 Thess.  I.  1."^  There 
stood  up  a Separate  preacher,  one  Francis  Howgill,^  that 
had  not  seen  me  before,  and  he  began  to  dispute  with  the 
captain,  but  he  held  his  peace.  Then  said  Francis  Howgill, 
‘ This  man  speaks  with  authority  and  not  as  the  scribes.’ 
So  I opened  to  the  people  that  the  ground  and  house  was 
no  holier  than  another  place,  and  that  the  house  was  not 
the  church,  but  the  people  which  Christ  is  the  head  of: 
and  so,  after  a while  that  I had  made  a stand  amongst  the 
people,  the  priests  came  up  to  me  and  I warned  them  to 
repent.  ^And  when  I was  passing  away  a priest  said  to 
the  people  that  I was  distracted;  his  mouth  being  stopped 
by  the  power  of  God  for  opposing,  that  was  only  his  cover 
to  the  people,^  and  so  they  turned  away,  but  many  people 
were  glad  at  the  hearing  of  the  Truth  declared  unto  them 
that  day,  which  they  received  gladly. 

^ Wednesday,  9th  June. 

2 Francis  Howgill  (1618-1669)  of  Grayrigg,  Westmorland,  early 
publisher  of  Quakerism,  d.  in  Appleby  gaol. 

r rs./.,  p.  18. 


108  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

So  I passed  away  and  I came  into  a house  and  there 
came  in  one  Captain  Ward^  and  he  said,  my  very  eyes 
pierced  through  him,  and  he  was  convinced  of  God’s 
everlasting  Truth  and  lived  and  died  in  it. 

And  the  next  First-day  I came  to  Firbank  ChapeP  ^where 
there  was  a great  meeting  of  the  sober  people  of  the  country,® 
where  Francis  Howgiil  and  John  Audland^  had  been  preach- 
ing in  the  morning;  and  John  Blaykling  and  some  moderate 
people  came  to  me  and  desired  me  not  to  reprove  them 
publicly  for  they  were  not  parish  teachers  but  pretty  sober 
men,  but  I would  not  tell  them  whether  I would  or  no 
though  I had  little  in  me  to  declare  publicly  against  them, 
I told  them  they  must  leave  me  to  the  Lord’s  movings. 
The  chapel  was  full  of  people  and  many  could  not  get  in 
and  Francis  Howgiil  said  he  thought  I looked  into  the 
chapel  (but  I did  not)  and  that  I might  have  killed  him 
with  a crab-apple,  the  Lord’s  power  had  so  surprised 
him. 

So  they  had  quickly  done  with  their  preaching  to  the 
people  at  that  time  and  they,  and  the  people,  went  to  their 
dinners;  and  abundance  stayed  till  they  came  again. 
I went  to  a brook  and  got  me  a little  water,  and  so  I came 
and  sat  me  down  a-top  of  a rock,^  for  the  word  of  the  Lord 
came  to  me  I must  go  and  set  down  upon  the  rock  in  the 
mountain  even  as  Christ  had  done  before.  In  the  afternoon 
the  people  gathered  about  me  with  several  Separate  teachers, 
where  it  was  judged  there  were  above  a thousand  people; 
and  all  those  several  Separate  teachers  were  convinced  of 
God’s  everlasting  Truth  that  day;  amongst  whom  I declared 
freely  and  largely  God’s  everlasting  Truth  and  word  of 

^ Thomas  Blaykling ’s  at  Dravvell. 

Henry  Ward  (d.  1674),  of  Sunnybank,  Grayrigg. 

3 Between  Kendal  and  Sedbergh.  A modern  building  stands 
lower  down  the  Fell. 

^ Audland  (1630-1664),  with  John  Camm  carried  Quakerism  to 
Bristol. 

3 A rock  at  the  top  of  Firbank  Fell  is  still  known  as  ‘ Fox’s  Pulpit 
and  now  bears  an  inscription. 

® " *S.X,  p.  18. 


1652]  AT  FIRBANK  FELL  109 

life  about  three  hours;  and  there  were  many  old  people 
that  went  into  the  Chapel,  and  looked  out  of  the  windows 
and  thought  it  a strange  thing  to  see  a man  to  preach  on 
a hill  or  mountain  and  not  in  their  church  (as  they  called 
it). 

I was  made  to  open  to  the  people  that  the  steeplehouse  and 
that  ground  on  which  it  stood  were  no  more  holy  than  that 
mountain,  and  those  temples  and  ‘ dreadful  houses  of  God  ’,  (as 
they  called  them)  were  not  set  up  by  the  command  of  God  nor 
Christ;  nor  their  priests  as  Aaron’s  priesthood;  nor  their  tithes 
as  theirs  was.  But  Christ  was  come,  who  ended  the  temple, 
and  the  priests,  and  the  tithes,  and  Christ  said,  ‘ Learn  of  me  ’, 
and  God  said,  ‘ This  is  my  beloved  Son,  hear  ye  him.’  For 
the  Lord  had  sent  me  with  his  everlasting  gospel  to  preach, 
and  his  word  of  life  to  bring  them  off  all  those  temples,  tithes, 
priests  and  rudiments  of  the  world,  that  had  gotten  up  since  the 
apostles’  days,  and  had  been  set  up  by  such  who  had  erred 
from  the  spirit  and  power  the  apostles  were  in;  so  that  they 
might  all  come  to  know  Christ  their  teacher,  their  counsellor, 
their  shepherd  to  feed  them,  and  their  bishop  to  oversee  them 
and  their  prophet  to  open  to  them,  and  to  know  their  bodies 
to  be  the  temples  of  God  and  Christ  for  them  to  dwell  in. 

And  so  I opened  the  prophets  and  the  figures  and  shadows 
and  turned  them  to  Christ  the  substance,  and  then  opened  the 
parables  of  Clirist  and  the  things  that  had  been  hid  from  the 
beginning,  and  showed  them  the  estate  of  the  Epistles  how  they 
were  written  to  the  elect;  and  the  state  of  the  apostacy  that  has 
been  since  the  apostles’  days,  and  how  the  priests  have  got  the 
Scriptures  and  are  not  in  that  spirit  which  gave  them  forth; 
who  make  a trade  of  their  words  and  have  put  them  into  chapter 
and  verse;  and  how  that  the  teachers  and  priests  now  are  found 
in  the  steps  both  of  the  false  prophets,  chief  priests,  scribes, 
and  Pharisees,  such  as  both  the  prophets,  Christ,  and  his  apostles 
cried  against,  and  so  are  judged  by  the  prophets’,  Christ’s  and 
the  apostles’  spirit;  and  all  that  were  in  it  could  not  own  them. 
And  so  turning  the  people  to  the  spirit  of  God,  and  from  the 
darkness  to  the  light  that  they  might  believe  in  it  and  become 
children  of  the  light,  and  turning  them  from  the  power  of  Satan 
which  they  had  been  under  to  God,  and  that  with  the  spirit 
of  Truth  they  might  be  led  into  all  the  Truth  of  the  prophets’, 
Christ’s  and  the  apostles’  words. 


6 


110  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

And  so  after  the  meeting  was  done  I passed  away  to 
John  Audland’s^  and  there  came  John  Story  to  me,  and 
lighted  his  pipe  of  tobacco,  and,  said  he,  ‘ Will  you  take 
a pipe  of  tobacco  ’,  saying,  ‘ Come,  all  is  ours  ’ ; and  I 
looked  upon  him  to  be  a forward,  bold  lad.  Tobacco  I 
did  not  take,  but  it  came  into  my  mind  that  the  lad  might 
think  I had  not  unity  with  the  creation,  for  I saw  he  had  a 
flashy,  empty  notion  of  religion ; so  I took  his  pipe  and  put 
it  to  my  mouth  and  gave  it  to  him  again  to  stop  him  lest 
his  rude  tongue  should  say  I had  not  unity  with  the 
creation. 

And  from  thence  I came  to  Preston  Patrick  Chapel 
where  there  was  a great  meeting  appointed.^  I went 
into  it  and  had  a large  meeting  amongst  the  people,  and 
declared  the  word  of  life  and  the  everlasting  Truth  to  them, 
and  showed  them  that  the  end  of  my  coming  into  that  place 
was  not  to  hold  it  up  no  more  than  the  apostles  going  into 
the  Jewish  synagogues  and  temple  and  Diana’s  was,  but 
to  bring  them^off  all  such  things  as  they  did : for  the  apostles  , 
brought  the  saints  off  the  < Jewish)  temple  and  Aaron’s  i 
priesthood  and  told  them  that  their  bodies  were  the  temples  ; 
of  God  and  that  Christ  was  their  teacher;  and  after,  they  | 
met  in  houses.  j 

And  so  from  thence  I came  to  Kendal  where  a meeting 
was  appointed  in  the  town  hall;  and  when  I had  declared 
the  Truth  and  word  of  life  to  them,  and  showed  them  how 
they  might  know  Christ  and  the  Scriptures,  and  what 
would  be  their  teacher  and  what  would  be  their  con- 
demnation, I passed  away  after  I had  stayed  awhile  in 
the  town,  and  several  were  convinced  there.  One  Cocks 
met  me  in  the  street  and  would  have  given  me  a roll  of 
tobacco,  for  people  were  much  given  to  smoking  tobacco,  so 
I accepted  of  his  love,  but  denied  it. 

And  from  thence  I came  to  Underbarrow  to  one  Miles 
Bateman’s  and  as  I came  on  the  way  several  people  came 
along  with  me,  and  great  disputing  I had  with  them, 

^ At  Crosslands. 

^ Wednesday,  16th  June,  1652. 


1652]  AT  UNDERBARROW  111 

especially  with  Edward  Burroughs  and  at  night  the  priest 
came  and  a many  professors  to  Miles  Bateman’s  and  a 
great  deal  of  disputing  I had  with  them.  Supper  being 
provided  for  the  priest  and  the  rest,  I w^as  not  to  eat  with 
them,  but  told  them  if  they  would  appoint  a meeting  the 
next  day  at  the  steeplehouse  and  acquaint  the  people  with 
it  I might  meet  with  them.  A great  deal  of  reasoning  they 
had  about  it,  and  some  were  for  it  and  some  were 
against  it. 

And  in  the  morning  I walked  out  after  I had  told  them 
concerning  the  meeting,  and  they  were  in  much  reasoning 
and  doubting  of  it  and  me,  and  as  I was  walking  upon 
the  top  of  the  bank  there  came  several  poor  people,  travel- 
lers, that  I saw  were  in  necessity ; and  they  gave  them  nothing 
but  said  they  were  cheats.  But  when  they  were  gone 
in  to  their  breakfast  it  grieved  me  to  see  such  hard-hearted- 
ness  amongst  professors  that  I ran  after  the  poor  people 
a matter  of  a quarter  of  a mile  and  gave  them  some  money. 
<Mean while,  some  that  were  in  the  house)  came  out 
again,  and  seeing  me  a quarter  of  a mile  off  they  said  I 
could  not  have  gone  so  far  in  such  an  instant  except  I had 
wings;  and  then  the  meeting  was  like  to  have  been  stopped, 
they  were  so  filled  with  strange  thoughts,  and  that  quite 
put  the  meeting  out  of  their  minds  and  they  were  against 
it;  for  they  could  not  believe  I could  have  gone  so  far 
in  such  a short  space.  And  then  there  came  Miles 
and  Stephen  Hubbersty,  more  simple  hearted  men,  and 
they  would  have  the  meeting.  I told  them  I ran  after 
those  poor  people  to  give  them  some  money  and  I 
was  grieved  at  their  hard-heartedness  that  gave  them 
nothing. 

So  I went  to  the  chapel  at  Underbarrow;  the  priest  came 
and  a great  meeting  there  was  and  after  a while  the  priest 
fled  away.  Many  of  Crook  and  Underbarrow  were  con- 
vinced that  day  and  received  the  world  of  life  and  stand 
to  this  day  under  Christ’s  teaching.  And  after  I had 

^ Edward  Burrough  (1634-1662),  a leading  preacher  of  Quakerism, 
especially  in  London,  died  in  Newgate  gaol. 


112  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

declared  the  Truth  to  them  some  hours  and  the  meeting 
was  done,  the  chief  constable  and  some  other  professors 
fell  a-reasoning  with  me  in  the  steeplehouse  yard;  and  I took 
a Bible  and  showed  and  opened  to  them  the  Scriptures, 
and  showed  them  chapter  and  verse  and  dealt  with  them  as 
one  would  deal  with  a child  in  swaddling  clothes.  They 
that  were  in  the  light  of  Christ  and  spirit  of  God  did  know 
when  I spoke  Scripture,  though  I did  not  mention  chapter 
and  verse  after  the  priest’s  form  unto  them.  And  from 
thence  I passed  to  his  house  with  an  old  man,  James 
Dickinson,^  that  was  convinced  of  the  Truth  that  day, 
and  died  in  the  Truth.  And  from  thence  I came  to  James 
Taylor’s  of  Newton  in  Cartmel  in  Lancashire,  where  there 
were  many  professors  which  received  Truth;  and  on  the 
First-day^  I went  to  one  priest  Camelford’s^  chapel  *at 
Staveley,^  and  after  he  had  done  I began  to  speak  the  word 
of  life  to  them.  Camelford  was  in  such  a rage,  and  such 
a fret  and  so  peevish  that  he  had  not  patience  to  hear. 
^All  was  on  a fire,^  and  the  rude  multitude  struck  me, 
and  punched  me,  and  took  me  and  threw  me  headlong 
over  the  stone  wall  of  the  graveyard,  but,  blessed  be  the 
Lord,  his  power  preserved  me.  The  kirk-warden  was  one 
John  Knipe,  whom  the  Lord  after  cut  off,  who  threw  me 
down  headlong  over  the  v/all.  And  there  was  a youth  in  the 
chapel  that  was  writing  after  the  priest;  and  I was  moved 
to  speak  to  him  and  he  came  to  be  convinced  and  became 
a fine  minister  of  the  Gospel,  whose  name  was  John 
Braithwaite. 

And  so  I went  up  to  an  alehouse  where  many  people 
resorted  betwixt  the  times  of  their  <morning  and  afternoon) 
preaching,  and  had  a great  deal  of  reasoning  with  them 
and  showed  unto  them  how  that  God  was  come  to  teach 
his  people  himself  and  to  bring  them  off  such  teachers  as 
were  judges  by  the  prophets,  Christ,  and  the  apostles;  and 

^ James  Dickinson  lived  at  Crosthwaite  in  Westmorland. 

^ Sunday,  20th  June,  1652. 

3 Gabriel  Camelford  (d.  c.  1680). 

t t sj.^  p.  19. 


1652]  AT  SWARTHMOOR  113 

many  received  the  word  of  life  that  time  and  stand  to  this 
day. 

And  the  afternoon  I went  about  two  or  three  miles  to 
another  steeplehouse  or  chapel  called  Lindale,  and  when 
the  priest  had  done  I spoke  to  him  and  the  people  what  the 
Lord  commanded  me.  There  were  great  opposers  but 
they  after  came  to  be  convinced;  and  after  I came  to  one 
Captain  Sandys/  who  with  his  wife,  if  they  could  have 
had  the  world  and  Truth  <together>  they  would  have 
received  it;  but  they  were  hypocrites  and  he  a very  chaffy 
light  man,  the  way  was  too  straight  for  them.  And  when 
I had  admonished  him  of  his  lightness  and  of  his  jesting, 
how  it  was  not  seemly  for  a great  professor  as  he  was, 
he  answered  and  said  he  had  a son  on  his  death-bed  who 
did  also  reprove  and  warn  him  of  it ; but  he  neither  obeyed 
the  admonishment  of  his  son  nor  of  the  spirit  of  God 
in  himself. 

And  from  thence  I came  to  Ulverston  and  so  to  Swarth- 
moor  to  Judge  Fell’s.^ 

And  there  came  up  priest  Lampitt^  of  Ulverston  who  I 
perceived  had  been  and  was  still  a Ranter  in  his  mind, 
^and  had  liberty  to  do  anything,^  and  I had  a great  deal  of 
reasoning  with  him  for  he  would  talk  of  high  notions  and 
perfection  and  thereby  deceived  the  people.  He  would 
have  owned  me  but  I could  not  own  him  nor  join  with  him, 
he  was  so  full  of  filth.  For  he  said  he  was  above  John 
and  made  as  though  he  knew  all  things,  but  I told  him 
how  that  death  reigned  from  Adam  to  Moses,  and  he  was 
under  that  death  and  knew  not  Moses,  for  Moses  saw  the 
paradise  of  God;  he  neither  knew  Moses  nor  the  prophets 
nor  John,  for  that  crooked  nature  stood  in  him  and  the 
rough,  and  the  mountain  of  sin  and  corruptions.  And 

^ Adam  Sandys  lived  at  Bouth,  near  Ulverston. 

2 Thomas  Fell  (1598-1658)  of  Swarthmoor  Hall,  Ulverston, 
Chancellor  of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster.  Fox  arrived  late  in  June, 
1652. 

3 William  Lampitt  (d.  1677).  Curate  of  Ulverston. 

^ ^5./.,  p.  19. 


114  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

the  way  was  not  prepared  in  him  for  the  Lord.  He  con- 
fessed he  had  been  under  a cross  in  things  but  now  he 
could  sing  psalms  and  do  anything;  and  I told  him  now 
he  could  see  a thief  and  join  hand  in  hand  with  him,  and 
he  could  not  preach  Moses,  nor  the  prophets,  nor  Christ, 
nor  John,  except  he  was  in  the  same  spirit  as  they 
were  in. 

And  so  Margaret  FelP  had  been  abroad,  and  at  night 
when  she  came  home  her  children  told  her  that  priest 
Lampitt  and  I disagreed;  and  it  struck  something  at  her 
because  she  was  in  a profession  with  him,  though  he  hid 
his  dirty  actions  from  them.  So  at  night  we  had  a great 
deal  of  reasoning  and  I declared  the  Truth  to  her  and  her 
family. 

And  the  next  day  Lampitt  came  again  and  I had  a great 
deal  of  discourse  with  him  before  Margaret  Fell,  who 
soon  then  discerned  the  priest  clearly,  and  a convincement 
came  upon  her  and  her  family  of  the  Lord’s  Truth.  And 
there  was  a humiliation  day  shortly  after,  within  a day  or 
two,  kept  at  Ulverston,  and  Margaret  Fell  asked  me  to  go 
to  the  steeplehouse  with  her,  for  she  was  not  wholely  come 
off,  I said,  ‘ I must  do  as  1 am  ordered  by  the  Lord  ’, 
so  I left  her  and  walked  into  the  fields,  and  then  the  word 
of  the  Lord  came  to  me  to  go  to  the  steeplehouse  after  them 
and  when  I came  the  priest  Lampitt  was  singing  with  his 
people.  His  spirit  and  his  stuff  was  so  foul  that  I was 
moved  of  the  Lord  to  speak  to  him  and  the  people  after 
they  had  done  singing;  and  the  word  of  the  Lord 
was  to  them,  he  was  not  a Jew  that  is  one  outward,  but 
he  was  a Jew  that  is  one  inward,  whose  praise  was  not  of 
men  but  of  God.  (Then  I showed  them)  that  God  was 
come  to  teach  his  people  by  his  spirit  and  to  bring  them  off 
all  their  old  ways,  religions,  churches,  and  worship,  for 
all  their  religions,  and  worship,  and  ways  were  but 
talking  of  other  men’s  words,  for  they  were  out  of 

^ Margaret  Fell  (1614-1702),  wife  of  Judge  Thomas  Fell.  Her  home 
now  became  the  cradle  of  the  new  movement  and  she  its  nursing 
mother.  In  1669  she  married  George  Fox. 


1652]  AT  RAMPSIDE  CHAPEL  115 

the  life  and  spirit  that  they  were  in  that  gave  them 
forth. 

One  Justice  Sawrey  cried  out,  ‘Take  him  away  and 
Judge  Fell’s  wife  said  to  the  officers,  ‘ Let  him  alone,  why 
may  not  he  speak  as  well  as  any  other  and  Lampitt  said 
for  deceit,  ‘ Let  him  speak  ’,  and  so  at  last  when  I had 
declared  a pretty  while.  Justice  John  Sawrey,  a rotten 
professor  who  was  very  full  of  hypocrisy,  and  deceit,  and 
envy,  caused  me  to  be  put  out  of  the  steeplehouse.  I spoke 
to  the  people  in  the  steeplehouse  yard,  and  after  came  up 
to  Swarthmoor  Hall.  Upon  the  First-day  after  I was 
moved  to  go  to  Aldingham  steeplehouse  and  when  the 
priest  had  done  I spoke  to  the  priest,  but  he  got  away, 
and  I declared  to  the  ^people  the  Gospel,  the  Truth,  the 
light  of  Jesus  Christ  in  their  own  hearts,  which  he  had 
enlightened  them  that  they  might  all  come  to,  that  let  them 
see  all  that  ever  they  had  done,  and  said,  and  acted,  and 
that  would  be  their  teacher  when  they  were  about  their 
labours.  The  priest  told  me  Matthev/,  Mark,  Luke  and 
John  were  the  Gospel,  I told  him  the  Gospel  was  the  power 
of  God.'^ 

I passed  to  Rampside  and  there  was  a chapel  in  which 
one  Thomas  Lawson  used  to  preach,^  that  was  a high  priest. 
He  very  lovingly  spoke  in  the  morning  to  his  people  of  my 
coming  in  the  afternoon,  and  when  I was  come  all  the 
country  gathered  thereaways.  So  I saw  there  was  no  place 
more  convenient  to  declare  to  the  people  there  than  in 
the  chapel,  and  so  I went  into  the  chapel  and  all  was  quiet; 
and  the  priest,  Thomas  Lawson,  went  not  up  into  his 
pulpit  but  left  all  to  me,  and  the  everlasting  Truth  was 
largely  declared  that  day  which  reached  and  entered  into 
the  hearts  of  people;  and  the  everlasting  day  of  the  eternal 
God  was  proclaimed  and  all  were  quiet  and  received  the 
Truth  in  the  love  of  it.  This  priest  came  to  be  convinced 
and  stands  in  Truth,  and  grew  in  the  wisdom  of  God 

^ Rector  of  Rampside,  d.  1691,  noted  botanist,  afterwards  became 
a Quaker  schoolmaster. 

^ V S.J.,  pp.  19,  20. 


116  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

mightily  and  remains  to  this  day  mighty  serviceable  in  his 
place.  He  threw  ofT  his  preaching  for  hire  and  his  chapel 
and  came  to  preach  the  Lord  Jesus  and  his  kingdom  freely. 
And  after  that  some  rude  people  thought  to  have  done 
him  a mischief  and  cast  scandals  upon  him  but  he  was 
carried  over  all. 

And  after  I returned  back  to  Swarthmoor  again  and  the 
next  First-day  I went  to  Dalton  steeplehouse,  and  after 
the  priest  had  done  I declared  the  word  of  life  to  the  people, 
turning  them  from  darkness  to  light  and  from  the  power  of 
Satan  to  God,  and  bringing  them  off  their  superstitious 
ways  and  their  teachers  made  of  man,  to  Christ  their  way 
and  to  be  taught  of  him.  "The  people  grew  brutish  and 
fell  of  ringing  the  bells,  but  the  Truth  came  over  all.'^ 

And  from  thence  I went  into  the  Island  of  Walney  and 
after  the  priest^  had  done  I spoke  to  him.  He  got  away 
and  I spoke  to  the  people  the  Truth  as  it  was  in  Jesus. 
But  the  people  being  something  rude,  ^after  a while  we 
passed  away,  and  in  the  afternoon  we  went  up  again;"" 
and  we  went  to  look  for  the  priest  at  his  house,  and  he  would 
not  be  seen  but  the  people  said  he  went  to  hide  himself  j 
in  the  haymow;  and  they  went  to  look  for  him  there  but  I 
could  not  find  him.  And  then  they  said  he  was  gone  to  ] 
hide  himself  amongst  the  standing  corn,  "hearing  we  were 
coming,""  but  after  they  had  looked  for  him  there  they  could  i 
not  find  him  there  neither.  So  I came  to  James  Lancaster’s^  I 
who  was  convinced  in  that  island,  and  from  there  I returned  i 
to  Swarthmoor  again,  where  the  Lord’s  power  seized 
upon  Margaret  Fell  and  her  daughter  Sarah  and  several  I 
of  them.  j 

Then  I went  to  Bayclifif  where  Leonard  Fell  was  con- 
vinced, and  he  became  a good  minister,  and  several  others  | 
were  convinced  there  and  came  into  Truth.  The  people  j 

^ Mr.  Soutweeke  was  minister  of  Walney  Island  between  1649  and 
1657. 

^ James  Lancaster  lived  at  North  Scale  in  the  northern  part  of  the  : 
island. 

"" 5./.,  p.  20. 


AT  BAYCLIFF 


117 


1652] 


could  not  tell  how  to  dispute,  as  they  said,  but  would  fain 
have  put  on  some  other  to  hold  a talk  with  me;  but  I bid 
them,  fear  the  Lord  and  not  in  a light  way  to  hold  a talk 
of  the  Lord’s  words  but  practise  them. 

As  I was  walking  I heard  old  people  and  workpeople 
to  say,  ‘ He  is  such  a man  as  never  was,  he  knows  people’s 
thoughts  ’,  for  I turned  them  to  the  divine  light  of  Christ 
and  his  spirit  that  let  them  see  all  their  thoughts,  words, 
and  actions,  that  were  evil,  that  they  had  thought  <or 
spoken),  or  acted;  with  which  light  they  might  see  their 
sins  and  with  the  same  light  they  might  see  their  saviour, 
Christ  Jesus,  to  save  them  from  their  sins,  and  that  there 
was  their  first  step  to  peace — to  stand  still  in  the  light  that 
showed  their  sin  and  transgressions  and  showed  them  how 
they  were  strangers  to  the  covenant  of  promise,  without 
God  in  the  world,  and  in  the  Fall  of  old  Adam,  and  in  the 
darkness  and  death;  and  with  the  same  light  they  may  see 
Christ  that  died  for  them,  who  is  their  way  to  God  and  their 
redeemer  and  saviour. 

And  after  this  I went  to  a chapel  beyond  Gleaston  which 
was  built  but  never  priest  had  preached  in  it,^  v/here  all  the 
country  up  and  down  came;  and  a quiet,  peaceable  meeting 
it  was,  where  the  word  of  life  was  declared  amongst  them 
and  many  were  convinced  about  Gleaston.  From  thence 
I returned  to  Swarthmoor  again.  And  after  I had  stayed 
there  a few  days  and  most  of  ail  the  family  were  convinced 
I went  from  thence  back  again  into  Westmorland. 

And  priest  Lampitt  had  been  amongst  the  professors  at 
Kendal  side  and  mightily  had  incensed  them  against  me  and 
told  them  I held  many  strange  things.  So  I met  with  them 
that  he  had  incensed  and  sat  up  all  night  with  them  at  James 
Dickinson’s  house^  and  answered  all  their  objections. 
Then  they  were  thoroughly  satisfied  both  with  the  Truth 
that  I had  declared,  and  dissatisfied  with  Lampitt’s  lies 
that  he  had  divulged,  so  that  he  clearly  lost  the  best  of  his 


^ A place  called  Dendron.  The  chapel  was  built  in  1642,  but  not 
in  regular  use  till  long  after  the  time  of  Fox’s  visit. 

^ At  Crosthwaite. 


118  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

hearers  and  followers  and  they  came  to  see  his  deceit  and 
to  forsake  him. 

And  so  I passed  on  to  John  Audland’s  and  Gervase 
Benson’s  and  had  great  meetings  amongst  those  people 
that  were  convinced  before,  and  to  John  Blaykling’s 
and  Richard  Robinson’s  and  had  mighty  great  meetings 
there,  and  so  up  towards  Grisedale. 

And  after  this  Judge  Fell  was  come  home,  and  Margaret 
sent  for  me  to  return  thither,  and  so  I came  through  the 
country  back  to  Swarthmoor  again;  and  the  priests  and 
professors,  and  that  <envious>  Justice  Sawrey,  had  incensed 
Judge  Fell  and  Captain  Sandys  much  against  the  Truth 
with  their  lies;  and  after  dinner  I answered  him  all  his 
objections  and  satisfied  him  by  Scripture  so  as  he  was 
thoroughly  satisfied  and  convinced  in  his  judgment.  And 
he  said,  ‘ Art  thou  that  George  Fox  that  Justice  Luke 
Robinson  spoke  so  much  in  commendation  of  amongst 
many  of  the  Parliament  men  ? ’ for  he  had  said  that  all  the 
priests  and  professors  in  the  nation  were  nothing  to  him. 
And  I told  him  I had  been  with  Justice  Robinson  and  Justice 
Hotham  in  Yorkshire  who  were  very  loving  and  civil  to 
me  and  were  convinced  in  their  judgments  by  the  spirit 
of  God  <that  the  principle  which  I bare  testimony  to  was 
the  Truth):  and  they  did  see  over  the  priests  of  the  nation 
so  that  they  and  many  others  now  came  to  be  wiser  than 
their  teachers,  and  came  to  be  taught  of  God  and  Christ, 
and  so  outstripped  their  teachers.  <After  we  had  dis- 
coursed a pretty  time  together,)  Judge  Fell  was  satisfied 
that  I was  the  man;  and  he  came  also  to  see  by  the  spirit 
of  God  in  his  heart  over  all  the  priests  and  teachers  of 
the  world  and  did  not  go  to  hear  them  for  some  years 
before  he  died;  for  he  knew  it  was  the  Truth,  and  that  Christ 
was  the  teacher  of  his  people  and  their  saviour.  He 
wished  that  I was  awhile  with  Judge  Bradshaw^  to  convince 
him.  There  came  over  to  Judge  Fell  that  Captain  Sandys, 
a wicked  man,  to  incense  him;  and  he  was  full  of  envy 
against  me  and  yet  he  could  use  the  apostles’  words  and 

^ John  Bradshaw  (1602-1659). 


AT  SWARTHMOOR 


1652] 


119 


say,  ‘ Behold  1 make  all  things  new.  ’ I told  him  then  he 
must  have  a new  God  for  his  god  was  his  belly. 

And  then  that  envious  Justice  Sawrey  he  came  to  Swarth- 
moor  also,  and  I told  him  his  heart  was  rotten  and  he  was 
full  of  hypocrisy  to  the  brim.  Several  people  came  also 
and  I discerned  their  conditions  and  spoke  unto  them. 
Richard  Farnsworth  and  James  Nayler  were  come  to 
Swarthmoor  also  to  see  me  and  the  family.  (And  James 
Nayler  was  under  a fast  fourteen  days.)  And  Judge  Fell 
for  all  their  opposition,  let  the  meeting  be  kept  at  his  house, 
and  a great  meeting  was  settled  there  in  the  Lord’s  power, 
to  the  tormenting  of  the  priests  and  professors  (which  has 
remained  above  twenty  years  to  this  day),  he  being  satisfied 
of  the  Truth.  After  I had  stayed  awhile  and  the  meeting 
was  settled,  I went  to  Underbarrow  and  had  a great 
meeting  there  and  from  thence  to  Kellet  and  had  a great 
meeting  at  Robert  Widders’s^  and  many  were  convinced 
there,  where  several  came  from  Lancaster  and  some  from 
York. 

And  there  was  a captain  stood  up  after  the  meeting  was 
done  and  asked  me  where  my  leather  breeches  were,  and 
I let  the  man  run  on  awhile  and  at  last  1 held  up  my  coat 
and  said,  ‘ Here  are  my  leather  breeches  which  frighten 
all  your  priests  and  professors.’ 

And  Margaret  Fell  had  a vision  of  a man  in  a white 
hat  that  should  come  and  confound  the  priests,  before 
my  coming  into  those  parts. 

And  a man  had  a vision  of  me  that  a man  in  leather 
breeches  should  come  and  confound  the  priests,  and  this 
man’s  priest  was  the  first  that  was  confounded  and  con- 
vinced. And  a great  dread  there  was  amongst  the 
priests  and  professors  concerning  the  man  in  leather 
breeches. 

On  market  day  I went  to  Lancaster  and  1 spoke  in  the 
market  at  the  cross  in  the  dreadful  power  of  God  and 


^ Robert  Widders  (c.  1615-1686)  lived  at  Upper  Kellet.  William 
Moore,  priest  of  Kellet  received  twenty-one  queries  dated  30th  August, 
1652,  believed  to  be  from  George  Fox. 


120  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

declared  the  day  of  the  Lord  to  them  and  against  all  their 
deceitful  merchandise,  and  preached  righteousness  and 
Truth  which  they  should  all  walk  and  live  in  and  follow 
after,  and  where  they  might  find  the  spirit  of  God  to  guide 
them  to  it.  Several  people  came  to  my  lodging  and  many 
were  convinced  there  and  stand  to  this  day.  And  a meeting 
there  was  settled  in  the  power  of  God. 

And  on  the  First-day  <following,  in  the  forenoon)  I 
had  a great  meeting  in  the  street  of  soldiers  and  people  and 
declared  the  word  of  life  and  the  everlasting  Truth  to  them, 
and  showed  them  their  teacher,  Christ  Jesus,  and  all  the 
traditions  that  they  had  lived  in,  and  all  their  worships 
and  religions;  and  that  their  profession  was  good  for 
nothing  that  lived  out  of  the  life  and  power  of  them  that 
gave  forth  the  Scriptures,  and  so  turned  them  to  the  light 
of  Christ,  the  heavenly  man,  and  to  the  spirit  of  God  in 
their  own  hearts  and  where  they  might  find  God  and  Christ 
and  his  kingdom  and  know  him  their  teacher.  And  in 
the  afternoon  I went  up  to  the  steeplehouse  at  Lancaster, 
and  when  I had  declared  the  Truth  to  bothpriesF  and  people 
and  showed  them  the  deceits  they  lived  in  and  the  power 
and  spirit  of  God  that  they  wanted,  they  haled  me  out 
and  stoned  me  along  the  streets  till  I came  to  John  Lawson’s^ 
house. 

And  another  First-day  I went  to  ^Halton^  steeplehouse  by 
the  water-side,  to  one  priest  Whitehead,^  and  ^after  the 
priest  had  done""  declared  the  Truth  to  the  priest  and  people 
in  the  dreadful  power  of  God.  There  was  a doctor  came 
to  me  who  was  so  full  of  envy  that  he  said  he  could  find 
it  in  his  heart  to  run  me  through  with  his  rapier  though  he 
was  hanged  for  it  the  next  day;  yet  this  man  came  to  be 
convinced  <so  far  as  to  be)  loving  to  Friends;  and  some 
people  were  convinced  that  way  and  stood  faithful  to  God 

^ William  Marshall,  cf.  p.  133,  n.  3. 

^ John  Lawson  lived  in  Leonardgate,  Lancaster. 

3 Thomas  Whitehead  (c.  1599-1679),  rector  of  Halton  on  the  river 
Lune. 

* * S.J.,  p.  21. 


AT  KENDAL 


1652] 


121 


and  Christ  and  his  teaching,  <and  a meeting  was  settled 
in  the  power  of  God>. 

And  so  I returned  back  into  Westmorland  again  and 
spoke  through  Kendal  upon  a market  day.  yl  had  silver 
in  my  pocket  and  I was  moved  to  throw  it  out  amongst 
the  people  as  1 was  going  up  the  street  before  I spoke,  and 
my  life  was  offered  up  amongst  them,  and  the  mighty 
power  of  the  Lord  was  seen  in  preserving  and  the  power 
of  the  Lord  was  so  mighty  and  so  strong  that  people  flew 
like  chaff  before  me,  and  ran  into  their  houses  and  shops, 
for  fear  and  terror  took  hold  upon  them.  I was  moved 
to  open  my  mouth  and  lift  up  my  voice  aloud  in  the  mighty 
power  of  the  Lord,  and  to  tell  them  the  mighty  day  of  the 
Lord  was  coming  upon  all  deceitful  merchandise  and  ways, 
and  to  call  them  all  to  repentance  and  a turning  to  the  Lord 
God,  and  his  spirit  within  them,  for  it  to  teach  them  and 
lead  them,  and  tremble  before  the  mighty  God  of  Heaven 
and  earth,  for  his  mighty  day  was  coming;  and  so  passed 
through  the  streets.  And  many  people  took  my  part 
and  several  were  convinced.  And  when  I came  to  the 
town’s  end,  I got  upon  a stump  and  spoke  to  the  people, 
and  so  the  people  began  to  fight  some  for  me  and  some 
against  me,  and  I went  and  spoke  to  them  and  they  parted 
again.  So  after  a while  I passed  away  without  any  harm.y 

The  First-day  after,  I had  a mighty  meeting  at  Miles 
Bateman’s^  aforesaid  where  many  were  convinced. 

And  I was  moved  to  declare  to  the  people  how  all  people 
in  the  Fall  were  gone  from  the  image  of  God,  and  righteousness, 
and  holiness,  and  were  as  wells  without  the  water  of  life,  clouds 
without  the  heavenly  rain,  trees  without  the  heavenly  fruit, 
and  were  in  the  nature  of  beasts,  and  serpents,  and  tall  cedars, 
and  oaks,  and  bulls,  and  heifers, — so  they  might  read  this  nature 
within,  as  the  prophet  described,  to  people  that  were  out  of 
Truth, — and  how  that  they  were  in  the  nature  of  dogs  and 
swine,  biting  and  rending,  and  the  nature  of  briars,  thistles 
and  thorns,  and  like  the  owls  and  dragons  in  the  night,  and 
like  the  wild  asses  and  horses,  snuffing  up,  and  like  the 

^ Miles  Bateman,  father  and  son,  lived  at  Underbarrow. 

y y Cf.5./.,  pp.  21-22. 


122  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

mountains  and  rocks,  and  crooked  and  rough  ways.  So  I 
exhorted  them  to  read  these  without,  and  within  in  their 
nature,  and  to  read  without  the  wandering  stars,  and  look 
within,  all  that  were  come  to  the  bright  and  morning  star. 
As  their  fallow  ground  must  be  ploughed  up  before  it  bore  seed 
to  them,  so  must  the  fallow  ground  of  their  heart  be  ploughed 
up  before  they  bear  seed  to  God.  So  all  these  names  were  spoken 
to  man  and  woman  since  they  fell  from  the  image  of  God; 
and  as  they  do  come  to  be  renewed  again  up  into  the  image 
of  God,  they  come  out  of  the  nature  and  so  out  of  the  name. 

And  many  more  things  of  this  nature  were  declared  to 
them  and  they  turned  to  the  light  of  Christ  by  which  they 
were  turned  to  Christ;  by  which  they  might  see  him  their 
substance  and  their  way,  salvation,  and  free  teacher. 
<Many  were  convinced  at  that  time.) 

And  after  I had  travelled  up  and  down  in  those  countries 
and  had  great  meetings  I came  to  Swarthmoor  again, 
^over  the  sands."" 

And  after  I had  visited  Friends  awhile  in  those  parts 
I heard  of  a great  meeting  of  priests  at  Ulverston  on  a 
lecture  day,  and  I went  down  and  went  into  the  steeple- 
house  in  the  dread  and  power  of  the  Lord.  When  the 
priest  had  done  I spoke  amongst  them  the  word  of  the  Lord; 
which  was  as  a hammer  and  a fire  amongst  them.  And 
though  Lampitt  had  been  at  variance  with  most  of  the  priests 
before,  yet  against  the  Truth  he  and  all  joined  together; 
and  the  mighty  power  of  the  Lord  was  so  over  all  that  priest 
BenneF  ""spoke  to  me  and  asked  me  if  I had  the  spirit  of 
discerning,  I told  him  I had,  which  made  him  to  tremble.^ 
And  he  said  the  steeplehouse  shook  and  he  was  afraid 
and  trembled  and  thought  that  the  steeplehouse  would  fall 
on  his  head,  and  he  went  his  ways  out  for  fear,  speaking  a 
few  confused  words:  and  the  mighty  power  ^and  dread  of  the 
Lord  God  came  over  all,  that  answered  the  witness  in  many; 
and  the  graves  opened  and  the  dead  heard  the  voice  of  God.^ 

^ Philip  Bennet,  M.A.,  sometime  curate  of  Ulverston,  at  this  time 
curate  of  Cartmel. 

^ ""  5.y.,  p.  23. 


1652]  AT  SWARTHMOOR  123 

Though  there  were  a-many  priests  there  they  had  no 
power  as  yet  to  persecute. 

And  after,  I came  up  to  Swarthmoor  again,  and  there 
came  up  four  or  five  priests,  and  I asked  them  whether 
any  of  them  could  say  they  ever  had  a word  from  the  Lord 
to  go  and  speak  to  such  or  such  a people  and  none  of  them 
durst  say  so.  But  one  of  them  burst  out  into  a passion 
and  said  he  could  speak  his  experiences  as  well  as  I;  but 
I told  him  experience  was  one  thing  but  to  go  with  a 
message  and  a word  from  the  Lord  as  the  prophets  and  the 
apostles  had  and  did,  and  as  I had  done  to  them,  this  was 
another  thing. 

Could  any  of  them  say  they  had  such  a command  or  word 
from  the  Lord  at  any  time  ? But  none  of  them  could 
answer  to  it.  But  I told  them  the  false  prophets  and  false 
apostles  and  anti-christs  could  use  the  words  and  speak  of 
other  men’s  experiences  that  never  knew  or  heard  the  voice 
of  God  and  Christ;  and  such  as  they  might  get  the  good 
v/ords  and  experience  of  others.  <This  puzzled  them  much 
and  laid  them  open.) 

And  at  another  time  there  were  several  priests  at  Judge 
Fell’s,  and  he  was  by;  and  I asked  them  the  same  question, 
whether  ever  they  had  heard  the  voice  of  God  or  Christ 
to  bid  them  go  to  such  or  such  a people  to  declare  his  word 
or  message  unto  them,  for  any  that  could  but  read  might 
declare  the  experiences  of  the  prophets  and  apostles. 
Hereupon  Thomas  Taylor,^  an  ancient  priest,  did  ingen- 
uously confess  before  Judge  Fell  that  he  had  never  heard 
the  voice  of  God  nor  Christ,  to  send  him  to  any  people, 
but  he  spoke  his  experiences,  and  the  experiences  of  the 
saints  and  preached  that,  which  did  astonish  Judge  Fell,  for 
he  and  all  people  did  look  that  they  were  sent  from  God  and 
Christ. 

So  Thomas  Taylor  came  to  be  convinced  at  that  time 
and  travelled  with  me  into  Westmorland.  We  came  to 
Crosland  steeplehouse  and  there  the  people  were  gathered 

^ Thomas  Taylor  (c.  1617-1682)  came  from  Carlton  in  Craven,  near 
Skipton;  early  preacher  of  Quakerism,  many  times  imprisoned. 


124  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

and  they  would  have  had  me  go  into  the  steeplehouse,  and 
I said,  ‘ It  is  no  matter.’  And  there  came  another  priest  and 
a high  constable;  and  this  was  the  second  day  after  Thomas 
Taylor  was  convinced;  and  the  Lord  opened  his  mouth 
there  amongst  the  people  that  he  began  to  declare  how  he 
had  been  before  he  was  convinced  and  like  the  Pharisee 
that  was  converted  to  the  kingdom  he  brought  forth 
things  new  and  old  to  the  people  and  told  them  how  the 
priests  were  out  of  the  way.  This  did  torment  the  other 
priests,  and  some  little  discourse  I had  with  them,  but 
they  fled  away,  and  a precious  meeting  there  was.  The 
Lord’s  power  was  over  all  and  people  were  turned  to  God 
by  his  spirit,  with  which  they  came  to  know  Christ,  and 
God,  and  the  Scriptures.  And  so  I passed  to  several 
meetings,  visiting  Friends,  and  had  mighty  meetings  in 
Westmorland. 

And  about  this  time  the  priests  began  to  prophesy  that 
within  a month  we  should  be  all  scattered  again  and  come  to 
nothing. 

About  this  time,  1652,  Christopher  Taylor,^  another 
minister,  Thomas  Taylor’s  brother,  was  convinced  also  of 
Truth;  and  they  both  became  ministers  of  the  Gospel 
and  great  sufferers  they  were;  and  they  came  to  know  the 
word  of  the  Lord  and  were  commanded  to  go  to  many 
steeplehouses  and  markets  and  places  and  preach  Christ 
freely.  Also  John  Audland  and  Francis  Howgill  and  John 
Camm^  came  forth  to  be  faithful  ministers,  and  Edward 
Burrough,  and  Richard  Hubberthorne,^  and  Miles  and 
Stephen  Hubbersty  and  Miles  Halhead  and  several  others, 
and  so  continued  till  their  deaths,  and  multitudes  were 
turned  to  the  Lord. 

And  James  Nayler  travelled  up  and  down  in  many  places 

^ Christopher  Taylor  (c.  1620-1686),  opened  a school  at  Waltham 
Abbey,  Essex;  later  emigrated  to  Pennsylvania. 

2 John  Camm  (1605-1657),  early  publisher  of  Quakerism,  especially 
in  Bristol. 

3 Richard  Hubberthorne  (1628-1662),  a leading  preacher  of  Quaker- 
ism, especially  in  Norwich  and  London. 


ULVERSTON 


1652] 


125 


amongst  the  people  that  were  convinced.  At  last  he  and 
Francis  Howgill  were  cast  into  Appleby  gaol  by  the 
malicious  priests  and  magistrates.  And  Francis  Howgill 
and  Edward  Burrough  died  prisoners  for  the  Lord’s 
Truth. 

After  a time  I returned  into  Lancashire  again  and  went  to 
Ulverston,  and  though  Lampitt  had  preached  and  said 
that  there  was  a people  that  did  own  the  teachings  of  God, 
and  that  men  and  women  should  come  to  declare  the  Gospel, 
after  it  came  to  be  fulfilled  he  persecuted  it  and  them. 
I went  to  Lampitt ’s  house  where  there  was  abundance  of 
priests  and  professors  gathered  after  their  lecture,  and  there 
I had  great  disputings  with  them  concerning  Christ  and  the 
Scriptures,  for  they  were  loath  to  let  that  trade  go  down 
which  they  made  of  Christ’s  and  the  apostles’  and  prophets’ 
words;  but  the  Lord’s  power  went  over  the  heads  of  them 
all  and  his  word  of  life  was  held  forth,  though  many  of 
them  were  exceeding  devilish  and  envious.  Yet  after  this 
many  priests  and  professors  came  to  me  from  far  and  nigh, 
of  whom  the  simple-minded  and  innocent  were  satisfied 
and  went  away  refreshed,  but  the  fat  and  full  were  fed  with 
judgment  and  sent  empty  away.  And  that  was  the  word 
of  the  Lord  to  be  divided  to  them.  Then  Lampitt  began  to 
rage  when  meetings  were  set  up  and  we  met  in  houses,  and 
he  said  we  forsook  the  temple  and  went  to  Jeroboam’s 
calf’s  houses ; so  that  many  professors  began  to  see  how  he 
was  degenerated  from  that  which  he  formerly  held  and 
preached. 


And  it  was  declared  both  to  professors,  priests,  and  people 
how  that  their  houses  called  churches  were  more  like  Jeroboam’s 
calf-houses  <even  the  old  mass-houses)  which  they  had  set  up 
in  the  dark  times  of  popery  which  they  still  held  up,  which  God 
never  commanded;  for  that  temple  which  God  had  commanded 
at  Jerusalem  Christ  came  to  end.  And  they  that  believed  in 
him,  their  bodies  came  to  be  the  temples  of  God  and  Christ 
and  the  Holy  Ghost,  for  them  to  dwell  in  them  and  v/alk  in 
them.  All  such  were  gathered  into  the  name  of  Jesus,  whose 
name  was  above  every  name,  and  there  was  no  salvation  by 


JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX 


126 


[1652 


any  other  name  under  the  whole  heaven  but  by  the  name  of 
Jesus.  And  these  met  together  in  several  dwelling-houses 
which  were  not  called  the  temple  nor  the  church,  but  their  bodies 
were  the  temples  of  God  and  the  believers  were  the  Church 
which  Christ  was  the  head  of.  So  Christ  was  not  called  the  head 
of  an  old  house  v/hich  was  made  by  men’s  hands,  neither  did 
he  come  to  purchase  and  sanctify  and  redeem  with  his  blood  an 
old  house  which  they  called  their  church,  but  the  people  which 
he  is  the  head  of. 


A great  deal  of  work  had  I with  priests  and  people  with 
their  old  mass-houses  which  they  called  their  churches, 
which  were  made  by  men’s  hands;  for  the  priests  had  per- 
suaded people  that  it  was  the  house  of  God,  and  the  apostle 
said  Christ  purchased  his  Church  with  his  own  blood, 
and  Christ  calls  his  Church  his  spouse,  and  his  bride,  the 
Lamb’s  wife.  So  this  title  Church  and  spouse  was  not  given 
to  an  old  house  but  to  his  Church  that  was  his  people  and 
true  believers,  and  the  apostle  saith,  ‘ Whose  house  we  are.’ 
So  the  people  are  God’s  house  and  dwelling. 

And  after  this,  of  a lecture  day,  I was  moved  to  go  again 
to  Ulverston  steeplehouse  where  there  was  abundance  of 
professors,  and  priests,  ^^and  friendly  people  to  hear  me, 
and  queried  if  I would  be  there.^^ 

And  I went  up  to  Lampitt  who  was  blustering  on  in  his 
preaching:  and  one  John  Sawrey,^  called  a Justice  of  peace, 
came  to  me  after  the  Lord  had  opened  my  mouth  to  speak, 
^^and  took  me  by  the  hand,  and  asked  me  if  I would  speak, 
and  I said,  ‘ Yes.’^^  And  he  said  if  I would  speak  according 
to  the  Scriptures  I should  speak  and  I stranged  at  him 
for  speaking  so  to  me,  <for  I did  speak  according  to  the 
Scriptures).  And  I told  him  I would  speak  according  to 
the  Scriptures  and  bring  the  Scriptures  to  prove  what  I 
had  to  say,  for  I had  some  thing  to  speak  to  Lampitt  and 
them ; and  then  this  Sawrey  said  I should  not  speak,  contra- 
dicting his  own  saying  where  he  said  I should  speak  if  I 

^ Of  Plumpton  Hall,  Ulverston,  a member  of  the  Nominated 
Parliament,  1653,  a Baptist, 
aa aa  SJ,,  p.  23. 


bb 


bb  S.J.,  p.  23. 


1652]  BEATEN  AT  ULVERSTON  127 

would  speak  according  to  Scriptures.  ^^Then  the  rude 
people  said  to  the  Justice,  ‘ Give  him  us  ! ’ and  he  did. 
So  of  a sudden  all  the  people  in  the  steeplehouse  were  in  an 
outrage  and  an  uproar,  that  they  fell  upon  me  in  the  steeple- 
house  before  his  face,  with  staves  and  fists  and  books,  and 
knocked  m.e  down  and  kicked  me  and  trampled  upon  me. 
And  many  people  tumbled  over  their  seats  for  fear  and  were 
knocked  down,  and  the  Justice  and  the  priests  among  them. 
And  at  last  the  Justice  said  among  the  rude  people,  ‘ Give 
him  me  ! ’ and  he  came  and  took  me  from  amongst  the 
people  again  and  led  me  out  of  the  steeplehouse  and  put 
me  into  the  hands  of  four  officers  and  constables,  and  bid 
them  whip  me  and  put  me  out  of  the  town.  And  they  led 
me  about  a quarter  of  a mile,  some  taking  hold  by  my 
collar  and  some  by  the  arms  and  shoulders  and  shook  me 
by  the  head,  and  some  by  the  hands,  and  dragged  me 
through  mire  and  dirt  and  water."^"^  And  many  friendly 
people  that  were  come  to  the  market,  and  some  into  the 
steeplehouse  to  hear  me,  many  of  them  they  knocked  down, 
and  broke  their  heads  also.  And  the  blood  ran  down 
several  people  so  as  I never  saw  the  like  in  my  life,  as  I 
looked  at  them  when  they  were  dragging  me  along.  And 
Judge  Fell’s  son  running  after  to  see  what  they  would  do 
with  me,  they  threw  him  into  a ditch  of  water  and  cried, 
‘ Knock  out  the  teeth  of  his  head  ! ’ And  some  got  staves 
and  some  got  hedge  stakes  and  some  got  holme  bushes  and 
some  got  willows. 

And  when  they  had  led  me  to  the  common  moss,  and  a 
multitude  of  people  following,  the  ^^constables  took  me  and 
gave  me  a wisk  over  the  shoulders  with  their  willow  rods, 
and  so  thrust  me  amongst  the  rude  multitude  which  then 
fell  upon  me  with  their  hedge  stakes  and  clubs  and  staves 
and  beat  me  as  hard  as  ever  they  could  strike  on  my  head 
and  arms  and  shoulders,  and  it  was  a great  while  before 
they  beat  me  down  and  mazed  me,  and  at  last  I fell  down 
upon  the  wet  common.  There  I lay  a pretty  space,^^  and 
when  I recovered  myself  again,  and  saw  myself  lying  on  a 
cc  Cf.  S.J.,  p.  24. 


128  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

watery  common  and  all  the  people  standing  about  me,  I 
lay  a little  still,  and  the  power  of  the  Lord  sprang  through 
me,  and  the  eternal  refreshings  refreshed  me,  that  I stood 
up  again  in  the  eternal  power  of  God  and  stretched  out 
my  arms  amongst  them  all,  and  said  again  with  a loud 
voice,  ‘ Strike  again,  here  is  my  arms  and  my  head  and  my 
cheeks.’  And  there  was  a mason,  a rude  fellow,  a pro- 
fessor called,  he  gave  me  a blow  with  all  his  might  just 
a-top  of  my  hand,  as  it  was  stretched  out,  with  his  walking 
rule-staff.  And  my  hand  and  arm  was  so  numbed  and 
bruised  that  I could  not  draw  it  in  unto  me  again  ^^hut  it 
stood  out  as  it  was.  Then  the  people  cried  out,  ‘ He  hath 
spoiled  his  hand,  for  ever  having  any  use  of  it  more.’ 
The  skin  was  struck  off  my  hand  and  a little  blood  came,^"^ 
and  I looked  at  it  in  the  love  of  God,  and  I was  in  the  love 
of  God  to  them  all  that  had  persecuted  me. 

And  after  a while  the  Lord’s  power  sprang  through  me 
again,  and  through  my  hand  and  arm,  that  in  a minute 
I recovered  my  hand  and  arm  and  strength  in  the  face 
and  sight  of  them  all  ^^and  it  was  as  well  as  it  was  before, 
and  I had  never  another  blow  afterward.^® 

And  then  they  began  to  fall  out  amongst  themselves, 
and  some  of  them  came  to  me  and  said  if  I would  give 
them  money  they  would  secure  me  from  the  rest;  ®^but  I 
denied  it,  and®®  was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  declare  unto  them 
the  word  of  life,  and  showed  them  their  false  Christianity, 
and  the  fruits  of  their  priests,  and  how  they  were  more 
like  heathens  and  the  Jews  and  not  like  Christians.  ®®And 
they  said  if  I came  into  the  town  again  they  would  kill 
me.®® 

And  so  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  come  up  again 
through  them  and  up  into  Ulverston  market,  and  there 
meets  me  a man  with  a sword,  a soldier.^  ‘ Sir  ’,  said  he, 
‘ I am  your  servant,  I am  ashamed  that  you  should  be  thus 
abused,  for  you  are  a man  ’,  said  he.  He  was  grieved 
and  said  he  would  assist  me  in  what  he  could,  and  I 

^ Leonard  Pearson.  J.F.H.S.,  xxxi. 

Cf.  SJ.,  p.  24.  ee ee  SJ.^  p.  24. 


1652]  A FRIENDLY  SOLDIER  RESTRAINED  129 

told  him  that  it  was  no  matter,  the  Lord’s  power  was 
over  all. 

And  so  as  I walked  through  the  people  in  the  market 
there  was  none  of  them  had  power  to  touch  me.  And 
this  man  with  his  sword  was  walking  after  me  and  some  of 
the  market  people  ^%ere  striking  up  of  Friends’  heels^^  in 
the  market  and  I turned  me  about  and  I saw  the  soldier 
amongst  them  with  his  naked  rapier;  and  I run  amongst 
them  and  catched  hold  of  his  hand  that  his  rapier  was  in  and 
bid  him  put  up  his  sword  again  if  he  would  come  along  with 
me,  <for  I was  willing  to  draw  him  out  from  the  company, 
lest  some  mischief  should  be  done). 

And  so  he  came  to  the  town’s  end  with  me.  So  I came 
up  to  Swarthmoor  again  and  there  they  were  dressing  the 
heads  and  hands  of  Friends  and  friendly  people  that  were 
broken  that  day  by  the  professors  and  hearers  of  Priest 
Lampitt.  And  my  body  and  arms  were  yellow,  black, 
and  blue  with  the  blows  and  bruises  that  I received  amongst 
them  that  day. 

And  within  a few  days  after,  seven  men  fell  upon  this 
soldier  aforesaid  and  beat  him  cruelly  because  he  had 
taken  my  part;  for  it  was  the  custom  of  this  country  to 
run  twenty  or  forty  people  upon  one  man.  They  fell 
so  upon  Friends  in  many  places  that  they  could  hardly  pass 
the  highways,  stoning  and  beating  and  breaking  their 
heads. 

And  then  the  priests  began  to  prophesy  again  that 
within  a half  year  we  should  be  all  put  down  and  gone. 

And  about  a fortnight  after,  1 went  into  Walney  Island 
and  James  Nayler  went  with  me  and  we  stayed  over  night 
at  a little  town  on  this  side  called  Cocken,^  and  had  a 
meeting  where  there  was  one  convinced.  g^And  in  the 
evening  there  came  a man  who  bound  himself  with  an  oath 
that  he  would  shoot  me  with  a pistol,  many  people  being 
in  the  fold.^  And  the  people  of  the  house  went  forth. 

^ Near  Barrow  in  Furness. 

^ i.e.  yard. 

« 5.J.,  p.  25. 


130  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

And  after  a while  I walked  forth,  the  power  of  the  Lord 
was  so  mighty  to  the  chaining  of  them  in  the  yard  that 
the  man  of  the  house,  being  a professor,  was  so  tormented 
and  terrified  that  he  went  into  a cellar  to  his  prayers. 
And  after,  I went  into  the  house  when  Truth  was  come  over 
them.  And  there  was  a raw  man  of  the  house,  seeing  the 
Truth  had  come  over,  he  fell  to  speaking  and  let  up  their 
spirits.  And  so  I walked  out  of  the  house  into  the  yard 
again  and  fell  a-speaking;  and  then  the  fellow  drew  his 
pistol.  And  he  snapped  his  pistol  at  me  but  it  would  not 
go  off,  though  he  struck  fire.  And  some  held  him  and 
some  carried  me  away,  and  so  through  the  power  of  the 
Lord  God  I escaped.^s  So  the  Lord’s  power  came  over 
them  all,  though  there  was  a great  rage  in  the  country. 
And  the  next  morning  I went  over  in  a boat  to  James 
Lancaster’s,  ^^he  being  a Friend.  But  his  wife,  being  an 
enemy  to  Truth,  had  gathered  about  forty  rude  fellows, 
fishermen  and  the  like,^^  <for  the  people  had  persuaded 
James  Lancaster’s  wife  that  I had  bewitched  her  husband, 
and  they  had  promised  her  that  if  she  would  let  them  know 
when  I came  hither,  they  would  be  my  death).  So  as  soon 
as  I came  to  land  they  rushed  out  with  staves,  clubs  and 
fishing  poles  and  fell  upon  me  with  them,  beating  and 
punching  and  thrust  me  backward  to  the  sea.  And  when 
they  had  thrust  me  almost  into  the  sea,  I saw  they  would 
have  knocked  me  down  there  in  the  sea  ^^and  thought  to 
have  sunk  me  down  into  the  water.^^^  So  I stood  up  and 
thrust  up  into  the  middle  of  them  again.  But  they  all  laid 
at  me  again  and  knocked  me  down  and  mazed  me.  And 
when  I was  down  and  came  to  myself  1 looked  up  and 
I saw  James  Lancaster’s  wife  throwing  stones  at  my  face 
and  James  Lancaster  her  husband  was  lying  ^^over  my 
shoulders^^  to  save  the  blows  and  stones.  I could  hardly 
tell  whether  my  head  was  cloven  to  pieces  it  was  so  bruised; 
nevertheless  I was  raised  up  by  the  power  of  God.  Then 

Cf.  5.y.,  p.  25 ; Camb.  JnL,  i,  60;  ^4  Short  Account,  Portfolio 

36.172.  See  Bulletin  Vol.  39,  p.  27. 

S.J.,  pp.  25,  26. 


WALNEY  ISLAND 


1652] 


131 


they  beat  me  down  into  the  boat,  and  James  Lancaster 
came  into  the  boat  to  me  and  carried  me  over  the  water. 
<But  while  we  were  on  the  water  within  their  reach  they 
struck  at  us  with  long  poles  and  threw  stones  after  us.> 
We  saw  afterwards  they  were  beating  James  Nayler,  for 
while  they  were  beating  of  me  he  walked  up  into  a field 
and  they  never  minded  him  till  I was  gone,  and  then  they 
fell  upon  him  and  all  their  cry  was  ‘ Kill  him,  kill  him 
Then  James  Lancaster  went  back  again  to  look  after  James 
Nayler.  And  when  I came  on  the  other  side  of  the  water 
to  the  town  '%here  the  man  had  bound  himself  with  an 
oath  to  shoot  me,“  all  the  town  rose  up  with  pitch-forks, 
staffs  and  flails  and  muck-hooks  to  keep  me  out  of  the  town, 
and  cried,  ‘ Kill  him,  knock  him  in  the  head,  bring  the  cart 
and  carry  him  av/ay  to  the  grave-yard.’  ''But  they  did 
not,  but''  guarded  me  with  all  those  weapons  a pretty 
way  off  out  of  the  town,  ''but  did  not  much  abuse  me 
and  after  a while  left  me.''  So  I was  alone  and  came  to  a 
ditch  of  water  and  washed  me,  for 'T  was  very  dirty  and  wet 
and  much  bruised.''  So  I walked  a matter  of  three  miles 
iffrom  that  place  where  I washed  meij  to  Thomas  Hutton’s 
house  at  Rampside,  where  Thomas  Lawson  the  priest 
lodged,  that  was  convinced.  And  I could  hardly  speak 
to  them  when  I came  in  I was  so  bruised,  and  I told  them 
where  I left  James  Nayler  and  they  went  and  took  each  of 
them  a horse  and  went  and  brought  him  thither  that  night. 
’h\nd  I desired  to  have  a little  beer  and  I should  go  to  bed, 
but  when  I was  in  bed  I could  turn  me  no  more  than  a 
sucking  child,  I was  so  bruised,jj  and  the  next  day  Margaret 
Fell  hearing  of  it  at  Swarthmoor  sent  a horse  for  me, 
and  as  I was  riding  the  horse  knocked  his  foot  against  a 
stone  and  stumbled  that  it  shook  me  and  so  pained  me 
as  it  seemed  worse  to  me  than  all  my  blows,  my  body  was 
so  tortured.  So  I came  to  Swarthmoor;  and  my  body 
was  exceedingly  bruised. 

And  Justice  Sawrey  and  Justice  Thompson^  of  Lancaster 


' George  Toulnson  (d.  1655),  ex-Mayor. 
'' i'  S.J.,  p.  26.  jj.  . . . 


S.J.,  p.  26. 


132  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

granted  forth  a warrant  for  me,  but  Judge  Fell,  coming 
home,  they  did  not  serve  it  upon  me,  for  he  was  out  of  the 
country  all  this  time  that  I was  thus  abused  and  cruelly 
used. 

And  so  he  sent  forth  warrants  into  Walney^  to  the  con- 
stables to  apprehend  all  those  riotous  persons,  and  some 
of  them  fled  the  country,  and  destruction  is  come  upon 
many  of  them  since.  James  Lancaster’s  wife  came  after  to 
be  convinced  and  many  of  those  bitter  persecutors  also; 
judgments  of  God  fell  upon  some  of  the  persecutors. 

And  Judge  Fell  asked  me  to  give  him  a relation  of  my 
persecution  and  I told  him  they  could  do  not  otherwise, 
they  were  in  such  a spirit;  and  they  manifested  their  priests’ 
fruits  and  profession  and  religion.  So  he  told  his  wife 
that  I made  nothing  of  it  and  spoke  as  a man  that  had  not 
been  concerned;  for  the  Lord’s  power  healed  me  again. 

I went  to  Yealand  ^^"and  had  a great  meeting  of  Friends 
in  the  evening  at  Silverdale  where  there  came  a priest  with 
a pistoF^  in  his  hand  under  a pretence  to  light  a pipe  of 
tobacco,  ^^but  his  intent  was  to  have  done  a mischief  with 
his  pistol  to  me,  he  being  a desperate  fellow.^^  The  maid 
told  her  master  and  he  clapped  his  hands  a both  sides  the 
door  posts  and  told  him  he  should  not  come  in  there,  and 
looking  up  he  spied  a great  company  of  men  over  the  wall, 
one  with  a musket  and  others  with  stakes.  But  the  Lord 
God  prevented  their  bloody  design,  that  they  went  their 
ways  and  did  no  harm. 


^ Judge  Fell’s  warrant  was  dated  3rd  November,  1652. 

^ kk  sj.^  p.  22. 


CHAPTER  VI 


D after  this  I went  to  Lancaster^  with  Judge  Fell 


to  the  Sessions  where  John  Sawrey  aforesaid,  and 


Justice  Thompson  had  given  forth  a warrant  to 
apprehend  me. 

So  I appeared  at  the  Sessions  upon  the  hearing  of  it, 
but  was  never  apprehended  by  it.  And  there  I met  Colonel 
West,^  another  justice. 

As  I was  going  along  to  Lancaster  with  Judge  Fell  he 
said  to  me  he  had  never  such  a matter  brought  before  him 
before,  and  he  could  not  tell  well  what  to  do  in  the  business. 
Then  I said  unto  him,  when  Paul  was  brought  before  the 
rulers,  and  the  Jews  and  priests  came  down  to  accuse 
him  and  laid  many  false  charges  against  him,  Paul  stood 
still  all  that  while;  and  when  they  had  done,  the  governor 
Festus  and  King  Agrippa  beckoned  to  him  to  speak  for 
himself,  which  Paul  did  and  cleared  himself  of  all  those 
false  accusations.  So  he  might  do  by  me. 

So  when  they  were  set  in  their  Sessions  there  appeared 
against  me  forty  priests;  and  they  chose  one  priest  Marshall 
of  Lancaster  to  be  their  orator,  for  two  priests’  sons  and  a 
priest  had  sworn  against  me  that  I had  spoken  blasphemy. 
They  heard  all  that  the  priests  could  say  and  charge  against 
me,  and  their  orator  sat  by  and  explained  their  sayings. 
And  when  they  had  examined  one  of  them  upon  his  oath, 
then  they  examined  another,  and  he  v/as  so  confounded 
that  he  could  not  answer  directly  but  said  the  other  could 
say  it,  which  made  the  Justices  say,  ‘ Have  you  sworn  it 
upon  your  oath  and  now  say  that  he  can  say  it  ? It  seems 
you  did  not  hear  those  words  spoken  yourself  though  you 
have  sworn  to  it  ’ ; and  so  these  witnesses  were  confounded 
amongst  themselves. 

^ On  18th  October,  1652. 

^ William  West,  a member  of  the  Nominated  or  Little  Parliament. 

3 Dr.  William  Marshall,  later  a physician  in  London. 


133 


134  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

The  charges  against  George  Fox  and  his  answers  thereto, 

1.  That  he  did  affirm  that  he  had  the  divinity  essentially 
in  him. 

Answer.  For  the  word  essentially,  it  is  an  expression  of 
their  own,  but  that  the  saints  are  the  temples  of  God 
and  God  doth  dwell  in  them,  that  I witness  and  the 
Scripture  doth  witness,  and  if  God  doth  dwell  in  them 
the  divinity  dwelleth  in  them  and  the  Scripture  saith 
the  saints  shall  be  made  partakers  of  the  divine  nature, 
this  I witness.  (2  Cor.  vi.  15;  Eph.  iv.  6;  2 Pet.  i.  4.) 

2.  Both  baptism  and  the  Lord's  Supper  are  unlawful. 

Answer.  As  for  the  word  unlawful,  it  was  not  spoken 

by  me,  but  the  sprinkling  of  infants  I deny,  and  there 
is  no  Scripture  that  speaketh  of  a sacrament;  but  the 
baptism  that  is  in  Christ  with  one  spirit  into  one  body, 
that  I confess;  and  the  bread  that  the  saints  break  is 
the  body  of  Christ  and  the  cup  that  they  drink  is  the 
blood  of  Jesus  Christ,  this  I witness.  (Gal.  hi.  27; 
John  vi.  13-58;  2 Cor.  x.  16.) 

3.  He  did  dissuade  men  from  reading  the  Scriptures  telling 
them  it  was  carnal. 

Answer.  For  dissuading  men  from  reading  the  Scriptures, 
it  is  false,  for  they  were  given  to  be  read  as  they  are 
and  not  to  be  made  a trade  upon.  But  the  letter  is 
carnal  and  killeth,  but  that  which  gave  it  forth  is 
spiritual  and  eternal  and  giveth  life.  This  I witness. 
(2  Cor.  hi.  6.) 

4.  That  he  was  equal  with  God. 

Answer.  That  was  not  so  spoken,  but  he  that  sanctifieth 
and  they  that  are  sanctified  are  all  of  one  in  the  Father 
and  the  Son,  and  that  ye  are  the  sons  of  God.  The 
Father  and  the  Son  are  one,  and  we  of  his  flesh  and  of 
his  bone;  this  the  Scripture  doth  witness.  (Heb. 
ii.  11;  Eph.  v.  31.) 

5.  That  God  taught  deceit. 

Answer.  That  is  false,  and  never  was  so  spoken  by  me. 


1652]  CHARGES  ANSWERED  135 

6.  That  the  Scriptures  were  anti-christ. 

Answer.  That  is  false  and  was  never  spoken  by  me; 
but  they  which  profess  the  Scripture’s  spirit  and  live 
not  in  the  life  and  power  of  them,  as  they  did  which 
gave  them  forth,  that  I witness  to  be  anti-christ. 

7.  That  he  was  the  judge  of  the  world. 

Answer.  The  saints  shall  judge  the  world,  the  Scripture 
doth  witness,  whereof  I am  one,  and  I witness  the 
Scripture  fulfilled.  (1  Cor.  vi.  2,  3.) 

8.  That  he  was  as  upright  as  Christ. 

Answer.  Those  words  were  not  so  spoken  by  me,  but  as 
he  is,  so  are  we  in  this  present  world,  and  that  the 
saints  are  made  the  righteousness  of  God;  that  the 
saints  are  one  in  the  Father  and  the  Son;  that  we  shall 
be  like  him;  that  all  teaching  which  is  given  forth  by 
Christ  is  to  bring  the  saints  to  perfection,  even  to  the 
measure,  stature,  and  fullness  of  Christ,  this  the 
Scripture  doth  witness,  and  this  I do  witness  to  be 
fulfilled.  (1  John  iii.  2;  iv.  17;  Eph.  iv.  1-13.) 

When  once  you  deny  the  Truth  then  you  are  given  over 
to  believe  lies  and  speak  evil  of  them  which  live  in  the  Truth, 
and  your  lies  and  envying  lie  upon  them  the  righteous, 
you  whose  minds  are  envious  and  sow  the  seed  of  envy 
and  make  others  envious.  Oh,  therefore,  tremble  before 
the  Lord  ye  hypocrites,  and  mind  the  light  of  God  in  you, 
which  shows  you  the  deceit  of  your  hearts,  and  obey  that. 
Disobeying  your  teacher  is  your  condemnation.  Hating 
that  lights  you  hate  Christ. 

And  so  I cleared  all  these  things  which  they  charged 
against  me  as  aforesaid,  and  several  other  people  that  were 
at  the  meeting  when  they  said  I spoke  those  words  they 
charged  against  me,  they  witnessed  that  the  oath  they  had 
taken  was  altogether  false  and  that  no  words  like  those 
they  had  sworn  against  me  were  spoken  by  me  at  that  meet- 
ing. For  indeed  there  was  at  that  meeting  most  of  the 
serious  men  of  that  side  of  the  country  at  that  time,  who 


136  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

were  at  the  Sessions  and  had  heard  me  at  the  meeting 
aforesaid  and  at  other  meetings. 

And  Colonel  West  stood  up  who  had  long  been  weak, 
and  blessed  the  Lord  and  said  he  never  saw  so  many  sober 
people  and  good  faces  together  all  the  days  of  his  life. 
He  said  that  the  Lord  had  healed  him  that  day,  ^for  he 
had  been  sick,^  and  he  said,  ‘ George,  if  thou  hast  anything 
to  say  to  the  people,  thou  mayest  freely  declare  it  in  the 
open  Sessions.’  So  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  speak, 
and  as  soon  as  I began,  priest  Marshall,  their  orator,  goes 
his  ways.  And  this  I was  moved  to  declare,  that  the 
Scriptures  were  given  forth  by  the  spirit  of  God  and  all 
people  must  first  come  to  the  spirit  of  God  in  themselves 
by  which  they  might  know  God  and  Christ,  of  whom  the 
prophets  and  the  apostles  learnt;  and  by  the  same  spirit 
they  might  know  the  holy  Scriptures  and  the  spirit  which 
was  in  them  that  gave  them  forth;  so  that  spirit  of  God 
must  be  in  them  that  come  to  know  them  again,  by  which 
spirit  they  might  have  fellowship  with  the  Son  and  the 
Father  and  with  the  Scriptures  and  one  with  another, 
and  without  it  they  cannot  know  neither  God,  nor  Christ, 
nor  the  Scriptures,  nor  have  fellowship  one  with  another. 

And  I had  no  sooner  spoken  these  words  but  six  priests 
that  stood  behind  my  back  burst  out  into  a passion,  and 
there  was  one  priest  Jaques^  said  that  the  letter  and  the 
spirit  were  inseparable.  And  I said,  ‘ If  so,  then  every  one 
that  has  the  letter  has  the  spirit  and  they  may  then  buy 
the  spirit  with  the  letter  of  the  Scriptures.’ 

Upon  this.  Judge  Fell  and  Colonel  West  reproved  the 
priests,  seeing  their  darkness,  and  told  them  that  then 
they  might  carry  the  spirit  in  their  pockets  as  they  did  the 
Scriptures,  and  then  all  the  priests  rushed  out  in  a rage 
against  the  justices  because  they  could  not  have  their 
bloody  ends  upon  me,  seeing  they  were  so  confounded. 
<So  the  justices,  seeing  the  witnesses  did  not  agree,  and  that 
they  were  brought  to  answer  the  priests’  envy,  and  that  all 

^ John  Jacques,  vicar  of  Bolton-le-Sands. 

a a S.J.,  p.  27. 


1652]  SESSIONS  AT  LANCASTER  137 

i their  evidence  was  not  sufticient  to  make  good  their  charge 
against  me,  discharged  me.)  Then  Judge  Fell  spoke  to 
Justices  Sawrey  and  Thompson  and  superseded  their  war- 
rant and  showed  them  the  errors  of  it.  ^Judge  Fell  was 
made  very  serviceable  to  Truth,  for  his  understanding 
being  open;  and  most  of  his  family  came  into  the 
i Truth.^^ 

And  multitudes  of  people  praised  God  that  day  for  it 
was  a joyful  day.  There  was  Justice  Benson  of  Westmor- 
land who  was  convinced,  and  Mayor  Rippon^  who  was 
mayor  of  the  town  of  Lancaster  who  was  convinced  also. 
It  was  a day  of  everlasting  salvation  to  hundreds  of  people, 
for  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  the  way  and  free  teacher  was  set 
up  and  his  everlasting  Gospel  and  word  of  life  was  preached 
over  the  heads  of  the  priests  and  such  money-preachers. 

So  the  Sessions  broke  up  and  several  friendly  people  and 
professors  spoke  to  the  priests  in  their  inns  and  the  streets. 
The  Lord  that  day  opened  abundance  of  mouths  to  speak 
his  word  of  life  unto  them,  and  they  fell  like  an  old  rotten 
house.  And  the  cry  was  amongst  all  people  far  and  nigh 
that  the  Quakers  had  got  the  day  and  the  priests  were 
fallen. 

And  many  were  made  ministers  of  the  everlasting  word 
of  life  and  of  the  Gospel  at  that  time,  and  they  preached  it 
freely.  And  Thomas  Briggs  was  convinced  that  day  and 
declared  against  his  priest  Jaques.  For  before  that  time 
he  had  discoursed  with  a Friend  concerning  Truth;  which 
Friend,  one  John  Lawson  held  perfection,  and  Thomas 
Briggs  said  unto  him,  ‘ Dost  thou  hold  perfection  ? ’ 
and  he  up  with  his  hand  and  would  have  struck  the  Friend 
a box  on  the  ear.  But  at  this  day,  Thomas  Briggs  came  to 
be  convinced,  and  became  a faithful  minister  of  the  Gospel, 
and  stands  to  this  day. 

<When  the  Sessions  were  over,  James  Nayler,  who  was 
present,  gave  a brief  account  of  the  proceedings  in  a letter 
to  Friends,  which  is  here  added. 

^ Thomas  Rippon,  mayor  in  1653  and  1654. 

b b S.J.,  p.  27. 


JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX 


[1652 


138 

Dear  Friends  and  Brethren  in  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 

My  dear  love  unto  you  all  . . . the  Lord  doth  much  manifest 
his  love  and  power  in  these  parts.  On  the  second  day  of  last 
week,  my  brother  George  and  I were  at  Lancaster;  there  were 
abundance  of  Friends  from  all  parts,  and  a great  sort  which 
sided  with  the  priests,  giving  out  that  they  now  hoped  to  see 
a stop  put  to  that  great  work  which  had  gone  on  so  fast,  and  with 
such  power  that  their  kingdom  is  much  shaken.  We  were  called 
before  Judge  Fell,  Colonel  West,  Judge  Sawrey,  etc.,  to  answer 
what  was  charged  against  George.  There  were  three  v/itnesses 
to  eight  particulars,  but  they  were  much  confused  in  themselves ; 
which  gave  much  light  unto  the  Truth,  whereby  the  justices 
did  plainly  see  that  it  was  envy;  and  they  divers  times  told  them 
so.  One  of  the  witnesses  was  a young  priest,  who  confessed 
he  had  not  meddled,  had  not  another  priest  sent  for  him  and 
set  him  on  work.  The  other  witnesses  were  two  priests’  sons. 
It  was  proved  there  by  many  that  heard  one  of  them  say  that 
if  he  had  power  he  would  make  George  deny  his  profession, 
and  that  he  would  take  away  his  life.  This  was  a single  witness 
to  one  of  the  greatest  untruths  that  was  charged  against  George; 
and  the  justices  told  him  that  they  saw,  because  he  could  not  take 
away  his  life,  he  went  about  to  take  away  his  liberty  . . . The 
justices.  Judge  Fell  and  Colonel  West,  were  much  convinced 
of  the  Truth,  and  did  set  up  justice  and  equity;  and  have  much 
silenced  the  rage  of  the  people.  Many  bitter  spirits  were  at 
Lancaster  to  see  the  event,  but  went  home  and  cried  the  priests 
had  lost  the  day  . . . 

There  was  a warrant  against  us  at  Appleby,  but  Justice 
Benson  told  them  it  was  not  according  to  law,  and  so  it  ceased. 
As  I hear,  he  is  a faithful  man  to  the  Truth.  The  priests  began 
to  preach  against  the  justices,  and  said  they  were  not  to  meddle 
in  these  things,  but  to  end  controversy  between  neighbour  and 
neighbour.  They  are  not  pleased  with  the  law  because  it  is  not 
in  the  statute  to  imprison  us,  as  the  priests  that  pleaded  against 
us  said  . . . J.N. 

Written  from  Kellet,  30th  of  8th  mo.  [October],  1652.^  > 

And  I was  in  a fast  this  time  and  I was  not  to  eat  until 
this  work  of  God  was  accomplished.  So  the  Lord’s 
power  was  wonderfully  set  over  all  and  gave  me  dominion 
over  all  to  his  glory,  and  his  Gospel  was  freely  preached 

^ In  full,  Ellwood,  pp.  90-92;  Bicent.,  i,  140-42. 


1652]  SESSIONS  AT  LANCASTER  139 

that  day  over  the  heads  of  forty  hireling  priests.  I stayed 
two  or  three  days  in  Lancaster  afterwards  and  had  some 
meetings;  but  the  rude  and  baser  sort  of  people  plotted 
together  to  have  drawn  me  out  of  the  house  and  to  have 
thrown  me  over  Lancaster  bridge,  but  the  Lord  prevented 
them.  And  then  they  invented  another  stratagem.  After 
a meeting  was  done  in  Lancaster,  they  brought  down  a 
distracted  man  in  his  waistcoat  and  another  man  in  his 
waistcoat  with  a bundle  of  birchen  rods  bound  together 
like  besoms  for  them  to  have  whipped  me  with  them. 
But  I was  moved  to  speak  to  them  in  the  Lord’s  mighty 
power  which  chained  him  and  them,  which  brought  him 
like  a lamb.  And  I bid  him  throw  his  rods  into  the  fire 
and  burn  them  and  he  did  so  and  I made  him  confess  to  the 
Truth  and  the  light  of  Christ  Jesus.  So  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  all,  so  as  we  parted  in  love  and  peace. 

And  when  the  priests  had  been  in  a rage  against  me  at 
Lancaster,  they  had  drawn  up  several  petitions  both  in 
Westmorland  and  Lancashire  to  send  to  the  Parliament, 
as  you  may  see  in  the  book  entitled  Truth's  Defence,  and 
the  answer  to  the  Westmorland  petitions  in  Saul's  Errand 
to  Damascus  with  his  Packet  of  Letters,  ^We  got  the 
petition  and  answered  it  and  sent  it  to  the  Parliament 
before  theirs  was  sent  up.  And  the  priests,  when  the 
time  came  they  should  have  sent  theirs  up,  did  not  send 
it  up  because  it  would  cost  so  much  money.^^ 

But  when  the  priests  saw  that  they  were  overthrown  at 
the  Sessions  at  Lancaster,  as  aforesaid,  some  of  the  priests 
and  envious  justices  informed  the  Judge  Wyndham^ 
against  me,  and  in  the  open  Court  the  judge  made  a speech 
against  me  at  Lancaster  Assizes.  Colonel  West  being 
Clerk  of  the  Assizes,  the  judge  commanded  him  to  grant 
out  a warrant  for  me,  and  he  spoke  to  the  judge  boldly 
of  my  innocency.  The  judge  commanded  him  again 
either  to  write  a warrant  or  go  off  his  seat,  and  he  told  the 

^ Petition  printed  in  Besse:  Sufferings,  1753,  i,  p.  301. 

2 Probably  Sir  Hugh  Wyndham  (1603-1684). 

^ ^ SJ.,  p.  27. 


140  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

judge  plainly  he  would  not  do  it,  he  should  do  it  himself 
if  he  would,  and  he  would  offer  up  all  his  estate  and  his 
body  for  me.  So  he  stopped  the  judge,  ^which  was  of  great 
service  and  came  over  the  country and  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  all  and  stopped  the  envy  both  in  priests  and 
justices. 

The  same  night,  I came  into  Lancaster  at  the  Assizes 
and  hearing  of  a warrant  that  was  to  be  granted  out  for  me, 
I judged  it  better  to  proffer  myself,  than  for  them  to  seek 
me.  I went  to  Judge  Fell’s  and  Colonel  West’s  chambers. 
And  as  soon  as  I came  in  they  smiled  at  me,  and  Colonel 
West  said.  What,  was  I come  into  the  dragon’s  mouth  ! 
So  I walked  up  and  down  the  town  and  no  one  questioned 
me  nor  meddled  with  me  and  I stayed  there  till  the  judge 
went  out  of  town. 

And  thus  the  Lord’s  blessed  power  that  is  over  all  carried 
me  over  all  and  gave  me  dominion  over  all  in  his  glorious 
work  and  service  for  his  great  name’s  sake. 

And  this  persecuting  John  Sawrey  at  last  was  drowned; 
and  the  vengeance  of  God  overtook  the  other  justice, 
Thompson,  that  he  was  struck  with  the  dead  palsy  upon 
the  Bench  and  carried  away  off  his  seat  and  died. 

And  from  Lancaster  I returned  to  Robert  Widders’s,^ 
and  from  thence  I went  to  Thomas  Leaper’s^  to  a meeting 
of  Friends  in  the  evening.  ^And  all  the  time  of  the  meeting 
I felt  swords  and  pistols  about  me  lying  in  wait  not  far  off, 
and  was  looking  when  they  should  come  in.®  And  after 
the  meeting  was  done,  which  was  a very  blessed  meeting, 
I walked  out  afoot  to  Robert  Widders’s  and  I was  no  sooner 
gone  but  there  came  in  a company  of  disguised  men  with 
naked  swords  and  pistols  cutting  and  hacking  amongst 
the  people  of  the  house  and  put  out  all  the  candles.  The 
people  held  up  stools  and  chairs  before  them  to  save  them- 
selves. And  after  a while  they  drove  all  the  people  of  the 
house  out  in  the  night  and  searched  and  looked  for  me, 

^ Robert  Widders  lived  at  Kellet,  Thomas  Leaper  at  Capernwray, 
both  near  Carnforth. 

^ ^ 5./.,  p.  72. 


e S.J.,  p.  22. 


AT  KELLET 


1652] 


141 


who  was  the  only  person  they  looked  for,  and  lay  in  wait 
in  the  highways  by  which  I should  have  gone  if  I had  ridden 
to  Robert  Widders’s.  So  when  I came  to  Robert  Widders’s 
some  Friends  came  from  the  town  where  Thomas  Reaper 
lived  and  gave  us  the  relation  of  this;  they  were  afraid 
they  should  come  to  search  Robert  Widders’s  house  also 
for  me  to  do  me  a mischief,  but  they  came  not. 

Friends  perceived  they  were  some  of  them  Frenchmen 
and  Sir  Robert  Bindloss’s^  servants:  for  some  of  them  said 
in  their  nation  they  used  to  tie  the  Protestants  to  trees  and 
whip  them  and  destroy  them:  these  men  used  often  to 
abuse  Friends  in  their  meetings  and  going  from  their  meet- 
ings; for  they  took  Richard  Hubberthorne  and  several 
others  out  of  the  meeting  and  carried  them  a good  way 
off  into  the  fields  and  there  bound  them  and  left  them  bound 
in  the  winter  season.  And  one  of  his  servants  came  to 
Francis  Fleming’s^  house  and  thrust  his  naked  rapier 
in  at  his  door  and  at  his  windows.  And  there  came  a 
cousin  of  Fleming’s  with  a cudgel  in  his  hand  (who  was 
no  Friend)  and  bid  him  put  up  his  rapier,  but  he  would 
not,  but  vapored  with  it  at  him  and  was  rude;  and  he  up 
with  his  staff  and  knocked  him  down  so  as  he  made  him 
sprawl  on  the  ground  and  he  took  his  rapier  from  him. 
Had  it  not  been  for  Friends  he  would  have  run  him  through 
with  it,  and  so  Friends  preserved  his  life  that  would  have 
destroyed  theirs. 

From  Robert  Widders’s  I went  to  see  Justice  West,  and 
Richard  Hubberthorne  went  with  me.  We  rid  up  the 
Sands^  where  never  no  man  rid  before,  a very  dangerous 
place,  and  swimmed  over  the  water,  not  knowing  the  way 
nor  the  danger  of  the  Sands,  and  came  to  West’s  house. 
And  when  we  were  come  in  he  said  to  us,  ‘ Did  you  not  see 
two  men  riding  over  the  sands  ? I shall  have  their  clothes 


^ Sir  Robert  Bindloss  (d.  1688),  J.P.,  of  Borwick  Hall,  Carnforth, 
baronet. 

^ There  was  a Francis  Fleming  (d.  1694)  of  Newton. 

3 The  Sands  stretched  from  West  Bank,  near  Lancaster,  to  Ulverston, 
fourteen  miles,  uncovered  at  low  water. 


7 


142  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

anon,  for  1 am  the  coroner;  they  cannot  escape  drowning.’ 
And  we  told  him  that  we  were  the  men ; and  he  was  aston- 
ished at  it  and  wondered  how  we  escaped  drowning. 

And  then  the  priests  and  professors  raised  a report  and  a 
slander  upon  me  that  neither  water  could  drown  me  nor 
could  they  draw  blood  of  me,  and  that  surely  I was  a witch. 
For  when  they  beat  me  with  great  staves  they  did  not 
much  draw  my  blood  but  bruised  my  head  and  body. 
And  thus  the  Lord’s  power  carried  me  over  their  bloody 
murderous  spirits,  in  whom  the  ground  of  witchcraft 
was,  that  kept  them  from  God  and  Christ.  But  all  these 
slanders  were  nothing  to  me  as  knowing  that  their  fore- 
fathers, the  apostate  Jews,  called  the  master  of  the  house 
Beelzebub,  and  these  apostate  Christians  from  the  life  and 
power  of  God  could  do  no  less  to  his  seed,  so  it  was  no 
strange  thing  for  them  to  say  so  of  the  members  of  Christ 
who  were  heirs  of  him. 

And  about  this  time  Richard  Hubberthorne  was  in  a great 
fast,  and  after  was  very  weak;  insomuch  as  people  thought 
he  was  dead  and  it  was  reported  that  he  was  dead;  and 
several  Friends  were  sent  for,  and  before  they  got  to  him 
the  Lord’s  power  had  so  raised  him  up  that  they  met  him 
with  a bottle  going  for  water  to  drink;  so  that  Friends  did 
admire  at  the  wonderful  power  and  work  of  God  therein. 

So  I came  back  to  Swarthmoor  and  visited  Friends 
thataways,  and  brought  the  Lord’s  power  over  all  the 
persecutors. 

<I  was  moved  to  write  several  letters’^  to  the  magistrates, 
priests,  and  professors  thereabouts  who  had  raised  per- 
secution, to  Justice  John  Sawrey,  William  Lampitt,  priest 
of  Ulverston,  Priest  Tatham,^  and  Adam  Sandys,  a chief 
hearer  and  follower  of  Lampitt. 

It  was  upon  me  also  to  send  this  warning  to  the  people  of 
Ulverston  in  general.) 

O People  consider,  who  be  within  the  parish  of  Ulverston; 
I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  come  into  your  public  place  to  speak 

^ Ellwood,  pp.  94-96,  99-101;  Bicent.  ed.,  i,  147-150,  153-155. 

2 Richard  Tatham,  vicar  of  Heversham. 


1652]  TO  THE  PEOPLE  OF  ULVERSTON  143 

among  you  to  the  directing  of  your  minds  to  God,  being  sent 
of  the  Lord  that  you  might  know  where  you  might  find  your 
teacher;  that  your  minds  might  be  stayed  alone  upon  God, 
and  you  might  not  gad  abroad  without  you  for  a teacher:  for 
the  Lord  God  alone  will  teach  his  people;  and  he  is  coming 
to  teach  them,  and  to  gather  his  people  from  idols’  temples  and 
the  customary  worships,  which  all  the  world  is  trained  up  in. 
God  hath  given  to  every  one  of  you  a measure  according  to  your 
ability,  liars,  drunkards,  whoremongers,  and  thieves  and  who 
follow  filthy  pleasures,  you  have  all  this  measure  in  you.  This 
is  the  measure  of  the  spirit  of  God  that  shows  you  sin,  and  shows 
you  evil,  and  shows  you  deceit;  which  lets  you  see  lying  is  sin, 
theft,  drunkenness,  and  uncleanness,  all  these  to  be  the  works 
of  darkness.  Therefore  mind  your  measure,  for  nothing  that 
is  unclean  shall  enter  into  the  kingdom  of  God  . . . 

Therefore  love  the  light  which  Christ  hath  enlightened  you 
withal  who  saith,  ‘ I am  the  light  of  the  world  ’,  and  doth 
enlighten  every  one  that  comes  into  the  world.  One,  he  loves 
the  light  and  brings  his  works  to  the  light,  and  there  is  no 
occasion  at  all  of  stumbling;  and  the  other,  he  hates  the  light 
because  his  deeds  are  evil  and  the  light  will  reprove  him  . . . 
And  this  light  will  teach  thee,  if  thou  lovest  it,  it  will  teach  thee 
holiness  and  righteousness,  without  which  none  shall  see  God; 
but  hating  this  light,  it  is  your  condemnation  . . . The  Lord 
is  coming  to  teach  his  people  himself,  and  gather  his  from 
hirelings  and  such  as  seek  for  their  gain  from  their  quarter, 
and  from  such  as  bear  rule,  by  their  means.  The  Lord  is  opening 
the  eyes  of  foolish  people  that  they  shall  see  such  as  bear  rule 
over  them  . . . Therefore  to  the  light  in  you  I speak,  that  when 
the  book  of  conscience  is  opened  then  shall  you  witness  me  and 
you  all  judged  out  of  it.  So  God  Almighty  direct  your  minds 
who  love  honesty  and  sincerity,  that  you  may  receive  mercy 
in  the  time  of  need.  Your  teacher  is  within  you;  look  not 
forth;  it  will  teach  you  lying  in  bed,  going  abroad,  to  shun 
all  occasion  of  sin  and  evil. 

G.F.^ 

I writ  also  to  those  that  most  constantly  followed  William 
Lampitt  the  priest: 

...  To  the  light  in  ail  your  consciences  I do  speak,  which  Christ 
Jesus  doth  enlighten  you  withal.  It  will  show  you  time  you  have 

^ In  full,  Camb.  JnL,  i,  99-101;  Ellwood,  pp.  96-8;  Bicent.,  i,  150-2. 


144  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

spent  and  all  your  evil  deeds  you  have  done  in  that  time,  who 
follow  such  a teacher  that  acts  contrary  to  this  light  and  leads 
you  into  the  ditch;  and  when  you  are  all  in  the  ditch  together, 
teacher  and  people  . . . remember  you  were  warned  in  your 
life  time.  And  if  ever  your  eyes  come  to  see  repentance  and  own 
the  light  of  Jesus  Christ  in  you,  you  will  witness  me  a friend  of 
your  souls  and  eternal  good.  Then  will  you  own  your  con- 
demnation; and  that  you  must  all  own  before  you  come  into 
the  new  world  where  there  is  no  end,  but  you  that  hate  the  light, 
whose  deeds  be  evil,  this  light  is  your  condemnation.  When 
your  condemnation  is  come  upon  you  remember  you  were 
warned;  and  if  you  love  this  light,  it  will  teach  you,  walking 
up  and  down  and  lying  in  bed,  and  never  let  you  speak  a vain 
word;  but  loving  it  you  love  Christ  and  hating  the  light  there 
is  the  condemnation  of  you  all.  To  you  this  is  the  word  of  God, 
from  under  it  you  can  never  pass,  and  never  escape  the  terror 
of  the  Lord,  in  the  state  you  are  in,  who  hate  the  light. 

G.F.^ 

<I  writ  also  to  Leonard  Burton,  priest  of  Sedbergh, 
much  to  the  same  purpose,  he  being  in  the  same  evil  ground, 
nature,  and  practice  which  the  other  priests  were  in. 
Many  other  epistles  also,  and  papers  I writ  about  this  time, 
as  the  Lord  moved  me  thereunto,  which  I sent  among  the 
priests,  professors,  and  people  of  all  sorts,  for  the  laying 
their  evils  ways  open  before  them,  that  they  might  see  and 
forsake  them;  opening  the  way  of  Truth  unto  them  that 
they  might  come  to  walk  therein,  which  are  too  many  and 
large  to  be  inserted  in  this  place.) 

After  this  I went  into  Westmorland,  where  a company  of 
men  laid  wait  for  me  with  pikes  and  staves  at  a bridge, 
and  they  lighted  on  some  Friends  and  missed  me.  But 
after,  they  came  to  the  meeting  with  their  pikes  and  staves ; 
but  Justice  Benson  being  there  and  many  considerable 
people,  they  were  prevented  from  doing  that  mischief 
they  intended,  the  Lord’s  power  stopped  them,  so  that 
they  went  away  and  did  no  hurt  but  raged  much. 

And  so  I came  to  Grayrigg  where  the  priest^  came  to  the 

^ In  full,  Ellwood,  pp.  98-9;  Bicent.,  i,  152-3. 

2 Richard  Stookes. 


1652]  NATURE  OF  THE  SCRIPTURES  145 

meeting  at  Alexander  Dixon’s  house/  which  priest  was  a 
Baptist  and  a parish  priest;  and  the  Lord  confounded  him 
with  his  power.  Some  of  his  people  stood  upon  the  side 
of  the  house  and  tumbled  down  some  milking  pails,  the 
house  being  so  crammed;  but  after  a while  the  priest  and 
his  company  went  away,  being  confounded,  and  raised 
a slander  and  said  the  Devil  frightened  him  and  took 
a side  of  the  house  down  where  we  were  in  the  meeting; 
which  was  all  lies,  but  such  as  served  the  priests’  and 
professors’  turn  to  feed  upon;  and  they  printed  it  in  a 
book. 

And  another  time  this  priest  came  to  another  meeting 
a-top  of  the  hill,  and  fell  a-jangling.  First  he  said  the 
Scriptures  were  the  word  of  God,  and  I told  him  they  were 
the  words  of  God  but  not  Christ  the  Word.  And  I bid 
him  prove  it  by  Scripture,  what  he  said;  and  then  he  said 
it  was  not  the  Scripture,  and  so  set  his  foot  upon  the  Bible 
and  said  it  was  but  copies  bound  up  together.  And  a 
great  deal  of  unsavoury  words  came  from  him  not  worth 
mentioning.  So  we  had  a blessed  meeting  afterwards; 
the  Lord’s  power  and  presence  was  felt  amongst  us;  and 
he  went  his  ways.  Then  after,  he  sent  me  a challenge  to 
meet  him  at  Kendal,  and  I sent  him  word  I would  meet 
him  in  his  own  parish,  he  need  not  go  as  far  as  Kendal. 
So  we  set  the  hour  and  met,  and  abundance  of  rude  people 
were  gathered  to  it,  and  some  of  his  members,  baptized 
people.  They  intended  to  have  done  mischief  that  day 
but  God  prevented  them.  And  when  we  met  I declared 
the  day  of  the  Lord  to  them  and  turned  them  to  Christ 
Jesus;  and  he  out  with  his  Bible  and  said  it  was  the  word  of 
God.  I told  him  it  was  the  words  of  God  but  not  God  the 
Word;  his  answer  was  he  would  prove  the  Scriptures  to 
be  the  God  before  all  the  people.  So  I had  a man  that 
could  write  to  take  down  both  what  he  said  and  what  I 
said  as  may  be  larger  seen  in  my  book  of  letters.  But 
when  he  had  spoken  a great  while  he  could  not  prove  it; 
for  1 kept  him  to  the  Scripture  for  chapter  and  verse  for  it. 

^ Thursgill. 


146  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1652 

And  in  keeping  him  to  prove  that  one  error  he  had  asserted, 
he  ran  into  twenty.  And  the  people  gnashed  their  teeth 
and  said  he  would  have  me  anon.  Thus  the  Baptist 
priest  toiled  till  he  sweated,  and  broiled  himself  and  his 
company,  all  being  full  of  wrath;  and  I heaped  his  asser- 
tions on  the  head  of  him  and  them  all,  so  that  at  last  they 
went  away  confounded  and  could  prove  nothing  that  they 
asserted.  For  I told  them  what  the  Scriptures  said  them- 
selves, that  they  were  the  words  of  God  but  Christ  was  the 
Word.  And  so  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all  and  con- 
founded their  mischief  which  they  intended  against  me. 
Friends  were  established  in  Christ,  and  the  people  that  were 
his  followers  saw  the  folly  of  their  teacher. 

And  after  this  I came  through  the  country  <into  Lanca- 
shire again)  visiting  Friends.  Priest  Bennett  of  Cartmel 
had  sent  a challenge  to  dispute  with  me,  and  upon  the 
First-day  I came  to  his  steeplehouse  and  there  found  him 
preaching.  And  when  he  had  done  I spoke  to  him  and 
his  people,  but  the  priest  would  not  stand  to  trial  but  went 
his  ways : and  a great  deal  of  discourse  I had  with  the  people; 
and  when  I came  forth  into  the  steeplehouse  yard  and  was 
discoursing  with  the  professors  and  declaring  of  the  Truth 
unto  them,  one  of  them  sets  his  foot  behind  me  and  two 
of  them  run  against  my  breast  and  threw  me  down  against 
a grave  stone,  wickedly  and  maliciously  seeking  to  have 
spoiled  me,  but  I got  up  again  and  was  moved  of  the 
Lord  to  speak  to  them.  And  there  was  one  Richard 
Roper,  one  of  the  bitterest  professors  the  priest  had,  was 
very  fierce  and  zealous  in  his  contention;  and  so  I went 
up  to  the  priest’s  house  and  a-many  people  followed  after 
me  and  I desired  him  to  come  forth,  seeing  he  had  challenged 
me,  but  he  would  not  at  all  come  out  or  be  seen.  And  this 
Roper  after  came  to  be  convinced  of  God’s  eternal  Truth, 
and  became  a fine  minister  and  continued  faithful  to  his 
death.  So  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  all,  which 
was  very  great. 

<It  was  about  the  beginning  of  the  year  1653,  when)  I 
came  to  Swarthmoor  again  and  went  to  a meeting  at 


1653]  RICHARD  MYERS  HEALED  147 

Gleaston/  And  there  was  another  professor,  and  he 
challenged  a dispute  but  I went  to  the  house  where  he  was 
and  called  him  forth  but  he  durst  not  meddle;  so  the  Lord’s 
power  came  over  him  also. 

And  so  after  a while  I visited  many  meetings  in 
Lancashire,  <and  so  came  back  to  Swarthmoor  again). 

And  then  James  Milner  and  Richard  Myers  went  out 
into  imaginations.  And  a company  followed  them.  And 
I was  in  a fast  about  ten  days,  <my  spirit  being  greatly 
exercised  on  Truth’s  account).  And  as  Judge  Fell  and 
Colonel  Benson  were  in  Swarthmoor  Hall  talking  of  the 
news  in  the  News  Book,  of  the  Parliament,  etc.,  I was  moved 
to  tell  them  that  before  that  day  fortnight  the  Long  Parlia- 
ment should  be  broken  up  and  the  Speaker  plucked  out  of 
his  chair.  And  that  day  fortnight  Colonel  Benson  came 
again  and  was  speaking  to  Judge  Fell  and  said  that  now 
he  saw  that  George  was  a true  prophet;  for  Oliver  had 
broken  up  the  Parliament  by  that  time.^  And  many 
openings  I had  of  several  things  which  v/ould  be  too  large 
to  utter. 

And  James  Milner  and  some  of  his  company  had  true 
openings  at  the  first;  but  after,  got  up  into  pride  and  so 
run  out.  And  they  sent  for  me  and  I was  moved  of  the 
Lord  to  show  them  their  goings  forth.  And  they  came  to 
see  their  folly  and  condemned  it;  and  they  came  in  again 
and  died  in  Truth. 

And  after,  I went  to  a meeting  at  Arnside  where  there 
was  a-many  people;  and  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  say 
to  Richard  Myers  amongst  all  the  people,  ‘ Prophet  Myers, 
stand  up  upon  thy  legs  ’,  for  he  was  sitting  down.  And 
he  stood  up  and  stretched  out  his  arm  which  had  been 
lame  a long  time,  and  said,  ‘ Be  it  known  unto  you  all 
people  and  to  all  nations  that  this  day  I am  healed  ! ’ 
And  after  the  meeting  was  done,  his  father  and  mother 
could  hardly  believe  it  was  made  whole,  and  had  him 

^ Fox  wrote  a paper  there  on  6th  January,  1653. 

^ The  Long  Parliament  which  first  met  on  3rd  November,  1640, 
was  broken  up  on  2Cth  April,  1653. 


148  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

into  an  house  and  took  off  his  doublet,  and  then  they  saw 
it  was  true.  And  he  came  to  Swarthmoor  meeting  and 
there  declared  how  the  Lord  had  healed  him.  And  after 
the  Lord  commanded  him  to  go  to  York  with  a message 
from  him,  but  he  disobeyed  the  Lord ; and  the  Lord  struck 
him  again  so  as  he  died  about  three  quarters  of  a year  after. 

And  great  threatenings  there  were  in  Cumberland  that  if 
ever  I came  there  they  would  take  away  my  life;  but  when  I 
heard  of  it  I went  into  Cumberland  to  one  Miles  Wennington 
into  the  same  parish  but  they  had  not  power  to  touch  me. 

And  also  about  this  time  Anthony  Pearson,  a great 
persecutor  of  Friends,  was  convinced  at  Appleby,^  over 
whose  head  they  carried  a sword  when  he  went  to  the 
Bench.  And  coming  over  to  Swarthmoor,  I being  at 
Colonel  West’s  they  sent  for  me  and  Colonel  West  said, 
‘ Go,  George,  for  it  may  be  of  great  service  to  the  man  ’ ; 
and  the  Lord’s  power  reached  him.  About  this  time  the 
Lord  opened  several  mouths  to  declare  the  Truth  to  priests 
and  peoples  so  that  several  were  cast  into  prison. 

And  after  this  I went  again  into  Cumberland  *where  I 
saw  the  sparks  of  life  rise  before  I came  into  it,  and  a 
multitude  of  people  the  Lord  had  there.^  Anthony 
Pearson  and  his  wife  and  several  Friends  went  alongst 
with  me  to  Bootle.  Anthony  Pearson  went  on  to  Carlisle 
Sessions  for  he  was  a Justice  of  the  Peace  in  three  counties. 

And  upon  the  First-day  I went  into  the  steeplehouse. 
And  Hhe  priest  of  the  parish  hearing  of  my  coming,  he  had 
got  another  that  came  from  London,  to  help  him,  and  so 
I was  moved  to  speak  in  his  time,  he  uttered  such  wicked 
things,  and  therefore  for  the  Truth’s  sake  I was  moved 
to  speak  to  him  if  I had  been  imprisoned  for  it.  So  they 
hailed  me  out  and  people  were  mighty  rude,  and  struck 
and  beat  me  in  the  steeplehouse  yard  and  one  gave  me  a 
great  blow  upon  the  wrist  with  a great  hedgestake,^  with 
his  full  strength  so  that  people  thought  he  had  broken  my 
hand  to  pieces.  ^Yet  I felt  no  harm;  the  power  of  the  Lord 

' About  the  beginning  of  1654. 

‘ f S.J.,  p.  27. 


AT  BOOTLE 


1653] 


149 


bare  all  off.  And  the  constable  being  a sober  man  rescued 
me  out  of  their  hands  and  would  have  set  the  fellow  that 
struck  me  into  the  stocks  but  the  rude  people  rescued  him 
out  of  his  hands.s  The  constable  went  a little  way  with  us  to 
keep  the  rude  multitude  off  us;  ^and  I told  him  he  might 
go  a little  way  on  with  us^  to  Joseph  Nicholson’s  house 
^where  we  lodged;  there  lay  a company  of  rude  people 
by  the  way  to  have  done  us  a mischief. 

And  in  the  afternoon  I was  moved  to  come  up  again 
to  the  market  cross,  and  there  sat  me  down  with  my  friends 
about  me.  At  last  Friends  were  all  moved  to  go  into  the 
steeplehouse,  and  then  it  came  to  me  that  I might  go  in.^ 
And  the  priest  had  got  another  high  priest  that  came 
from  London  to  help  him.  ^And  so  when  I came 
in  the  priest  was  preaching,  and  all  the  Scriptures 
that  he  spake  were  of  false  prophets,  and  deceivers, 
and  anti-Christs,  and  he  brought  them  and  threw 
them  upon  us.  I sat  me  down  and  heard  till  he  had 
done,  though  several  Friends  spoke  to  him  in  his  time. 
So  when  he  had  done  I began  to  speak  to  him,  and  he  and 
the  people  began  to  be  rude,  and  the  constable  stood  up 
and  charged  them  to  keep  peace  ‘ in  the  name  of  the 
Commonwealth  ’,  and  all  was  quiet.  I took  his  Scriptures 
that  he  spoke  of  false  prophets  and  anti-Christs,  and 
deceivers,  and  threw  them  back  upon  him,  and  let  him  see 
that  he  was  in  the  very  steps  of  them.^  But  the  priest 
began  to  rage  and  said  I must  not  speak  there.  And  then  I 
told  him  he  had  his  hour  glass  by  which  he  had  preached, 
and  having  done,  the  time  was  free  for  me  as  well  as  for 
him,  for  he  was  but  a stranger.  ^And  he  accused  me  that 
I had  broken  the  law  in  speaking  to  him  in  his  time  in  the 
morning,  and  I told  him  he  had  broken  the  law  then, 
in  speaking  in  my  time.  So  I called  all  people  to  the  true 
teacher,  out  of  the  hirelings  such  as  teach  for  the  fleece 
and  make  a prey  upon  the  people,  for  the  Lord  was  come 
to  teach  his  people  himself  by  his  spirit,  and  Christ  saith. 


e g S.J.,  p.  27.  ^ ^ S.J.,  pp.  27,  28. 

i i 5./.,  p.  28. 


150  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

‘ Learn  of  me;  I am  the  way  ’ which  doth  enlighten  every 
man  that  cometh  into  the  world,  that  all  through  him 
might  believe;  and  so  to  learn  of  him  who  had  enlightened 
them,  who  was  the  Light,  so  we  had  a brave  meeting  in 
the  steeplehouse.j  And  all  was  quiet  whilst  I declared 
the  Truth  and  the  word  of  life  to  the  people  and  I directed 
them  to  Christ  their  teacher.  So  when  I had  done  I came 
forth;  and  both  the  priests  were  in  such  a fret  and  rage 
that  they  foamed  at  the  mouth  for  anger  against  me.  But 
the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  all. 

<The  priest  of  the  place  made  an  oration  to  the  people 
in  the  steeplehouse  yard,  and  said,  ‘ This  man  hath  gotten 
all  the  honest  men  and  women  in  Lancashire  to  him; 
and  now  ’,  he  said,  ‘ he  comes  here  to  do  the  same.’  Then 
I said  unto  him,  ‘ What  wilt  thou  have  left,  and  what 
have  the  priests  left  them,  but  such  as  themselves  ? For 
if  it  be  the  honest  that  receive  the  Truth  and  are  turned  to 
Christ,  then  it  must  be  the  dishonest  that  follow  thee  and 
such  as  thou  art.’  Some  also  of  the  priest’s  people  began 
to  plead  for  their  priest  and  for  tithes,  but  I told  them  it 
were  better  for  them  to  plead  for  Christ,  who  had  ended 
the  tithing  priesthood  and  tithes,  and  had  sent  forth  his 
ministers  to  give  freely  as  they  had  received  freely. 

So  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  all,  and  put  them  to 
silence,  and  restrained  the  rude  people,  that  they  could  not 
do  the  mischief  they  intended.  And  when  I came  down 
again  to  Joseph  Nicholson’s  house,  I saw  a great  hole  in 
my  coat,  which  was  cut  with  a knife,  but  it  was  not  cut 
through  my  doublet,  for  the  Lord  had  prevented  their 
mischief.  > And  the  next  day  there  was  a rude  wicked  man 
would  have  done  violence  to  a Friend,  but  the  Lord’s 
power  stopped  him. 

And  I was  moved  to  send  James  Lancaster  to  appoint 
a meeting  at  one  of  John  Wilkinson’s  steeplehouses  near 
Cockermouth,  who  had  three  parishes^  under  him  and  was 

^ Brigham  (p.  154  post)  and  probably  Mosser  Chapel  and 
Grey  sou  then. 

i j 5../.,  p.  28. 


1653]  ‘ A BOY  WITH  A RAPIER  ’ 151 

a priest  in  great  repute  and  esteem.  So  I stayed  at 
Bootle  in  Millom  till  he  came  back  again. 

And  some  of  the  gentry  in  that  country  had  made  a plot 
against  me;  and  as  1 was  in  the  field  they  came  to  the  house 
where  I came  from.  They  lighted  on  James  Lancaster 
but  did  not  much  abuse  him.  But  they  came  to  Joseph 
Nicholson’s  house,  and  ^a  little  boy  with  a rapier,  and 
they  came  into  the  house  where  I was;  I was  just  gone  out 
of  it  into  the  fields,  though  I saw  them  when  1 was  in  the 
fields,  but  they  came  not  to  me,  and  they  had  intended 
to  have  set  the  boy  on  to  have  done  mischief  and  to  have 
murdered;  but  the  Lord’s  hand  prevented  them  and 
stopped  them;  and  though  others  came  to  do  us  a 
mischief,  one  held  another,  and  so  through  the  power 
of  the  Lord  we  passed  over  them.^  And  they  not 
finding  me  in  the  house,  after  a while  they  went  their 
ways.  And  so  I walked  up  and  down  in  the  fields 
that  night  and  did  not  go  to  bed,  as  very  often  I used 
to  do. 

The  next  morning  we  passed  away;  and  the  next  day  we 
came  to  the  steeplehouse  where  James  Lancaster  had 
appointed  the  meeting;  and  there  were  a dozen  soldiers 
and  their  wives  who  were  come  from  Carlisle.  ^People 
having  notice  of  it,  and  not  having  seen  me  before,  all  the 
country  people  came  in  like  as  to  a horse  fair,  and  there 
came  above  a thousand  people  there.^  I,  lying  short  of 
the  place  at  a house,  sent  all  Friends  before  me.  And  there 
were  some  wicked  women  in  a field  hard  by  the  house, 
and  I saw  they  were  witches,  and  I was  moved  to  go  <out 
of  my  way  into  the  fields)  unto  them  and  declare  unto 
them  their  conditions  and  that  they  were  in  the  spirit  of 
witch-craft. 

And  then  I walked  down  towards  the  steeplehouse 
v/here  I found  James  Lancaster  speaking  under  a yew  tree, 
and  it  was  full  of  people  so  that  I feared  they  would  break 
it  down.  And  I looked  up  and  down  for  a place  to  stand 
upon  to  speak  unto  the  people  for  they  lay  like  people 

k SJ.,  p.  28.  1 > A./.,  p.  29. 


152  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

at  a leaguer^  all  up  and  down ; and  after  a while  when  I was 
discovered,  and  I saw  that  there  was  no  place  convenient 
to  speak  to  the  people  from,  a professor  came  to  me  and 
asked  me  whether  I would  go  into  the  church  ’^as  he  called 
it,"^  and  I told  him  yes,  "^though  I told  him  I denied  all  such 
places.’^ 

So  the  people  rushed  in,  and  when  I came  the  pulpit 
and  the  house  were  so  full  of  people  that  I had  much  ado 
to  get  in;  and  they  that  could  not  get  in  stood  about  the 
walls.  And  when  the  people  were  settled  I stood  up  <on 
a seat)  and  the  Lord  opened  my  mouth 

to  declare  his  everlasting  Truth  and  his  everlasting  day,  and  to 
lay  open  all  their  teachers  and  their  rudiments,  traditions,  and 
inventions  that  they  had  been  in,  in  the  night  of  apostacy, 
since  the  apostles’  day;  and  to  turn  them  to  Christ  their  teacher; 
and  to  set  up  and  direct  them  to  his  worship,  and  where  to  find 
the  spirit  and  Truth  that  they  might  worship  God  in;  and  opened 
Christ’s  parables  to  them,  and  directed  them  to  the  spirit  of 
God  in  them  that  would  open  the  Scriptures  and  parables  to 
them;  and  how  all  might  come  to  know  their  Saviour  and  sit 
under  his  teaching,  and  come  to  be  heirs  of  the  kingdom  of  God, 
turning  them  from  the  darkness  to  the  light,  and  the  power  of 
Satan  unto  God,  so  that  every  one  might  come  to  know  who  their 
teacher  was,  Christ  Jesus  and  the  Lord  God,  as  the  prophets 
and  the  apostles  and  the  true  Church  did,  and  so  to  know  both 
God  and  Christ’s  voice  by  which  they  might  see  all  the  false 
shepherds  and  teachers  they  had  been  under  and  see  the  true  shep- 
herd, priest,  bishop,  and  prophet,  Christ  Jesus  whom  God 
commanded  them  to  hear.  And  largely  did  I declare  the  word 
of  life  to  them  for  about  three  hours  time  and  all  was  still,  and 
quiet,  and  satisfied. 

And  after  I had  more  fully  declared  the  word  of  life  to 
them  than  is  here  mentioned  I walked  forth  from  amongst 
the  people  and  the  people  passed  away  mightily  satisfied. 
Anthony  Pearson  was  at  the  meeting  who  was  come  from 
the  Sessions.  And  there  was  a professor,  following  of  me 

^ A military  camp,  or  a besieging  force. 

“ “ S./.,  p.  29. 


1653]  AT  COCKERMOUTH  153 

and  praising  and  commending  of  me,  and  his  words  were 
like  a thistle  to  me  and  ^his  spirit  was  like  a steeple, and 
at  last  I turned  about  and  bid  him  fear  the  Lord.  There 
were  four  priests  gathered  together  who  came  after  the 
meeting  was  done;  and  one  Priest  Larkham^  said,  ‘ Sir,  Vvhy 
do  you  judge  so  ? ’ said  he,  ‘ you  must  not  judge  And 
I turned  to  him  and  said,  ‘ Friend,  dost  not  thou  discern 
an  exhortation  from  a judgment,  for  I admonished  him  to 
fear  God  and  dost  thou  say  I judge  him  ? ’ And  so  I 
manifested  him  in  discourse  with  him  to  be  amongst  the 
false  prophets  and  covetous  hirelings;  and  he  and  the  two 
priests  got  soon  away,  and  several  people  were  moved  to 
speak  to  them. 

And  then  John  Wilkinson^  that  was  priest  of  that  parish 
and  two  other  parishes  in  Cumberland,  when  they  were 
gone  began  to  dispute  against  his  own  conscience  several 
hours  till  generally  the  people  turned  against  him.  And 
he  thought  to  have  tired  me  out,  but  the  Lord’s  power 
tired  him  out,  and  the  Lord’s  Truth  came  over  all  and  many 
hundreds  were  convinced  that  day  and  received  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ’s  free  teaching  with  gladness.  And  many 
stand  to  this  day  and  have  died  in  the  Truth  under  Christ’s 
teaching. 

The  soldiers  were  convinced  and  their  wives,  and 
continued  with  me  till  the  First-day.  On  the  First-day 
I went  to  Cockermouth  steeplehouse  in  "the  forenoon" 
where  the  priest  Larkham,  that  first  opposed  me  as  afore- 
said, lived ; and  when  the  priest  had  done  I began  to  speak 
and  the  people  began  to  be  rude,  but  the  soldiers  told  them 
we  had  broken  no  law  and  then  they  were  quiet.  So  1 
began  to  speak  to  the  priest  and  laid  him  open  amongst 
the  false  prophets  and  hirelings,  at  which  word  the  priest 
got  his  ways  and  said,  ‘ He  calls  me  hireling  ’,  which  was 
true  enough  for  all  the  people  knew  it. 

^ George  Larkham  (c.  1629-1700).  Independent  minister  of 

Cockermouth. 

^ See  also  p.  315,  post. 

" " S.J.,  p.  29. 


154  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

And  some  of  the  great  men  of  the  town  came  to  me  and 
said,  ‘ Sir,  we  have  no  learned  men  to  dispute  with  you.’ 
I told  them  I came  not  to  dispute  but  to  declare  the  way  of 
salvation  and  the  way  of  everlasting  life,  and  so  I declared 
largely  the  way  of  life  and  Truth  to  them  and  directed  them 
to  their  teacher  that  had  died  for  them  and  had  bought 
them  with  his  blood.  And  when  I had  done  I passed  away 
about  two  miles  to  <Brigham>  another  great  steeplehouse 
of  Wilkinson’s  that  stood  in  a field,  and  the  people  were 
mightily  affected  and  would  have  put  my  horse  in  the 
steeplehouse  yard,  but  I said,  ‘ No,  the  priest  claims  that. 
Carry  him  to  an  inn.’ 

And  when  I came  into  the  steeplehouse  yard  I saw  people 
coming  as  to  a fair;  and  abundance  were  already  gathered 
in  the  lanes  and  about  the  steeplehouse.  Being  hot  and 
very  thirsty  I spied  a brook  and  went  down  about  a quarter 
of  a mile  and  got  a little  water  to  drink  and  refreshed  myself. 
And  as  I came  up  again  I met  the  priest  Wilkinson  and  as 
I was  going  by  him,  ‘ Sir  ’,  said  he,  ‘ will  you  preach  to  day  ? 
If  you  will  ’,  says  he,  ‘ I will  not  oppose  you,  not  in  word 
or  thought  ’ ; but  I said,  ‘ Oppose  it  if  thou  wilt  I have 
something  to  speak  to  the  people.  Thou  carried  thyself 
foolishly  the  other  day  and  spakest  against  thy  conscience 
and  reason,  so  as  thy  hearers  cried  out  against  thee.’  So 
I went  away  and  left  him,  for  he  saw  it  was  in  vain  to  oppose, 
the  people  were  so  affected  with  the  Lord’s  Truth.  So  I 
came  into  the  steeplehouse  yard;  and  not  seeing  any  con- 
venient place  to  speak  over  to  the  people,  a professor  came 
again  and  asked  if  I would  not  go  into  the  church  as  he 
called  it.  And  «it  being  hot  without,  and  there  being  no 
place  to  command  a people  thereabouts,^  I saw  that 
would  be  the  convenientest  place  to  speak  unto  the 
people  from,  so  I went  in  and  stood  up  in  a seat  after 
the  people  were  settled.  The  priest  came  in  but  did 
not  go  up  into  his  pulpit.  So  I declared  God’s 
everlasting  Truth  and  word  of  life  for  about  three  hours 
to  the  people  and  all  was  quiet  and  peaceable,  Pnot  a 
o o S.J.,  p.  30. 


1653]  PRIEST  WILKINSON  155 

word  was  uttered  either  in  or  out  of  the  steeplehouse  in 
opposition.p 

And  I brought  them  all  to  the  spirit  of  God  in  themselves, 
by  v/hich  they  might  know  God  and  Christ  and  the  Scriptures 
and  to  have  heavenly  fellowship  in  the  spirit;  and  showed 
them  how  every  one  that  comes  into  the  world  was  enlightened 
by  Christ  the  life,  with  which  light  they  might  see  their  sins  and 
Christ  their  saviour,  who  was  come  to  save  them  from  their 
sin;  with  which  light  they  might  see  their  priest  that  died  for 
them,  their  shepherd  to  feed  them,  and  their  great  prophet  to 
open  to  them.  So  with  the  light  of  Christ  they  might  see  Christ 
always  present  Vv^ith  them  who  was  the  author  of  their  faith  and 
the  finisher  thereof.  So,  opening  the  first  covenant,  I showed 
them  the  types  and  the  substance,  and  bringing  them  to  Christ 
the  second  covenant,  and  how  they  had  been  in  the  night  of 
apostacy  since  the  apostles’  days,  but  now  the  everlasting  Gospel 
was  preached  again  that  brought  life  and  immortality  to  light, 
and  the  day  of  the  Lord  was  come,  and  Christ  was  come  to 
teach  his  people  himself  ^and  how  them  might  find  their  teacher 
within,  when  they  were  in  their  labours  and  in  their  beds.q 

And  many  hundreds  were  convinced  that  day,  <and  some 
of  them  praised  God  and  said,  ‘ Now  we  know  the  first 
step  to  peace.’ 

The  preacher  also  said  privately  to  some  of  his  hearers 
that  I had  broken  them  and  overthrown  them.  > And  after, 
I went  to  a village  and  many  people  accompanied  me; 
and  as  I was  sitting  in  a house  full  of  people  and  declaring 
the  word  of  life  unto  them  I cast  my  eye  upon  an  unclean 
woman  and  told  her  she  was  a witch.  And  I was  moved 
in  the  Lord’s  power  to  speak  sharply  to  her  and  so  she  went 
out  of  the  room ; and  people  told  me  that  I had  discovered 
a great  thing,  for  all  the  country  looked  upon  her  to  be  a 
witch.  <The  Lord  had  given  me  a spirit  of  discerning 
by  which  I many  times  saw  the  states  and  conditions  of 
people,  and  would  try  their  spirits.) 

And  also  at  another  time  there  came  in  such  an  one 
into  Swarthmoor  Hall  in  the  meeting  time,  and  I was  moved 

p p *s./.,  p.  30.  q q S.J.,  p.  31. 


156  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

to  Speak  sharply  to  her  and  told  her  she  was  a witch  also, 
and  the  people  confessed  to  the  same  thing  and  said  all 
the  country  looked  upon  her  to  be  such  an  one  also. 

And  there  came  in  <also  at  another  time  a>  woman  and 
stood  a little  off  from  me  and  I cast  my  eye  upon  her; 
and  I said  she  had  been  an  harlot,  for  I perfectly  saw  the 
condition  and  life  of  the  woman.  The  woman  answered 
and  said  that  many  could  tell  her  of  her  outward  sins  but 
none  could  tell  her  of  her  inward,  but  I told  her  her  heart 
was  not  right  before  the  Lord,  and  from  the  inward  came 
the  outward.  Afterwards  this  woman  came  to  be  con- 
vinced of  God’s  Truth,  and  remained  a Friend. 

So  from  that  village  we  came  up  to  Thomas  Bewley’s 
house^  near  Caldbeck;  but  when  night  came  I walked  out 
and  lay  out  all  night.  And  from  thence,  having  some 
service  there  for  the  Lord,  I passed  to  a market  town,  named 
Wigton,  where  I had  a meeting  at  the  cross  and  all  was 
pretty  quiet;  and  when  I had  declared  the  Truth  unto  them 
and  turned  them  to  Christ  their  teacher  we  passed  away 
and  had  another  meeting  upon  the  borders  in  the  steeple- 
house  yard,  where  many  professors  and  contenders  came, 
but  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  all.  But  after  the  word  of 
life  was  declared  some  received  the  Truth  there  and  at  the 
market  town  aforesaid. 


CHAPTER  VII 

A ND  from  thence  we  passed  into  Carlisle  City  and  on 
Seventh-day,  the  market  day,  I went  up  into  the 
JL  \ market  to  the  cross.  The  magistrates  had  threatened 
and  sent  their  sergeants.  And  the  magistrates’  wives 
said  that  if  I came  there  they  would  pluck  the  hair  off  my 
head,  and  that  the  sergeants  should  take  me  up.  Never- 
theless I obeyed  the  Lord  God  and  went  ^and  stood  a-top 

^ Thomas  Bewley  lived  at  Haltcliffe  Hall.  The  visit  took  place 
toward  the  end  of  July,  1653. 


1653]  AT  CARLISLE  157 

of  the  cross  in  the  middle  of  the  market  and  there  declared 
unto  them  that  the  day  of  the  Lord  v/as  coming  upon  all 
their  deceitful  ways  and  doings  and  deceitful  merchandise, 
and  that  they  were  to  lay  away  all  cozening  and  cheating 
and  keep  to  ‘ yea  ’ and  ‘ nay  and  speak  the  truth  one  to 
another,  and  spoke  the  Truth  to  them  as  I passed  along  the 
streets.  So  I set  the  Truth  and  the  power  of  God  over 
them.  And  a multitude  of  people  followed  me,  and  the 
people  being  throng,  the  sergeants  could  not  get  to  me, 
<nor  the  magistrates  wives  come  at  me>.  So  I passed  away 
quietly  after  I had  declared  the  word  of  life  to  the  people. 
And  there  was  a Friend  led  me  to  his  own  house,  and  many 
people  and  soldiers  came  to  me,  and  some  Baptists  that  were 
bitter  contenders,  so  that  one  of  their  deacons,  an  old  man,^ 
cried  out,  the  Lord’s  power  being  over  them.  And  I set 
my  eyes  upon  him  and  spoke  sharply  to  him  in  the  power 
of  the  Lord;  and  he  cried,  ‘ Don’t  pierce  me  so  with  thy 
eyes,  keep  thy  eyes  off  me.’ 

And  the  pastor  of  the  Baptists,  a lieutenant,  came  to  me 
to  the  abbey  with  most  of  his  hearers,  where  1 had  a meeting 
and  declared  the  word  of  life  amongst  them,  and  many  of 
the  Baptists  and  soldiers  were  convinced.  And  after  the 
meeting  was  done  the  pastor,  ^with  a rapier  in  his  hand,^ 
came  and  asked  me  what  must  be  damned,  being  a high 
notionist  and  a flashy  man.  And  I was  moved  of  a sudden 
to  tell  him,  that  which  spoke  in  him  was  to  be  damned, 
which  stopped  the  pastor’s  mouth,  and  the  witness  of  God 
was  raised  up  in  him.  And  I opened  to  him  the  state  of 
election  and  reprobation,  so  that  he  said  he  never  heard 
the  like  in  his  life.  <He  also  came  afterwards  to  be 
convinced.  > 

And  after,  I went  up  to  the  castle  amongst  the  soldiers. 
And  they  beat  a drum  and  called  them  together  and  I 
turned  them  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  their  teacher,  and 
warned  them  of  doing  violence  to  any  man,  and  that  they 
might  show  forth  a Christian’s  life,  and  turned  them  from 
the  darkness  to  the  light  and  from  the  power  of  Satan  unto 

^ ^ Cf.  5./.,  pp.  31,  32.  b b sj,^  p.  32. 


158  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

God.  And  1 let  them  see  what  was  their  teacher  and  what 
would  be  their  condemnation;  and  had  no  opposition 
but  from  the  sergeants  who  afterwards  came  to  be  con- 
vinced. 

And  on  the  First-day  after,  I went  into  the  steeplehouse,^ 
and  after  the  priest  had  done  I spoke  the  truth  to  them  and 
declared  the  word  of  life  amongst  the  people.  The  magis- 
trates desired  me  to  go  my  ways  and  desired  me  not  to 
speak;  and  the  priest  got  away,  but  I still  declared;  and 
told  them  I came  to  speak  the  word  of  life  and  salvation 
from  the  Lord  amongst  them.  A dreadful  power  of  the 
Lord  there  was  amongst  them  in  the  steeplehouse  that  the 
people  trembled  and  shook:  and  they  thought  the  very 
steeplehouse  shook  and  thought  it  would  have  fallen  down. 
The  magistrates’  wives  were  in  a rage  and  tore  and  rent 
to  have  been  at  me,  but  the  soldiers  and  friendly  people 
stood  thick  about  me.  At  last  the  rude  people  of  the  city 
rose  and  came  with  staves  into  the  steeplehouse  and  cried, 
‘ Down  with  these  round-headed  rogues  ’,  and  threw  stones, 
but  the  governor  sent  a file  or  two  of  musketeers  into  the 
steeplehouse  and  commanded  the  other  soldiers  all  out, 
''that  were  with  me,  which  had  been  convinced,  and  which 
kept  the  rude  people  off  me.  Then  when  the  soldiers 
came  to  call  away  the  other  soldiers,  they  plucked  me  down 
and  would  not  let  me  stay  amongst  the  rude  multitude,'' 
and  took  me  by  the  hand  very  friendly  and  said  they  would 
have  m.e  alongst  with  them  then;  and  so  when  we  were 
in  the  street  all  the  town  was  of  an  uproar,  "and  stones 
flew  about  and  cudgels,  in  the  steeplehouse  and  about  it, 
and  without  in  the  streets,  and  swords  were  drawn."  And 
the  governor  came  down  to  appease  the  people  and,  for 
standing  by  and  for  me  against  the  townspeople,  some  of 
the  soldiers  were  cast  into  prison.  '^And  there  came  the 
same  lieutenant,  the  pastor  of  the  Baptists,  that  came  before 
with  his  rapier  in  his  hand,  and  took  me  out  of  the  crowd 
into  his  own  house,  where  there  was  a Baptists’  meeting. 

^ The  Cathedral  Church  of  St.  Mary,  Carlisle. 

" " Cf.5./.,  p.  32. 


1653]  ARREST  AT  CARLISLE  159 

And  so  in  the  afternoon  he  offered  up  his  meeting  to  declare 
the  Truth  among  them,^^  and  there  Friends  came  also  and 
we  had  a very  quiet  meeting  and  they  heard  the  word  of 
life  gladly  and  received  it. 

And  the  next  day  I went  to  a Baptist’s  house,  and  the 
officers  and  justices  and  magistrates  of  the  town  were 
gathered  together  at  the  hall;  and  they  granted  a warrant 
for  me  and  sent  for  me,  and  I went  up  to  the  town  hall 
to  them  where  a-many  was  gathered.  And  many  rude 
people  there  were  that  had  sworn  strange  things  against 
me:  and  a great  deal  of  discourse  I had  with  them,  and 
showed  them  the  fruits  of  their  priest’s  preaching,  and  how 
void  they  were  of  Christianity,  though  such  great  professors, 
but  without  possession  <for  they  were  Independents  and 
Presbyterians). 

And  one  sware  one  thing  and  one  sware  another  thing 
against  me. 

^They  asked  me  if  I were  the  son  of  God. 

I said,  ‘ Yes.’ 

They  asked  me  if  I had  seen  God’s  face. 

I said,  ‘ Yes.’ 

They  asked  me  whether  I had  the  spirit  of  discerning. 

I said,  ‘ Yes  ’,  I discerned  him  that  spoke  to  me. 

They  asked  me  whether  the  Scripture  was  the  word  of 
God. 

I said,  God  was  the  Word  and  the  Scriptures  were 
writings;  and  the  Word  was  before  writings  were,  which 
Word  did  fulfil  them.® 

And  so  after  a long  examination  they  sent  me  to  prison,’^ 
<as  a blasphemer,  a heretic,  and  a seducer,  though 
they  could  not  justly  charge  any  such  thing  against 
me.) 

And  the  two  gaolers  were  like  two  bear-herds.  And  when 
the  head  gaoler  had  me  up  into  a great  chamber  and  told 
me  I should  have  what  I would  in  that  room,  I told  him 
he  should  not  expect  any  money  from  me,  and  that  I would 

^ The  imprisonment  began  1st  August,  1653,  and  lasted  seven  weeks. 

^ ^ S.J.,  p.  32.  « « S.J.,  p.  33. 


160  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

not  lie  in  none  of  his  beds  nor  eat  none  of  his  victuals. 
^And  so  1 sat  up  all  night.^  And  then  he  put  me  into 
another  room  where  I got  a thing  to  lie  on  after  a 
while. 

And  the  Assizes  came  on  and  all  the  news  and  cry  in 
the  country  was  that  I was  to  be  hanged,  and  the  High 
Sheriff  said,  one  Sir  Wilfrid  Lawson,  that  he  would  guard 
me  to  my  execution,  and  stirred  them  much  up  to  take 
away  my  life.  They  were  all  in  a black,  dark  rage,  and  they 
set  three  musketeers  upon  me — one  at  my  chamber  door, 
another  at  the  stairs  foot,  and  another  at  the  street  doors, 
and  would  let  none  come  at  me  except  one  to  bring  me  some 
necessary  things.  And  at  nights  they  would  let  up  priests; 
about  10  o’clock  at  night  they  would  bring  in  droves  of 
them  and  exceeding  rude  and  devilish  they  were,  %hen 
they  could  get  no  hold  of  my  words;  for  the  truth  did 
convince  them  and  was  like  a fire  upon  their  heads  and  in 
their  hearts.^  But  the  Lord  in  his  power  gave  me  dominion 
over  them  all,  and  I let  them  see  both  their  fruits  and  their 
spirits.  ^And  there  came  most  of  the  gentry  of  the  country 
to  dispute.^  And  great  ladies  and  countesses  came  to  see 
a man  that  they  said  was  to  die;  and  the  priests  would 
temptingly  ask.  What,  must  I die  for  their  sins  ?,  which 
manifested  that  they  were  in  the  nature  of  them  that  crucified 
him  that  died  for  the  sins  of  the  world.  And  there  was  a 
company  of  bitter  Scottish  priests  and  Presbyterians, 
made  up  of  envy  and  malice,  who  were  not  fit  to  speak 
of  the  things  of  God,  they  were  so  foul-mouthed.  Many 
priests  that  came  to  me  would  be  asking  questions  and  say- 
ing the  Scriptures  were  the  Word,  and  I asked  them  how 
many  gods  there  were,  and  they  said,  ‘ One.’  I asked 
them  whether  God  was  not  the  Word,  and  they  would  say, 
‘Yes.’  And  so  I let  them  see  how  they  did  confound 
themselves;  for  there  was  not  a prisoner  but  was  able  to 
confute  them.  And  so,  when  they  were  contriving,  both 
judge,  sheriff  and  justices,  of  putting  me  to  death,  the  j 
judge’s  clerk  started  a question  to  them  that  confounded  ! 

^ fx.y.,  p.  33.  I 


1653]  DISPUTES  IN  PRISON  161 

them  all,  after  which  they  had  not  power  to  call  me  out 
before  the  judges.  <Anthony  Pearson,  being  then  in 
Carlisle,  and  perceiving  that  they  did  not  intend  to  bring 
me,  as  was  expected,  upon  my  trial,  wrote  a letter:  To  the 
Judges  of  Assize  and  Jail-delivery  for  the  Northern  Parts 
sitting  at  Carlisle. 

...lam  moved  to  lay  before  you  the  condition  of  George  Fox, 
whom  the  magistrates  of  this  city  have  cast  into  prison  for  words 
that  he  is  accused  to  have  spoken,  which  they  call  blasphemy. 
He  was  sent  to  the  gaol  till  he  should  be  delivered  by  due  course 
of  law;  and  it  was  expected  he  should  have  been  proceeded 
against  ...  at  this  Assize.  ...  To  my  knowledge,  he  utterly 
abhors  and  detests  every  particular,  which,  by  the  Act  against 
blasphemous  opinions,  is  appointed  to  be  punished  . . . 

Though  he  be  committed,  judgement  is  not  given  against 
him,  nor  have  his  accusers  been  face  to  face  to  affirm  before 
him  what  they  have  informed  against  him,  nor  was  he  heard 
as  to  the  particulars  of  their  accusations,  nor  doth  it  appear 
that  any  word  they  charge  against  him  is  within  the  Act.  Indeed 
I could  not  yet  so  much  as  see  the  information,  no,  not  in 
court,  though  I desired  it.  ...  That  his  friends  may  not 
speak  with  him  I know  no  law  nor  reason  for.  I do  therefore 
claim  for  him  a due  and  lawful  hearing,  and  that  he  may  have 
a copy  of  his  charge,  and  freedom  to  answer  for  himself,  and 
that  rather  before  you  than  to  be  left  to  the  rulers  of  this  town 
who  are  not  competent  judges  of  blasphemy  . . . 

Anthony  Pearson.^ 

But  not  withstanding  this  letter,  the  judges  were  resolved 
not  to  suffer  me  to  be  brought  before  them;  but  reviling 
and  scoffing  at  me  behind  my  back  left  me  to  the  magis- 
trates of  the  town,  giving  them  what  encouragement  they 
could  to  exercise  their  cruelty  upon  me.  Whereupon  (though 
I had  been  kept  up  so  close  in  the  gaoler’s  house  that 
Friends  were  not  suffered  to  visit  me,  and  Justice  Benson 
and  Justice  Pearson  were  denied  to  see  me)  the  next  day, 
after  the  judges  were  gone  out  of  town,  an  order  was  sent 
to  the  jailer)  that  I should  be  put  in  the  dungeon  amongst 

^ in  full,  Ellwood,  p.  Ill ; Bicent.,  i,  170. 


162  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

the  moss-troopers,  and  so  they  did ; where  men  and  women 
were  put  together  and  never  a house  of  office,  in  a nasty 
and  very  uncivil  manner  which  was  a shame  to  Christianity. 
And  the  prisoners  were  exceeding  lousy;  sand  there  was 
one  woman  almost  eaten  to  death  with  lice.s  But  the 
prisoners  were  m.ade  all  of  them  very  loving  to  me,  and 
some  of  them  were  convinced,  as  the  publicans  and  harlots 
of  old  were,  so  that  they  were  able  to  confound  a priest 
that  might  come  to  the  gates  to  dispute.  And  Justice 
Benson’s  wife  was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  come  and  visit 
me  and  to  eat  no  meat  but  what  she  ate  with  me  at  the  bars 
of  the  dungeon  window,  a good,  honest  woman,  who  after 
was  imprisoned  herself  at  York  for  speaking  to  a priest, 
when  she  was  great  with  child,  and  had  a child  in  prison.^ 
She  continued  a good  Friend  till  she  died. 

<Now  when  I saw  that  I was  not  like  to  be  brought  forth 
to  a public  hearing  and  trial,  though  I had  before  answered 
in  writing  the  particular  matters  charged  against  me  at  the 
time  of  my  first  examination  and  commitment,  I was 
moved  to  send  forth  a paper,  as  a public  challenge  to  all 
those  that  did  belie  the  Truth  and  me  behind  my  back, 
to  come  forth  and  make  good  their  charge.^ 

And  much  about  the  same  time  I writ  also  to  the  justices 
at  Carlisle,  that  had  cast  me  into  prison,  and  that  persecuted 
Friends  at  the  instigation  of  the  priests  for  tithes,  expos- 
tulating the  matter  with  them  thus : > 

Friends,  Thomas  Craister  and  Cuthbert  Studholm. 

Your  noise  is  come  up  to  London,  what  havoc,  what  imprison- 
ment, is  come  up  before  the  sober  people.  What  imprisonment, 
what  bridling,  v/hat  making  havoc  and  spoiling  the  goods  of 
people  have  you  made  within  these  few  years;  unlike  men, 
as  though  you  had  never  read  Scripture,  to  be  men  that  minded 
them.  Is  this  the  end  of  Carlisle’s  religion  ? Is  this  the  end  of 
your  ministry  ? And  is  this  the  end  of  your  church  Christianity 
profession  ? You  have  shamed  it  by  your  folly  and  madness 

^ Immanuel  Benson,  b.  2nd  February,  1 654. 

^ Ellwood,  p.  113;  Bicent.,  i,  173. 

8 g 5.A,  p.  33. 


JAMES  PARNELL 


1653] 


163 


and  blind  zeal . . . And  the  everlasting  gospel  shall  be  preached 
again,  which  is  the  power  of  God,  to  all  nations  and  kindreds 
and  tongues  in  this  the  Lamb’s  day,  which  you  shall  appear 
before  to  judgement,  and  you  have  no  way  to  escape.  The  first 
and  the  last,  the  beginning  and  the  ending,  the  Alpha  and 
Omega,  He  hath  appeared,  that  was  dead,  is  alive  again,  and 
lives  for  evermore.^ 


<I  mentioned  before  that  Gervase  Benson  and  Anthony 
Pearson,  though  they  had  been  justices  of  the  peace,  were 
not  permitted  to  come  to  me  in  the  prison,  whereupon 
they  jointly  wrote  a letter  to  the  magistrates,  priests,  and 
people  at  Carlisle,  concerning  my  imprisonment.)^ 

And  whilst  I was  in  the  dungeon  a little  boy,  one  James 
Parnell,  about  15  years  old  came  to  me,  and  he  was  con- 
vinced and  came  to  be  a very  fine  minister  of  the  word  of 
life  and  turned  many  to  Christ. 

At  last  he  was  imprisoned  himself  in  Colchester  and  the 
gaoler  was  cruel  with  him  and  made  him  climb  up  and  down 
for  his  victuals  into  a place  called  Little  Ease  or  The  Oven, 
where  they  kept  him,  and  he  fell  down,  the  rope  breaking, 
and  broke  his  head  so  as  he  died^  and  then  the  wicked 
Independent  priests  made  a book  of  i0  and  said  he  fasted 
himself  to  death,  which  was  all  lies. 

But  I continued  in  the  dungeon  amongst  the  prisoners; 
and  the  Little  Parliament,^  hearing  that  a young  man  was 
to  die  for  religion  at  Carlisle,  they  writ  down  to  the  sheriff 
and  magistrates.  But  it  came  after  I was  set  at  liberty. 
But  the  gaoler  continued  so  exceeding  cruel  that  he  beat 
Friends  and  friendly  people  that  did  but  come  to  the  window 
to  look  in  upon  me,  exceedingly,  with  great  cudgels,  as  if 
he  had  been  beating  a pack  of  wool.  And  I could  get  up 

^ In  full,  Camb.  JnL,  i,  121-4;  Eilwood,  pp.  114-16;  Bicent,  i,  174-7. 

2 Eilwood,  pp.  116,  117;  Bicent.,  i,  177-8. 

3 Parnell  d.  10th  April,  1656. 

4 Glisson,  et  al.:  Relation  of  the  Death  of  James  Parnely  1656; 
reply:  The  Lamb's  Defence  against  Lies,  1656. 

5 The  Little  or  Barebones  Parliament  met  4th  July,  1653,  and 
ended  12th  December,  1653. 


164  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

to  the  grate  where  sometimes  I took  my  meat,  and  the 
gaoler  was  offended  and  came  in  a rage  with  his  great  staff. 
And  he  fell  a-beating  of  me  though  I was  not  at  the  window 
at  that  time,  and  cried,  ‘ Come  out  of  the  window  ’,  though 
I was  far  enough  off  it;  and  as  he  struck  me  I was  made  to 
sing  in  the  Lord’s  power,  and  that  made  him  rage  the  more. 
Then  he  fetched  a fiddler^  and  brought  him  into  the  dungeon 
and  set  him  to  play  ^thinking  to  cross  me;^  and  when  he 
played  I was  moved  in  the  everlasting  power  of  the  Lord 
God  to  sing;  and  my  voice  drowned  them  and  struck 
them  and  confounded  them  ^and  made  the  fiddler  sigh  and 
give  over  his  fiddling;  and  so  he  passed  away  with  shame.^ 

And  the  governor  and  Justice  Anthony  Pearson  came 
down;  and  it  was  such  an  ill  savor  and  a shame  to  the 
magistrates  that  the  gaoler  should  do  such  things  that  they 
called  for  the  gaolers  into  the  dungeon ; and  they  came  down 
into  the  dungeon  to  me,  and  they  bid  the  gaolers  find 
sureties  for  the  good  behaviour  and  so  they  put  the  under- 
gaoler into  the  dungeon  with  me  amongst  the  moss- 
troopers,^ who  had  been  such  a cruel  fellow. 

So  after  a while  I was  set  at  liberty  by  the  justices  and  the 
Lord’s  power  camie  over  them  all.  And  the  Lord  cut  off 
two  of  those  persecuting  justices  at  Carlisle,  and  the  other, 
after  a time,  v/as  turned  out  of  his  place  and  went  out  of 
the  town. 


CHAPTER  VIII 

Then  after  a time  I went  to  Thomas  Bewley’s  and 
there  came  a Baptist  teacher  to  oppose  me,  who  was 
convinced.  And  Robert  Widders,  being  with  me, 
was  moved  to  go  to  Caldbeck  steeplehouse,  and  the  Baptist 
teacher  went  alongst  with  him,  the  same  day,  and  they 

^ They  beat  Fox  because  he  would  not  dance.  See  letter  T.  Rawlin- 
son  to  M.  Fell,  11th  September,  1653;  Camb,  JnL,  i,  121. 

2 i.e.  robbers. 

^ h sj.^  p.  33. 


1653]  ‘mighty  meetings’  165 

almost  killed  Robert  Widders  and  took  the  Baptist’s 
sword  from  him  and  beat  him  sorely.  And  they  sent 
Robert  Widders  to  Carlisle  gaol,  and  the  Baptist  aforesaid 
had  the  inheritance  of  an  impropriation,  but  he  went 
home  and  gave  it  up.  And  William  Dewsbury  went  to 
another  steeplehouse  hard  by,  and  they  almost  killed  him, 
they  beat  him  so.  But  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  all  and 
healed  them  again,  and  Robert  Widders  after  a while  was 
set  at  liberty  also. 

So  I went  into  the  country  and  had  mighty  meetings, 
and  the  everlasting  Gospel  and  the  word  of  the  Lord 
flourished,  and  thousands  were  turned  to  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  and  to  his  teaching,  and  several  that  took  tithes  as 
impropriators  denied  the  receiving  of  them  any  longer, 
and  delivered  them  up  to  the  parishioners.  So  I came 
up  into  Westmorland  and  at  Strickland  Head  I had  a large 
meeting,  and  at  other  places,  where  a Justice  of  Peace  out 
of  Bishoprick,^  one  Henry  Draper,^  came  up  and  a-many 
contenders.  That  day  many  Friends  went  to  the  steeple- 
houses  to  declare  the  Truth  to  the  priests  and  people  and  the 
Lord’s  power  was  over  all. 

<The  priests  and  magistrates  were  in  a great  rage  against 
me  in  Westmorland  and  had  a warrant  to  apprehend  me, 
which  they  renewed  from  time  to  time  for  a long  time, 
yet  the  Lord  did  not  suffer  them  to  serve  it  upon 
me.) 

And  so  I came  through  Friends,  visiting  the  meetings, 
till  I came  to  Swarthmoor  again,  and  then  I heard  that  the 
Baptists  and  professors  in  Scotland  had  sent  to  me  to  have 
a dispute;  and  I sent  to  them  that  I would  meet  them  in 
Cumberland  at  Thomas  Bewley’s  where  I went,  but  none 
came. 

And  another  time  as  we  were  passing  from  a meeting 
and  going  through  Wigton  on  a market  day  there  was  a 
guard  set  with  pitch  forks.  Although  there  were  some  of 

^ i.e.  Durham. 

^ Henry  Draper,  a justice  of  the  peace,  lived  at  Headlam  in  South 
Durham. 


166  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

their  neighbours  with  us  they  kept  us  out  of  the  town  and 
would  not  let  us  pass  through  the  town,  under  a pretence 
of  preventing  the  sickness,  when  there  was  no  occasion 
for  any  such  thing.  So  they  fell  upon  us  and  had  like  to 
have  spoiled  us  and  our  horses,  but  the  Lord  did  prevent 
them  that  they  did  not  much  hurt,  and  so  we  passed  away. 
And  another  time  as  I was  passing  betwixt  old  Thomas 
Bewley’s  and  John  Slee’s^  some  rude  fellows  lay  in  wait 
in  a lane  and  exceedingly  stoned  and  abused  us;  but  at 
the  last,  through  the  Lord’s  power  we  got  through  them 
and  had  not  much  hurt.  But  this  was  the  fruits  of  the 
priests’  teaching  which  shamed  Christianity. 

And  after  I had  visited  that  country  and  Friends  I went 
through  the  countries  into  Bishoprick  and  had  large  meet- 
ings and  had  a very  large  meeting  at  Justice  Pearson’s 
house  v/here  many  were  convinced.^ 

So  I passed  through  Northumberland  to  Derwentwater^ 
where  there  were  great  meetings,  and  the  priests  threatened 
to  come  but  none  came;  and  the  everlasting  word  of  life 
was  freely  preached  and  freely  received,  and  many  hundreds 
were  turned  to  Christ  their  teacher. 

And  there  came  many  to  dispute  in  Northumberland, 
and  pleaded  against  perfection.  But  I declared  unto  them 
that  Adam  and  Eve  were  perfect  before  they  fell,  and  all 
that  God  made  was  perfect,  and  the  imperfection  came  by 
the  Devil  and  the  Fall.  And  Christ  that  came  to  destroy 
the  Devil  said,  ‘ Be  ye  perfect.’  But  one  of  the  professors 
said  that  Job  said,  ‘ What  ! shall  mortal  man  be  more  pure 
than  his  maker?  The  heavens  are  not  clear  in  his  sight. 
God  charged  his  angels  with  folly.’  But  I showed  him 
his  mistake,  that  it  was  not  Job  which  said  so,  but  those 
which  contended  against  Job.  For  Job  stood  for  perfection 
and  his  integrity;  and  they  were  called  miserable  comforters. 
And  they  said  the  outward  body  was  the  body  of  death 
and  sin.  But  I let  them  see  their  mistakes,  and  how  that 

^ John  Slee  lived  at  Grisdale  Howe  in  the  barony  of  Greystoke. 

^ About  March,  1654. 

3 The  upper  reaches  of  the  river  Derwent,  also  called  Darren. 


AT  HEXHAM 


167 


1653] 

Adam  and  Eve  had  a body  before  the  body  of  death  and 
sin  got  into  them.  And  man  and  woman  would  have  a 
body  when  the  body  of  sin  and  death  was  put  off 
again;  when  they  were  renewed  up  into  the  image  of 
God  again  by  Christ  Jesus,  that  they  were  in  before 
they  fell. 

So  <they  ceased  at  that  time  from  opposing  further,) 
and  many  glorious  meetings  we  had  in  the  Lord’s 
power. 

And  so  we  passed  to  Hexham,  where  we  had  a great 
meeting  a-top  of  a hill,  where  the  priest^  came  not,  though 
he  had  threatened.  And  all  was  quiet,  and  the  everlasting 
day  and  renowned  Truth  of  the  everlasting  God  was 
sounded  over  those  dark  countries  and  his  Son  set  over 
all.  And  now  that  the  day  was  come  that  all  that  had 
made  a profession  of  the  Son  of  God,  they  might  receive 
him,  and  as  many  as  did  receive  him  to  them  he  would  give 
power  to  become  the  sons  of  God  as  he  had  done  to  me; 
and  that  he  that  had  the  Son  of  God  he  had  life  eternal 
and  he  that  had  not  the  Son  of  God,  let  him  profess  all  the 
Scriptures  from  Genesis  to  the  Revelation,  he  had  not 
life. 

And  after  that  all  were  turned  to  the  light  of  Christ  by 
which  they  might  see  him  and  receive  him  and  know  where 
their  teacher  was,  and  the  everlasting  Truth  largely  declared, 
we  passed  away  through  Hexham  peaceably  and  so  came 
into  Gilsland  where  some  in  that  country  were  very  thievish; 
where  a Friend  spied  the  priest  and  went  to  speak  to  him. 
He  came  down  to  our  inn  and  the  town’s  people  came  about 
us,  and  so  the  priest  said  he  would  prove  us  deceivers 
out  of  the  Bible,  but  could  find  no  Scripture  for  his  purpose; 
so  he  went  into  the  inn  and  after  a while  came  out  and 
brought  <some  broken  sentences  of  Scripture  that  mention  > 
‘ the  doctrines  and  commandments  of  men,  touch  them 
not  and  taste  them  not  for  they  perish  with  the  using  ’ : 
which,  poor  man,  was  his  own  condition;  for  we  were 

^ The  lecturer  at  this  time  was  Thomas  Tillam,  Baptist,  and  anti- 
Quaker  writer. 


168  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

persecuted  because  we  would  not  taste  nor  touch  nor 
handle  their  doctrines  which  we  knew  perished  with  the 
using. 

So  I asked  what  he  called  the  steeplehouse.  ‘ Oh,’  said 
he,  ‘ the  dreadful  house  of  God,  the  temple  of  God  ’, 
and  I let  him  and  the  poor  dark  people  see  that  their  bodies 
should  be  the  temples  of  God;  and  Christ  never  commanded 
these  temples,  but  had  ended  that  temple  at  Jerusalem 
which  God  had  commanded.  So  the  priest  got  away, 
and  afterwards  the  people  began  to  tell  us  that  they  feared 
we  would  take  their  purses  or  steal  their  horses;  and 
judged  us  like  themselves  who  are  naturally  given  to 
thieving. 

And  the  next  day  we  came  through  that  country  into 
Cumberland  again  where  we  had  a general  meeting  of  many 
thousands  of  people  a-top  of  a hill,  <near  Langlands). 
Heavenly  and  glorious  it  was  and  the  glory  of  the  Lord 
did  shine  over  all,  and  there  were  as  many  as  one  could 
well  speak  over,  there  was  such  a multitude.  Their  eyes 
were  kept  to  Christ  their  teacher  and  they  came  to  sit  under 
their  vine,  that  afterwards  a Friend  in  the  ministry,  Francis 
Howgill,  went  amongst  them,  and  when  he  was  moved  to 
stand  up  amongst  them  he  saw  they  had  no  need  of  words 
for  they  was  all  sitting  down  under  their  teacher  Christ 
Jesus;  so  he  was  moved  to  sit  down  again  amongst  them 
without  speaking  anything. 

So  great  a convincement  there  was  in  Cumberland, 
Bishoprick,  Northumberland,  Yorkshire,  Westmorland  and 
Lancashire,  and  the  plants  of  God  grew  and  flourished 
so  by  heavenly  rain,  and  God’s  glory  shined  upon  them, 
that  many  mouths  the  Lord  opened  to  his  praise,  yea  to 
babes  and  sucklings  he  ordained  strength. 

^In  Bishoprick  there  were  few  steeplehouses  but  Friends 
were  moved  to  go  to  them.  Nay  I may  say  few  in  England 
but  Friends  were  moved  to  go  to  them  and  warn  them  of 
the  mighty  day  of  the  Lord,  to  tell  them  where  their  true 
teacher  was.  And  a great  people  was  convinced.^ 
a a S.J.,  p.  34. 


1653]  QUAKER  TRADESMEN  169 

And  the  priests  and  the  professors,  they  prophesied 
mightily  against  us  about  this  time.  For  before,  they 
prophesied  we  should  all  be  knocked  down  within  a month, 
as  aforesaid.  Then  after,  they  prophesied  within  half  a 
year;  and  their  prophecies  not  coming  to  pass,  they  pro- 
phesied that  we  would  eat  one  another  out.  For  many 
times  after  the  meetings,  many  tender  people  had  a great 
way  to  go,  and  the  houses  not  having  beds,  they  stayed 
at  the  houses  and  lay  in  the  hay  mows.  And  Cain’s  fear 
possessed  them,  that  when  we  had  eaten  one  another  out, 
we  should  all  come  to  be  maintained  of  the  parishes  ere  long 
and  that  they  would  be  troubled  with  us.  But  after  this 
when  they  saw  that  the  Lord  blessed  and  increased  Friends, 
as  he  did  Abraham,  both  in  the  field  and  in  the  basket, 
and  at  their  goings  forth  and  comings  in,  risings  up  and 
lyings  down,  and  that  all  things  began  to  be  blest 
unto  them,  then  they  saw  the  failings  of  all  these  their 
prophecies  and  that  it  was  in  vain  to  curse  where  God 
had  blessed. 

But  at  the  first  convincement,  when  Friends  could  not 
put  off  their  hats  to  people  nor  say  ‘ you  ’ to  a particular, 
but  ‘ thee  ’ and  ‘ thou  ’ ; and  could  not  bow  nor  use  the 
world’s  salutations,  nor  fashions,  nor  customs,  many 
Friends,  being  tradesmen  of  several  sorts  lost  their  custom 
at  the  first;  for  the  people  would  not  trade  with  them  nor 
trust  them,  and  for  a time  Friends  that  were  tradesmen 
could  hardly  get  enough  money  to  buy  bread.  But  after- 
wards people  came  to  see  Friends’  honesty  and  truthfulness 
and  ‘ yea  ’ and  ‘ nay  ’ at  a word  in  their  dealing,  and  their 
lives  and  conversations  did  preach  and  reach  to  the  witness 
of  God  in  all  people,  and  they  knew  and  saw  that,  for 
conscience  sake  towards  God,  they  would  not  cozen  and 
cheat  them,  and  at  last  that  they  might  send  any  child 
and  be  as  well  used  as  themselves,  at  any  of  their 
shops. 

So  then  things  altered  so  that  all  the  enquiry  was,  where 
was  a draper  or  shopkeeper  or  tailor  or  shoemaker  or  any 
other  tradesman  that  was  a Quaker;  insomuch  that  Friends 


170  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653 

had  double  the  trade,  beyond  any  of  their  neighbours. 
And  if  there  was  any  trading  they  had  it,  insomuch  that 
then  the  cry  of  all  the  professors  and  others  was  ‘ If  we  let 
these  people  alone  they  will  take  the  trading  of  the  nation 
out  of  our  hands 

And  this  hath  been  the  Lord’s  doing  to  his  people; 
my  desire  is  that  all  may  be  kept  in  his  power  and  spirit 
faithful  to  God  and  man,  first  to  God  in  obeying  him  in  all 
things  and  secondly  in  doing  unto  all  men  that  which  is 
just  and  righteous,  true  and  holy  and  honest,  to  all  men 
and  women  in  all  things  that  they  have  to  do  with 
or  to  deal  withal  with  them,  that  the  Lord  God  may 
be  glorified  in  their  practising  truth,  holiness,  godliness, 
and  righteousness  amongst  them,  in  all  their  lives  and 
conversations. 

And  after  I was  put  out  of  Carlisle  prison  I was  moved 
to  go  to  priest  Wilkinson’s  steeplehouse^  again  and  was 
in  the  steeplehouse  before  him;  and  when  he  came  in  I was 
declaring  the  Truth  to  the  people;  and  we  had  a meeting 
hard  by  where  one  Thomas  Stubbs  was  declaring  the  word 
of  life,  so  there  were  not  many  people  in  the  steeplehouse; 
for  the  best  and  most  of  his  hearers  were  turned  to  Christ’s 
free  teaching.  The  priest  came  in  and  opposed  me;  and 
there  did  we  stay  all  the  day,  for  when  I began  he  opposed 
me;  and  so  if  any  law  was  broken  he  brake  it,  for  he 
thought  to  have  wearied  me  out.  And  he  shamed  when  his 
people  were  haling  me  out,  that  we  might  see  his  fruits 
which  Christ  spoke  of,  ‘ They  shall  hale  you  out  of  the 
synagogues  ’,  and  then  they  would  leave  me  alone.  There 
did  he  stand  till  it  was  ’most  night,  jangling  and  opposing 
of  me,  and  would  not  go  to  his  dinner,  but  at  last 
the  Lord’s  power  and  truth  came  so  over  him  that 
he  packed  away  with  his  people:  and  so  the  Lord’s 
power  and  truth  came  over  them  all;  and  after,  I 
went  to  Friends  that  were  turned  to  the  Lord,  into 
their  meeting.  And  about  this  time  many  of  the  steeple- 
houses  were  empty,  for  such  multitudes  of  people  came 

^ At  Brigham. 


1653]  FOUR  PEOPLE  HEALED  171 

to  Christ’s  free  teaching  and  knew  their  bodies  the 
temples  of  God. 

And  so  after  the  great  meeting  in  Cumberland  as  afore- 
said I passed  out  of  Cumberland  through  the  countries 
where  I had  great  meetings  with  Friends  and  of  the  world’s 
people;  and  I established  them  upon  Christ,  the  rock  and 
foundation  of  the  true  prophets  and  apostles,  but  not  of 
the  false. 

And  after  I came  out  of  Carlisle  prison  aforesaid  I went 
into  the  abbey  chamber;  and  there  came  in  a mad  woman 
that  sometimes  was  very  desperate,  and  she  fell  down 
of  her  knees,  and  cried,  ‘ Put  off  your  hats,  for  grace, 
grace,  hangs  about  thy  neck  ’:  and  so  the  Lord’s  power  run 
through  her  that  she  was  sensible  of  her  condition  and  after 
came  and  confessed  it  to  Friends. 

And  I came  to  another  place  in  Cumberland,  where  a 
man’s  wife  was  distracted  and  very  desperate,  attempting 
at  times  to  kill  her  children  and  her  husband.  But  I was 
moved  of  the  Lord  God  to  speak  to  her,  and  she  kneeled 
down  of  her  bare  knees  and  cried  and  said  she  would  walk 
of  her  bare  knees  if  she  might  go  with  me.  And  the 
Lord’s  power  wrought  through  her  and  she  went  home 
well. 

And  in  Bishoprick,  whilst  I was  there,  they  brought  a 
woman  tied  behind  a man,  that  could  neither  eat  nor 
speak,  and  had  been  so  a great  while;  and  they  brought  her 
into  the  house  to  me  to  Anthony  Pearson’s.  And  I was 
moved  of  the  Lord  God  to  speak  to  her  so  that  she  ate  and 
spake,  and  was  well,  and  got  up  behind  her  husband 
without  any  help  and  went  away  well. 

And  as  I came  out  of  Cumberland  one  time  I came  to 
Hawkshead  and  lighted  at  a Friend’s  house,  and  there  was 
young  Margaret  Fell  with  me  and  William  Caton;  and  it 
being  a very  cold  season  we  lighted,  and  the  lass  made  us 
a fire,  her  master  and  dame  being  gone  to  the  market. 
And  there  was  a boy  lying  in  the  cradle  which  they  rocked, 
about  eleven  years  old.  He  was  grown  almost  double, 
and  I cast  my  eye  upon  the  boy  and  seeing  he  was  dirty. 


172  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1653  | 

I bid  the  lass  wash  his  face  and  his  hands  and  get  him  up  j 
and  bring  him  unto  me.  So  she  brought  him  to  me  and  I 
I bid  her  take  him  and  wash  him  again  for  she  had  not  ! 
washed  him  clean,  then  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  God  to  I 
lay  my  hands  upon  him  and  speak  to  him,  and  so  bid  the  | 
lass  take  him  again  and  put  on  his  clothes,  and  after,  we  | 
passed  away. 

And  sometime  after,  I called  at  the  house,  and  I met  his 
mother  but  did  not  light.  ‘ Oh,  stay  ’,  says  she,  ‘ and  have 
a meeting  at  our  house  for  all  the  country  is  convinced 
by  the  great  miracle  that  was  done  by  thee  upon  my  son, 
for  we  had  carried  him  to  Wells  and  Bath,  and  all  doctors 
had  given  him  over,  for  his  grandfather  and  father  feared 
he  would  have  died  and  their  name  have  gone  out,  having 
but  that  son ; but  presently  after  you  were  gone  ’,  says  she, 

‘ we  came  home  and  found  our  son  playing  in  the  streets  ’,  j 
therefore,  said  she,  all  the  country  would  come  to  hear 
if  I would  come  back  again  and  have  a meeting  there.  And 
this  was  about  three  years  after  that  she  told  me  of  it  and 
he  was  grown  to  be  a straight,  full  youth  then.  And  so  the 
Lord  have  the  praise. 

But  as  we  were  turning  from  the  house  and  coming 
towards  Swarthmoor,  we  overtook  many  rude  market 
people,  who  did  stone  us  and  abuse  us.  But  the  Lord’s  | 
power  carried  us  over  them  all  so  as  we  had  no  harm. 

And  there  was  a priest  at  Wrexham  in  Wales,  one  Morgan  i 
Lloyd, ^ sent  two  of  his  preachers  into  the  north  to  try  us  i 
and  see  what  a manner  of  people  we  were,  but  they  were 
both  convinced  by  the  power  of  the  Lord  and  turned  to  I 
Christ;  and  they  stayed  a time  and  went  back  again.^  j 
One  of  them  stands  a fine  minister  of  Christ  to  this  day, 
one  John  ap  John,3  but  the  other  did  not  continue  a Friend.  | 

<Friends  being  now  grown  very  numerous  in  the  northern  | 
parts  of  the  nation,  and  divers  young-convinced  ones  coming  j 
daily  in  among  us,  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  write  the  | 

^ Morgan  Lloyd  (c.  1619-1659).  | 

^ The  interview  took  place  at  Swarthmoor,  21st  July,  1653. 

3 See  p.  297  post. 


1653]  AN  EPISTLE  TO  FRIENDS  173 

following  epistle,  and  send  it  forth  amongst  them,  stirring 
up  the  pure  mind,  and  to  raise  a holy  care  and  watchfulness 
in  them  over  themselves  and  one  another,  for  the  honour 
of  truth:) 

To  you  all,  Friends  everywhere  scattered  abroad,  in  the 
measure  of  the  life  of  God  wait  for  wisdom  from  God,  from  him 
from  whence  it  comes.  And  all  which  be  babes  of  God  wait 
for  living  food  from  the  living  God,  to  be  nourished  up  to 
eternal  life  from  one  fountain  from  whence  life  comes;  that 
orderly  and  in  order  you  may  all  be  guided  and  walk,  servants 
in  your  places,  young  men  and  women  and  rulers  of  families; 
that  every  one  in  your  places  may  adorn  the  truth,  every  one 
in  the  measure  of  it. 

With  it  let  your  minds  be  kept  up  to  the  Lord  Jesus  from 
whence  it  doth  come,  that  a sweet  smelling  savour  ye  may  be 
to  God,  and  in  wisdom  and  with  wisdom  you  may  all  be  ordered 
and  ruled;  that  the  crown  and  glory  you  may  be,  one  to  another 
in  the  Lord.  And  that  no  strife  nor  bitterness  nor  self-will 
amongst  you  may  appear,  but  with  the  Light  may  be  condemned, 
in  which  is  the  unity.  And  that  every  one  in  particular  may  see 
the  order  and  ruling  of  their  own  family;  that  in  righteousness 
and  wisdom  it  may  be  governed,  the  fear  and  dread  of  the  Lord 
in  everyone’s  heart  set;  that  the  secrets  of  the  Lord  everyone 
may  come  to  receive;  that  stewards  of  his  grace  ye  may  come 
to  be,  to  dispense  it  to  everyone  as  they  have  need,  and  so  in 
savour  and  right  discerning  ye  all  in  it  may  be  kept;  that  nothing 
that  is  contrary  to  the  pure  life  of  God  in  you  and  amongst 
you  may  be  brought  forth,  but  with  it  all  which  is  contrary  may 
be  judged,  so  that  in  light,  in  life,  in  love  you  may  all  live  . . . 
And  that  none  may  appear  in  words  but  what  they  be  in  the 
life,  . . . and  none  amongst  you  boast  yourselves  above  your 
measure;  for  if  ye  do,  out  of  God’s  kingdom  ye  are  excluded; 
for  there  gets  up  the  pride  and  strife  which  is  contrary  to  the 
Light,  which  Light  leads  to  the  kingdom  of  God,  and  gives 
every  one  of  you  an  entrance  thither  and  to  understand  and  know 
the  things  which  belong  to  the  kingdom  of  God.  And  there  the 
Light  and  life  of  man  every  one  receives,  him  who  was  before 
the  world  was,  by  whom  it  was  made,  who  is  the  righteousness 
of  God  and  his  wisdom;  to  whom  all  glory,  honour,  thanks,  and 
praise  belong,  who  is  God,  blessed  for  ever.  . . . 

G.F. 


8 


174  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1654 

This  is  to  be  sent  amongst  all  Friends  in  the  Truth,  the  flock 
of  God,  to  be  read  at  their  meetings  in  every  place  where  they 
are  met  together.^ 

And  so  when  the  churches  were  settled  in  the  north, 
the  Lord  had  raised  up  many  and  sent  forth  many  into  his 
vineyard  to  preach  his  everlasting  Gospel,  as  Francis 
Howgill  and  Edward  Burrough  to  London,  John  Camm  and  1 
John  Audland  to  Bristol  through  the  countries,  Richard 
Hubberthorne  and  George  Whitehead^  towards  Norwich, 
and  Thomas  Holme^  into  Wales,  a matter  of  seventy 
ministers  did  the  Lord  raise  up  and  send  abroad  out 
of  the  north  countries. 

<The  sense  of  their  service  being  very  weighty  upon  me,  > 
this  following  paper  was  given  forth  to  Friends  in  the 
Ministry. 

George  Fox  to  Friends  in  the  ministry,  1654. 

All  Friends  everywhere,  know  the  Seed  of  God  which  bruiseth 
the  seed  of  the  serpent,  and  is  a-top  of  the  seed  of  the  serpent, 
which  seed  sins  not  but  bruiseth  the  serpent’s  head  which  tempts  I 
to  sin  and  doth  sin;  to  which  Seed  God’s  promise  is  God’s  j 
blessing  is  too,  which  Seed  is  one  in  the  male  and  in  the  female,  j 
Where  it  is  the  head,  and  hath  bruised  the  head  of  the  other,  to  ' 
the  beginning  you  are  come  ...  I 

Friends  everywhere  abroad  scattered,  know  the  power  of  I 
God  in  one  another  and  in  that  rejoice;  for  then  you  rejoice  ; 
in  the  Cross  of  Christ,  him  who  is  not  of  the  world,  which  Cross  | 
is  the  power  of  God  to  all  them  that  are  saved.  So  you  that  | 
know  the  power  and  feel  the  power,  you  feel  the  Cross  of  Christ,  ^ 
you  feel  the  Gospel,  which  is  the  power  of  God  unto  salvation  | 
to  everyone  that  believeth.  Now  he  that  believes  in  the  Light  | 
believes  in  the  everlasting  covenant,  in  the  everlasting  offering;  ! 
comes  to  the  life  of  the  prophets  and  Moses,  comes  to  see  Christ 
the  hope,  the  mystery,  which  hope  perisheth  not;  . . . the  end 

^ In  full,  MS.  portfolio  9 (Fox  papers  R,  3);  Ellwood,  p.  122-3; 
Bicent.,  i,  187-8. 

2 George  Whitehead  (c.  1636-1723)  preached  Quakerism,  especially  ! 

in  East  Anglia,  leading  Friend  in  London  after  Fox’s  death.  | 

3 Thomas  Holme  (c.  1627-1666),  preached  Quakerism,  especially  : 
in  Wales  and  north-west  England. 


1654]  TO  FRIENDS  IN  THE  MINISTRY  175 

of  all  perishing  things,  the  end  of  all  changeable  things,  the  end 
of  the  decaying  covenant,  the  end  of  the  prophets  and  Moses. 
Christ  Jesus  the  son,  his  throne  you  will  know,  heirs  with  him 
you  will  be,  who  makes  kings,  and  brings  to  know  his  throne 
and  his  power. 

There  is  no  justification  out  of  the  Light,  out  of  Christ.  Justi- 
fication is  in  the  Light;  here  is  the  doer  of  the  will  of  God,  here 
is  the  entering  into  the  kingdom.  Now  believing  in  the  Light 
becomes  a child  of  the  Light,  and  here  is  received  the  wisdom 
that  is  justified  of  her  children.  Here  believing  in  the  Light, 
you  shall  not  abide  in  darkness,  but  shall  have  the  Light  of 
life  and  come  every  one  to  witness  the  Light  that  shines  in  your 
hearts.  . . . 

Friends,  be  not  hasty;  for  he  that  believes  in  the  Light  makes 
not  haste.  Here  the  grace  is  received  by  which  you  come  to  be 
saved;  the  election  is  known  which  obtains  the  promise;  the 
will  is  seen  that  wills ; the  mind  is  known  that  runs,  which  obtains 
not  but  stops  and  dulls.  . . . 

This  is  the  word  of  the  Lord  God  to  you.  Every  one  in  the 
measure  of  life  wait,  that  with  it  all  your  minds  may  be  guided 
up  to  the  Father  of  life,  with  your  hearts  joined  together  up  to 
the  Father  of  spirits,  all  to  receive  power  from  him  and  wisdom, 
that  with  it  you  may  be  ordered  to  his  glory,  to  whom  be  all 
glory  for  ever.  All  keep  in  the  Light  and  life  that  judgeth 
down  that  which  is  contrary  to  the  Light  and  life.  So  the  Lord 
God  Almighty  be  with  you  all,  and  keep  you,  meeting  everywhere, 
being  guided  with  that  of  God.  With  that  you  may  see  the 
Lord  God  among  you,  him  who  lighteth  every  man  that  cometh 
into  the  world,  by  whom  the  world  was  made,  that  men  that 
be  come  into  the  world  might  believe.  He  that  doth  not,  the 
Light  condemns  him,  he  that  believeth  comes  out  of  condemna- 
tion. So  this  Light  which  lighteth  every  man  that  comes  into 
the  world,  which  they  that  hate  it  stumble  at,  is  the  Light  of 
men. 

All  Friends  that  speak  abroad,  see  that  it  be  in  the  life  of  God, 
for  that  begets  to  God.  The  fruits  of  that  shall  never  wither. 
...  In  that  wait  to  receive  power,  and  the  Lord  God  Almighty 
preserve  you.  Whereby  you  may  come  to  feel  the  Light 
which  comprehends  time  and  the  world  and  fathoms  it,  which 
believed  in  gives  you  the  victory  over  the  world.  And  here  the 
power  of  the  Lord  is  received,  which  subdues  all  the  contrary 
and  puts  off  the  garments  that  will  stain  and  pollute.  With 


176  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1654 

this  life  you  come  to  reach  the  Light  in  every  man,  which  Christ 
enlightens  every  man  that  corneth  into  the  world  withal.  And 
here  the  things  of  Christ  come  to  be  known  and  the  proof  of 
Christ  heard.  Keep  in  the  Light  the  covenant  of  peace  and 
walk  in  the  covenant  of  life.  ... 

So  all  Friends  that  be  to  the  Light  turned — which  corneth  : 
from  him  by  whom  the  world  was  made,  before  it  was  made, 
Christ  Jesus  the  saviour  of  your  souls,  ^with  which  light  you  come 
to  see  him,  which  comes  from  him,  with  which  Light  you  will 
see  all  sin  and  evil  and  corruption  that  are  contrary  to  it^ — 
stand  still  in  the  Light;  you  will  see  your  salvation  which  is 
walls  and  bulwarks  against  that  the  Light  discovers.  Waiting 
in  the  Light  you  will  receive  the  power  of  God  which  is  the  gospel 
of  peace,  that  you  may  be  shod  with  it,  and  know  that  in  one 
another  which  raiseth  up  the  seed  of  God  and  sets  it  over  the 
world  and  the  earth  and  crucifies  the  affections  and  lusts; 
and  Truth  comes  to  reign  which  is  the  girdle. 

^'All  Friends  be  low',  and  keep  in  the  life  of  God  to  keep 
you  low.b  . . . 

G.F.^ 

And  the  priests  began  to  be  in  a mighty  rage  at  Newcastle  ^ 
and  at  Kendal:  and  up  and  down  in  most  <of  the  northern) 
countries:  and  there  was  one  John  Gilpin  that  had  some- 
times come  amongst  us  at  Kendal  who  ran  out  <from  the  | 
Truth  into  vain  imaginations)  and  which  the  priests  made  | 
use  of  at  times  against  us,  but  the  Lord’s  power  confounded  I 
them  all.  | 

And  about  this  time  Oliver  Protector’s  oath  was  to  • 
be  tendered  to  the  soldiers  when  the  Long  Parliament  was 
turned  out:  and  many  of  the  soldiers  were  turned  out 
because  in  obedience  to  Christ  they  could  not  swear,  as 
John  Stubbs^  for  one;  who  was  convinced  when  I was  in  | 
Carlisle  prison,  and  who  became  a faithful  minister  and 
travelled  much  in  the  service  of  the  Lord  in  Flolland, 
Ireland,  Scotland,  Leghorn,  Rome,  Egypt,  America;  and 
the  Lord’s  power  preserved  him  over  the  heads  of  the  j 

^ In  full,  Ellwood,  pp.  124-7;  Bicent.,  i,  190-4;  Camb.  JnL,  i,  142-7.  | 

^ Of  Dalston,  Cumberland,  d.  1673.  j 

^ John  Rouse’s  MS.  (Fox  papers  Ss,  57).  I 


1654]  AT  CINDER  HILL  GREEN  177 

Papists  though  many  times  he  was  in  great  danger  of  the 
Inquisitions.  And  the  rest  of  the  soldiers  that  had  been 
convinced  in  their  judgements,  coming  not  into  obedience, 
they  took  the  oath  of  Oliver  Protector,  and  they  went 
into  Scotland  to  a garrison,  and  the  garrison  thought 
they  had  been  their  enemies  and  they  shot  at  them  and 
killed  many  of  them,  which  v/as  a sad  judgement. 

And  so  after  I had  visited  the  churches  in  the  north 
and  all  were  settled  under  God’s  teaching,  and  the  glory 
of  the  Lord  shined  over  them,  I passed  from  Swarthmoor 
to  Lancaster,  and  so  through  ^many  towns,  and  felt  I 
answered  the  witness  of  God  in  all  people,  though  1 spoke 
not  a word.^  So  I left  the  north  fresh  and  green  under 
Christ  their  teacher.  ""And  I came  up  into  Yorkshire,^ 
visiting  Friends  till  I came  to  Cinder  Hill  Green. ^ But 
before  I came  to  Cinder  Hill  Green  we  passed  through 
Halifax,  a rude  town  of  professors,  and  came  to  one 
Thomas  Taylor’s,^  who  had  been  a captain,  where  we  met 
with  some  janglers,  but  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  all, 
for  I travelled  in  the  motion  of  God’s  power.  ^And 
commonly  where  I had  meetings  upon  the  First-day,  the 
priests  fled  their  parish,  though  I went  not  to  the  steeple- 
house.^ 

And  when  I came  to  Cinder  Hill  Green,  there  was  a 
meeting  appointed  three  weeks  before,  ‘^Friends  that  were 
convinced  of  the  Truth  having  notice  of  my  coming,  which 
was  judged  to  be  about  two  and  a half  thousand  people, 
and  all  peaceable  and  quiet.""  And  many  persons  of  quality 
were  there,  as,  captains  and  other  officers;  and  there  was 
a general  convincement. 

And  at  night  we  had  a great  meeting  again  in  Thomas 
Stacey ’s^  house;  for  people  came  from  far  and  could  not 
soon  depart.  The  high  sheriff  of  the  county  told  Captain 

^ Near  Handsworth  Woodhouse  on  the  border  of  Yorkshire  and 
Derby. 

^ Thomas  Taylor  (c.  1627-1684)  lived  at  Brighoiise. 

3 The  Staceys  were  of  Ballifield  Hall  and  Cinder  Hill. 

"" ""  *S./.,  p.  35. 


178  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1654 

Bradford^  that  he  had  intended  to  have  come  up  with  half 
a dozen  of  his  troopers  to  the  meeting;  but  the  Lord  pre- 
vented him  and  stopped  him. 

And  so  I stayed  some  meetings  thereaways;  and  after, 
passed  up  and  down  in  Yorkshire  as  far  as  Holderness  to 
the  land’s  end  that  way  visiting  Friends  and  the  churches 
of  Christ  which  were  finely  settled  under  Christ’s  teaching; 
and  came  at  last  to  Captain  Bradford’s  house  where  many 
Ranters  came  from  York  to  wrangle  but  they  were  con- 
founded. And  there  came  the  Lady  Montague,  who  was 
then  convinced  and  lived  and  died  in  the  Truth. 

And  there  was  one  Rice  Jones  and  his  company  who 
fell  a-prophesying  against  me  that  then  I was  at  the  highest 
and  that  after  that  time  I should  fall  down  as  fast;  and  he 
sent  a bundle  of  railing  papers  from  Nottingham  <to> 
Mansfield  Clawson,  and  the  towns  thereabouts  full  of 
judgings  against  Friends  for  declaring  the  Truth  in  the 
markets  and  in  the  steeplehouses,  which  I answered.  But 
his  and  their  prophecy  came  upon  themselves,  for  soon 
after  they  fell  to  pieces.  Many  of  his  followers  came  to 
be  Friends  and  stand  to  this  day.  And  in  the  Lord’s 
blessed  power  his  Truth  increased  and  has  increased;  and 
I was  preserved  in  the  everlasting  Seed  that  never  fell  nor 
changes.  And  Rice  Jones  turned  a swearer,  for  he  took 
the  oaths  which  were  put  to  him,  and  disobeyed  the  com- 
mand of  Christ. 

And  many  such  false  prophets  have  risen  against  me, 
but  the  Lord  has  blasted  them  and  will  blast  all  who  rise 
against  the  blessed  Seed  and  me  in  it.  My  confidence  is 
in  the  Lord,  that  whosoever  did,  I saw  their  end  and  how  the 
Lord  would  confound  them,  before  the  Lord  sent  me  forth. 
And  I came  again  to  Thomas  Taylor’s  within  three  miles  of 
Halifax,  where  there  was  a large  meeting.  And  there  came 
about  two  hundred  people  from  Halifax,  and  many  rude 
people,  and  butchers.  And  several  of  them  had  bound 
themselves  with  an  oath  before  they  came  out  to  have 
killed  mie;  and  one  man  of  them,  a butcher,  had  killed  a 

^ Probably  Captain  William  Bradford,  who  became  a Friend. 


1654]  MURDER  THREATENED  179 

man  and  a woman.  And  they  came  in  a very  rude  manner 
and  made  a great  disturbance  in  the  meeting;  and  it  being 
in  a close,  Thomas  Taylor,  ^being  of  repute  amongst  men, 
stood  upon  Friends’  shoulders^  and  said  unto  them  that 
if  they  would  be  civil  they  might  stay,  and  if  not  he  charged 
them  to  be  gone  off  his  ground ; but  they  v/ere  the  worse 
and  said  they  would  make  it  like  a common  and  yelled 
and  made  such  a noise  as  if  they  had  been  come  to  a bear 
baiting,  and  thrust  Friends  up  and  down;  and  Friends 
being  peaceable  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  all. 
Though  several  times  they  thrust  me  off  from  the  place 
I stood  on  with  the  crowding  of  the  people  together  against 
me,  still  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  stand  up  again  as  I was 
thrust  down. 

And  at  last  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  say  that  if  they 
would  discourse  of  the  things  of  God  let  them  come  up  to 
me  one  by  one;  and  if  they  had  anything  to  say  or  anything 
to  object  I would  answer  to  them  one  after  another;  and 
then  they  v/ere  all  silent  and  had  nothing  to  say,  and  the 
Lord’s  power  came  over  them  all  and  reached  the  witness 
of  God  in  them  that  they  were  all  bound  by  the  power  of 
God.  And  a glorious  powerful  meeting  we  had  and  his 
power  went  over  all;  and  the  minds  of  people  were  turned 
by  the  spirit  of  God  in  them  to  God,  and  to  Christ  and 
God  their  teacher,  and  the  powerful  word  of  life  was 
largely  declared  that  day  so  that  in  the  life  and  power  of 
God  we  brake  up  our  meeting. 

And  those  rude  company  went  their  ways  to  Halifax; 
and  the  people  asked  them  why  they  had  not  killed  me 
according  to  the  oath  they  had  sworn,  and  they  maliciously 
said  I had  so  bewitched  them  they  could  not  do  it,  ^but 
the  press  of  the  people  was  so  great  that  they  could  not 
get  at  me,"^  and  so  the  Devil  was  chained.  Friends  told  me 
that  they  used  to  come  and  break  stools  and  chairs  and  make 
fearful  work,  but  the  Lord’s  power  had  bound  them. 
And  presently  after,  that  butcher  that  had  killed  the  man 
and  woman  aforesaid  and  that  was  one  of  those  that  had 

^ d sj,,  p.  36. 


180  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1654 

bound  himself  with  an  oath  to  kill  me,  killed  another 
man  and  then  he  was  sent  to  York  gaol.  And  another 
of  the  butchers  aforesaid  that  had  sworn  to  kill  me,  that 
used  to  put  his  tongue  out  of  his  mouth  to  Friends  when 
they  went  by  him,  he  died  with  his  tongue  so  swollen  out 
of  his  mouth  that  he  could  not  get  it  into  his  mouth  again  | 
till  he  died.  And  several  strange  and  sudden  judgements 
came  upon  many  of  these  conspirators  against  me  which 
would  be  too  large  to  declare.  But  God’s  vengeance 
from  heaven  came  upon  the  bloodthirsty  who  sought  after 
blood,  for  all  such  spirits  I laid  before  the  Lord  and  left 
them  to  him  to  deal  with  them;  who  is  stronger  than  them 
all,  in  whose  power  I was  preserved  and  carried  on  to  do  his 
work.  And  the  Lord  has  raised  a fine  people  in  those  parts 
that  he  hath  drawn  to  Christ  and  gathered  in  his  name; 
who  feel  Christ  amongst  them  and  sit  under  his  teaching. 

And  so  I passed  through  the  countries  till  I came  to 
Balby  and  several  Friends  from  thence  went  with  me  into 
Lincolnshire  where  I had  formerly  been,  and  some  went 
to  the  steeplehouses  and  some  to  the  Separate  meetings.  | 
And  there  came  the  sheriff  of  Lincoln^  and  several  with  | 
him  to  the  meeting.  And  he  made  a great  contention  and  | 
jangling  for  a time,  but  the  Lord’s  power  struck  him  that  ! 
he  received  the  word  of  life  and  was  convinced  (and  several  i 
others  that  did  oppose).  And  he  and  his  wife  did  abide  i 
in  the  Truth  till  they  died.  I 

And  great  meetings  and  convincements  there  were  in  i 
those  parts  and  many  were  turned  to  the  Lord  Jesus  and 
came  to  sit  under  his  teaching,  and  left  their  priests  and 
their  superstitious  ways,  and  the  day  of  the  Lord  flourished 
over  all. 

And  there  came  one.  Sir  Richard  Wray;  and  he  was 
convinced,  and  his  brother^  and  his  brother’s  wife,  who 
died  in  the  Truth,  though  he  afterwards  run  out. 

^ Robert  Craven  (d.  1670).  I 

2 Probably  Sir  John  Wray  of  Glentworth,  baronet,  and  his  wife  | 
Elizabeth,  widow  of  Sir  Symonds  d’Ewes.  Joan  Wray,  wife  of  , 
Christopher  of  Fulbeck,  was  a prominent  Friend  at  this  period. 


IN  DERBYSHIRE 


1654] 


181 


And  after  I had  visited  those  countries  I came  into  Derby- 
I shire  and  the  sheriff  of  Lincoln  came  with  me  into  Derby- 
shire where  two  of  Judge  Fell’s  daughters  met  me.  And 
we  had  some  opposition  in  one  meeting  but  the  Lord’s 
glorious  power  gave  me  dominion  over  all. 

And  there  was  a company  of  bailiffs  and  serving  men 
I plotted  together  and  came  in  the  night  and  called  me  out, 
and  I went  out  to  them  and  some  Friends  with  me.  And 
they  were  exceeding  rude  and  violent:  and  had  intended 
to  have  carried  me  away  in  the  night  with  them,  and  to 
have  done  me  a mischief,  but  the  Lord’s  power  chained 
them  and  went  over  them  so  that  at  last  they  went  away. 

! And  the  next  day  Thomas  Aldam  went  to  the  knight’s 
house,  whose  servants  some  of  these  men  were,  and  laid 
before  him  the  bad  carriage  of  his  servants.  And  the  knight 
seemed  to  rebuke  them  and  did  not  allow  of  their  evil 
carriage  towards  us. 

; And  so  we  came  after  this  into  Nottinghamshire  to 
Skegby  where  we  had  a great  meeting  of  all  sorts  of  people 
and  the  Lord’s  power  went  over  all:  and  all  was  quiet 
and  the  people  were  turned  to  the  spirit  of  God  by  which 
they  came  to  receive  his  power  and  to  sit  under  Christ’s 
teaching  their  saviour;  and  a great  people  the  Lord  had 
thataways. 

; And  then  I passed  towards  Kidsley  Park,  where  there 
were  a-many  Ranters  came:  but  the  Lord’s  power  stopped 
them. 

And  then  I went  up  into  the  Peak  country  towards 
Thomas  Hammersley’s,^  where  there  came  all  the  Ranters 
I in  that  country  and  high  professors.  And  the  Ranters 
I opposed  me  and  fell  a-swearing,  and  when  I reproved  them 
: for  swearing  then  they  would  bring  Scripture  for  it,  and 
said  Abraham,  and  Jacob,  and  Joseph  swore,  and  the  priests, 
and  Moses,  and  the  prophets  swore  and  the  angel  swore. 
And  I answered  and  said  unto  them,  I confessed  all  these 
did  so  as  the  Scripture  records  it,  but  I said  again  to  them, 
that  Christ  said,  ‘ before  Abraham  was  lam’;  and  he  says, 

^ Thomas  Hammersley’s  home  was  at  Basford,  near  Leek,  Staffs. 


182  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

‘ Swear  not  at  all.’  And  Christ  ends  the  prophets  and  the 
first  priesthood  and  Moses,  and  reigns  over  the  house 
of  Jacob  and  Joseph,  who  saith,  ‘ Swear  not  at  all.’  And 
God  saith,  ‘ I bring  forth  my  first-begotten  into  the  world; 
let  all  the  angels  worship  him  ’,  to  wit  Christ  that  saith, 

‘ Swear  not  at  all  ’ as  in  Matthew  v.  And  for  men’s  j 
swearing  to  end  their  strife,  Christ  who  destroyed  the  Devil  t 
and  his  works  who  is  the  author  of  strife,  he  saith,  ‘ Swear 
not  at  all  ’,  and  God  saith,  ‘ This  is  my  beloved  Son  hear 
ye  him,  in  whom  I am  well  pleased  ’,  so  the  Son  is  to  be 
heard  who  forbids  swearing,  and  the  Apostle  James  that 
did  hear  the  Son  of  God  and  preached  him  and  followed 
him,  he  forbids  all  oaths  as  in  James  v. 

And  so  the  Lord’s  power  and  his  Son  were  set  over  all, 
and  the  word  of  life  was  fully  and  richly  preached  and  many 
were  convinced  that  day. 

And  Thomas  Hammersley,  he  served  as  foreman  of  a 
jury  without  swearing,  and  the  judge  did  confess  he  had  , 
been  judge  so  long  but  never  heard  such  an  upright  verdict  | 
as  that  Quaker  brought  in.  And  much  might  be  spoken  J 
of  these  things,  but  time  would  fail  to  declare  them,  but  ■ 
the  Lord’s  power  and  truth  came  over  all,  who  is  worthy  | 
of  all  praise  and  glory  for  ever.  | 

And  after  this  I came  through  Derbyshire  visiting  Friends ; | 
and  then  came  to  Swannington  in  Leicestershire  where 
there  was  a General  Meeting:^  and  many  Ranters  came  and  | 
other  professors  and  Baptists  and  great  janglings  there  had  | 
been  with  them  and  the  priests  in  that  town.  And  several 
Friends  came  from  several  parts  to  that  meeting,  as  John  j 
Audland,  and  Francis  Howgill,  and  Edward  Pyott  from  | 
Bristol,  and  Edward  Burrough  from  London,  and  several  ' 
were  convinced  in  those  parts.  And  the  Ranters  that  came 
to  the  meeting  made  a disturbance  and  were  very  rude,  | 
but  at  last  they  were  confounded  and  the  Lord’s  power  i 
came  over  them  all. 

And  the  next  day  Jacob  Bottomley^  came  from  Leicester, 

^ About  8th  to  15th  January,  1655. 

^ Jacob  Bauthumley. 


RANTERS 


1655] 


183 


a great  Ranter,  but  the  Lord’s  power  stopped  him  and  came 
over  them  all. 

And  there  came  a priest  also,  but  he  was  confounded 
by  the  Lord’s  power;  and  the  priests,  and  professors, 
and  Ranters,  and  Baptists,  and  people  were  all  very  rude 
about  this  time,  and  stirred  up  the  rude  people. 

And  we  sent  to  the  Ranters  to  come  forth  and  try  their 
God,  and  there  came  abundance  who  were  rude,  as  afore- 
said, and  sung  and  whistled  and  danced,  but  the  Lord’s 
power  so  confounded  them  that  many  of  them  came  to  be 
convinced. 

And  after  this  I came  to  Twycross  and  there  came  some 
Ranters  again  and  they  sung  and  danced  before  me,  but  I 
was  moved  in  the  dread  of  the  Lord  to  speak  to  them  and 
reprove  them  and  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  so  as 
some  of  them  were  reached  and  convinced  and  received 
the  spirit  of  God  and  are  come  to  be  a pretty  people  and 
live  and  walk  soberly  in  the  Truth  of  Christ. 

And  I came  to  Anthony  Bickley’s^  in  Warwickshire 
where  there  was  a great  meeting:  and  several  people  and 
Baptists  came  and  jangled,  but  the  Lord’s  power  came  over 
them,  ^and  then  I passed  into  Nottinghamshire  and 
Lincolnshire  where  there  v/ere  brave  meetings  of  Friends, 
and  Truth  honourable  and  so  passed  up  into  Leicestershire, 
where  there  were  great  meetings  and  so  went  to  my  native 
town  where  my  relations  lived,  at  a place  called  Drayton- 
of-the-Clay.  Having  sent  before  of  my  coming,®  Nathaniel 
Stephens,  the  priest,  had  gotten  another  priest  and  had 
given  notice  to  the  country:  and  he  sent  down  to  me  that 
I must  come  up  to  them  for  they  could  not  do  any  thing 
till  1 came.  And  I having  been  three  years  away  from 
my  relations,  I knew  nothing  of  their  design  and  intentions, 
but  at  last  I went  up  with  several  Friends  into  the  steeple- 
house  yard  where  the  two  priests  aforesaid  were;  and  they 
had  gathered  abundance  of  people. 


^ Anthony  Bickley,  or  Brickley,  lived  at  Baddeley  Ensor,  near 
Atherstone. 

® ^ SJ.,  p.  36. 


184  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

And  when  I came  there  they  would  have  had  me  go 
into  the  steeplehouse  and  I asked  them  what  I should  do 
there : and  they  said  Nathaniel  Stephens  the  priest  could  not 
bear  the  cold;  and  I told  them  he  might  bear  it  as  well  as  ! 
me.  And  at  last  we  went  into  a great  hall,  and  there  was 
Richard  Farnsworth  with  me;  and  a great  dispute  we  had  | 
with  those  priests  concerning  the  practice  of  the  priests 
how  contrary  they  were  to  Christ  and  the  apostles;  and  the 
priests  would  know  where  tithes  were  forbidden  or  ended. 
And  so  I showed  them  out  of  Hebrews  vii,  how  not  only 
tithes  but  the  priesthood  that  took  tithes  was  ended,  and 
the  law  was  ended  and  disannulled  by  which  the  priesthood 
and  tithes  were  made  and  commanded  to  be  paid.  And  I 
then  the  priests  stirred  up  the  people  to  some  lightness  i 
and  rudeness. 

I knew  this  priest  from  a child  so  I laid  open  his  condition  | 
and  the  manner  of  his  preaching  and  how  he  like  the  rest  of 
the  priests  did  apply  the  promises  to  the  first  birth  which 
must  die.  But  the  promises  were  to  the  Seed;  not  to  many 
seeds  but  the  one  Seed  Christ  who  was  one  in  male  and 
female;  for  all  were  to  be  born  again  before  they  could  ^ 
enter  into  the  kingdom  of  God.  Then  he  said  I must  ( 
not  judge  so,  but  I told  him,  he  that  was  spiritual  judged 
all  things;  and  then  he  confessed  that  that  was  a full 
Scripture,  ‘ But  neighbours  ’,  says  he,  ‘ this  is  the  business : 
George  Fox  is  come  to  the  light  of  the  sun,  and  now  he 
thinks  to  put  out  my  starlight.’ 

But  I said,  ‘ Nathaniel,  give  me  thy  hand  ’ ; then  I told 
him  I would  not  quench  the  least  measure  of  God  in  any,  i 
much  less  put  out  his  starlight  <if  it  was  true  starlight — j 
light  from  the  Morning  Star);  and  further  said  if  he  had 
anything  from  Christ  or  God  he  ought  to  speak  it  freely  j 
and  not  take  tithes  from  the  people  for  preaching,  seeing  | 
Christ  commanded  his  ministers  to  give  freely  as  they  had  ' 
received  freely.  And  so  I charged  him  to  preach  no  more 
for  tithes  or  a hire;  and  he  plucked  his  hand  out  of  my  hand  , 
and  said  he  would  not  yield  unto  that. 

And  so  after  a while  the  people  began  to  be  rude  and  vain, 


1655]  CARRIED  TO  THE  STEEPLEHOUSE  185 

SO  we  broke  up,  though  some  were  made  loving  to  Truth 
that  day.  And  I told  them  that  I should  be  at  the  town 
that  day  seven-night  again;  and  I went  into  the  country 
and  had  meetings,  and  that  day  seven-night  came  there 
again,  and  then  this  priest  had  gotten  seven  or  eight  priests 
to  help  him,  for  priest  Stephens  had  given  notice  on  a 
market  day  at  a lecture  at  Atherstone  that  there  would  be 
such  a dispute  and  meeting  with  me  though  I knew  nothing 
of  it  but  only  that  I said  I should  be  in  town  that  day 
seven-night  again.  And  these  eight  priests  had  gathered 
several  hundreds  of  people,  even  all  the  country  thereabouts ; 
and  they  would  have  had  me  into  the  steeplehouse  again 
but  1 would  not  go  in,  but  got  on  a hill  and  there  spoke  to 
them  and  the  people. 

And  there  was  Thomas  Taylor  with  me  that  had  been  a 
priest  and  James  Parnell  and  several  other  Friends:  and 
the  priests  thought  that  day  to  have  trampled  down  Truth; 
but  the  Truth  came  over  them. 

But  at  last  they  and  the  people  were  so  rude,  they  would 
not  stand  to  trial  with  me,  but  would  be  contending  here 
and  there  a little  with  one  Friend  or  other.  So  at  last  the 
priest  brought  his  son  and  another  to  dispute  with  me,  but 
his  mouth  was  soon  stopped;  and  when  he  could  not  tell 
how  to  answer  he  would  go  ask  his  father,  but  his  father 
was  confounded  also  when  he  came  to  answer  for  his  son. 
So  after  they  had  toiled  themselves  they  went  away  in  a 
rage  to  the  priest  Stephens’  house  to  drink.  And  as  they 
went  away  I said,  I never  came  to  a place  where  so  many 
priests  together  would  not  stand  me.  And  after  a while 
they  and  their  wives  came  about  me  and  laid  hold  of  me 
and  fawned  about  me  and  said  what  might  I have  been  had 
it  not  been  for  Friends.  And  then  they  fell  a-pushing  of 
Friends  up  and  down  to  thrust  them  from  me,  and  to  pluck 
me  to  them. 

But  at  last  several  fellows  got  me  up  in  their  arms  and 
carried  me  to  the  steeplehouse  porch  to  carry  me  into  the 
steeplehouse  by  force,  The  priest  following.  And  the 
door  being  locked,  a great  heap  of  them  fell  down  as  they 


186  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655  | 

were  carrying  of  me,  and  I under  them.  Then  they  cried 
for  the  Clerk  to  come  to  open  the  door.  But  at  last  I | 
got  from  under  them  and  leaped  through  the  bars  and  got  i 
back  to  my  hill  again  where  I spoke  before,  and  began  to  | 
speak,  and  they  took  me  up  again  and  carried  me  to  the  ' 
steeplehouse  wall  and  set  me  on  a base  like  a stool  and  all 
the  priests  and  the  people  stood  under;  and  the  priests 
cried,  ‘ Come,  to  argument,  to  argument.’  I stood  still  ; 

a while  and  looking  upon  the  great  concourse  of  people^  I 

I said  I denied  all  their  voices,  for  they  were  the  voices  of 
the  hirelings,  and  the  stranger : and  they  cried,  ‘ Prove  it,  ' 
prove  it.’  And  I directed  them  to  the  tenth  of  John,  | 
for  there  they  might  see  what  Christ  said  of  such,  who  said 
he  was  the  true  shepherd  that  laid  down  his  life  for  his  ! 
sheep,  and  his  sheep  heard  his  voice  and  followed  him,  | 
but  the  hireling  would  fly  when  the  wolf  came  because  * 
he  was  an  hireling;  and  they  were  such  hirelings.  And 
then  the  priests  plucked  me  off*  from  my  base  again  and 
then  they  eight  got  upon  bases  under  the  steeplehouse  walls. 
Then  I felt  the  mighty  power  of  God  arise  over  all,  though 
the  people  began  to  be  a little  rude.  | 

When  I was  gotten  to  the  place  where  I could  command 
the  people  I began  to  speak,  and  I told  them  if  they  would 
but  give  audience  and  hear  me  I would  show  them  by  the 
Scriptures  why  I denied  those  eight  teachers  or  priests  that 
stood  there  before  me  and  all  the  hireling  teachers  of  the 
world  whatsoever,  and  I would  give  them  Scripture  for 
what  I said. 

And  so  both  priests  and  people  consented. 

So  I showed  them  out  of  the  prophets  Isaiah,  Jeremiah, 
Ezekiel,  Micah,  Malachi,  and  other  prophets  how  they  were 
in  the  steps  of  such  as  God  had  sent  his  true  prophets  to  cry 
against;  for,  said  I 

‘ You  are  such  as  bear  rule  by  your  means:  and  the  people 
loved  to  have  it  so:  which  is  a horrible  filthy  thing  committed 
in  the  land  (Jer.  v.).  And  you  are  such  as  they  that  used  their 

^ ^ Cf.  5./.,  p.  37. 


1655]  HIRELING  PREACHERS  187 

tongues  and  said,  “ Thus  saith  the  Lord  ” when  the  Lord  never 
spoke  to  them;  and  such  as  followed  their  own  spirits  and  saw 
nothing,  but  spoke  forth  a divination  of  their  own  brain  and  by 
their  lives  and  lightness  had  caused  the  people  to  err  (Jer.  xxiii.). 
And  they  were  such  as  you,  that  sought  for  their  gain  from  their 
quarter,  that  were  as  greedy  dumb  dogs  that  could  never  have 
enough,  whom  the  Lord  sent  his  prophet  Isaiah  to  cry  against 
(Isa.  Ixi.).  And  they  were  such  as  you,  as  taught  for  handfuls 
of  barley  and  pieces  of  bread,  that  sewed  pillows  under  people’s 
armholes  that  they  might  lie  soft  in  their  sins  (Ezek.  xiii.). 
And  they  were  such  as  you,  that  taught  for  the  fleece  and  the 
wool,  and  made  a prey  of  the  people  (Ezek.  xxxiv.). 

‘ But  the  Lord  is  gathering  his  sheep  from  their  mouths 
and  from  off*  their  barren  m.ountains  and  bringing  of  them  to 
Christ,  the  one  shepherd  which  he  has  set  over  his  flocks  as  in 
Ezekiel  aforesaid. 

‘ And  they  were  such  as  you  that  divined  for  money  and 
preached  for  hire,  and  if  a man  did  not  put  into  their  mouths 
they  prepared  war  against  them  as  their  fruits  declared  ’ 
(Mic.  iii.). 

And  so  I went  largely  through  the  prophets,  which  will 
be  too  large  to  repeat,  and  then  through  the  New  Testament 
of  Christ  and  the  apostles,  and  showed  them  how  they  were 
like  the  chief  priests,  and  scribes,  and  pharisees,  such  as 
Christ  cried  woe  against  (Matt,  xxiii.),  and  such  false 
apostles  as  the  true  apostles  cried  against,  as  taught  for 
filthy  lucre ; and  such  anti-Christs  and  deceivers  as  they  cried 
against,  that  minded  earthly  things  and  served  not  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ,  but  their  own  bellies;  for  they  that  served 
Christ  gave  freely  and  preached  freely  as  he  commanded 
them. 

‘ And  they  that  won’t  preach  without  hire,  tithes,  and 
outward  means,  serve  their  own  bellies  and  not  Christ; 
and  through  the  good  words  of  the  Scriptures  and  feigned 
words  of  their  own,  they  made  merchandise  of  the  people 
then  ’,  said  I,  ‘ as  you  do  now.’ 

And  when  I had  largely  quoted  the  Scriptures  and  showed 
them  how  they  were  like  pharisees,  loving  to  be  called  of 
men  ‘ masters  ’,  and  to  go  in  long  robes  and  to  stand  praying 


188  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

in  the  synagogues  and  to  have  the  uppermost  rooms  at 
feasts  and  the  like;  so  when  I had  thrown  them  out  in  the 
sight  of  the  people  amongst  the  false  prophets  and  scribes 
and  pharisees  and  showed  how  such  as  they  were  judged 
by  the  prophets,  Christ  and  the  apostles,  and  having 
largely  spoken  to  them,  I turned  them  to  the  light  of  Christ 
Jesus,  who  enlightens  every  man  that  cometh  into  the  world, 
to  let  them  see  whether  these  things  were  not  true  as  had 
been  spoken. 

And  when  I spake  to  that  of  God  in  their  consciences 
and  the  light  of  Christ  Jesus  in  them,  they  could  not 
abide  to  hear  tell  of  that;  but  then  a professor  said, 
‘ George,  what  ! wilt  thou  never  have  done  ? ’ and  all 
was  quiet  till  he  spake.  And  I told  him  I should  have 
done  presently,  so  after  I had  done  and  cleared  myself 
in  the  Lord’s  power,  all  the  priests  and  people  stood  still 
for  a time. 

And  at  last  one  of  the  priests  said  that  they  would  read 
the  Scriptures  that  I had  quoted : so  I told  them,  ‘ With 
all  my  heart  ’;  and  they  began  to  read  Jeremiah  xxiii.,  and 
there  they  saw  the  marks  of  the  false  prophets  that  he  cried 
against ; and  when  they  had  read  a verse  or  two  and  some- 
thing more  than  I had  quoted,  I said,  ‘ Take  notice,  people  ’, 
and  then  they  said,  ‘ Hold  thy  tongue,  George  ’,  and  I 
then  bade  them  read  the  whole  chapter  throughout,  for 
it  was  all  against  them,  and  then  they  stopped  and  would 
read  no  further,  but  asked  me  a question.  And  I told 
them  I would  answer  their  question,  the  other  being  first 
granted  that  I had  charged  them  with,  that  they  were 
false  prophets,  false  teachers,  and  anti-Christs,  and  deceivers, 
and  such  as  the  true  prophets,  Christ  and  the  apostles, 
cried  against. 

And  a professor  said,  ‘ Nay  and  I said,  ‘ Yea,  for  you 
leaving  the  matter  and  going  to  another  thing  seems  to 
consent  to  the  proof  of  the  former  charge.’ 

So  I answered  their  question,  which  was,  that  those 
false  prophets  were  adulterated,  and  whether  did  I judge 
Priest  Stephens  an  adulterer.  To  which  I said  he  was 


1655]  HIRELING  PREACHERS  189 

adulterated  from  God  like  those  false  prophets  and  Jews 
in  his  practice. 

So  they  stood  not  to  vindicate  him  but  brake  up  the 
meeting. 

The  priests  whispered  together  and  then  Priest  Stephens 
came  to  me  and  desired  that  my  natural  father  and  brother 
might  go  aside  with  him  and  the  rest  of  the  priests  to  keep 
the  people  off  that  he  might  speak  with  me  privately. 
But  I was  very  loth  to  go  aside  with  him:  but  the  people 
cried,  ‘ Go,  George,  do,  George,  go  aside  with  him.’ 
And  I was  afraid  if  I did  not  go  they  would  say  I was  dis- 
obedient to  my  parents.  And  so  1 went,  and  the  rest  of 
the  priests  were  to  keep  the  people  off:  but  the  people 
drew  close  to  us  for  they  could  not  keep  them  off,  the  people 
being  willing  to  hear. 

And  I asked  the  priest  what  he  had  to  say  to  me  and  he 
said  that  if  he  was  out  of  the  way  I should  pray  for  him, 
and  if  I was  out  of  the  way  he  would  pray  for  me;  and  he 
would  give  me  a form  of  words  what  I should  pray,  but  I 
answered  him  and  said,  ‘ It  seems  Priest  Stephens  does  not 
know  whether  he  be  in  the  right  way  or  no,  neither  doth  he 
know  whether  I am  in  the  way  or  no.  But  I know  that 
I am  in  the  everlasting  way,  Christ  Jesus,  which  he  is  out  of. 
And  thou  wouldst  give  me  a form  of  words  to  pray  by  and 
yet  deniest  the  Common  Prayer.  And  why  may  1 not  take 
the  Common  Prayer  Book  to  pray  by  as  well  as  thy  form  of 
words  ? <If  thou  wouldst  have  me  pray  for  thee  by  a form 
of  words)  is  not  this  a denying  the  apostles’  practise  of 
praying  by  the  Spirit,  who  said  he  would  pray  in  the  Spirit 
and  Holy  Ghost  as  it  gave  words  and  utterance  ? ’ So 
the  people  fell  a-laughing  and  I was  moved  to  speak  to 
him  several  other  words,  and  afterwards  we  all  parted, 
I telling  them  I should  be  in  the  town  that  day  seven-night 
again.  And  upon  those  words  the  priests  packed  away. 

And  many  people  were  convinced  that  day  and  the  Lord’s 
power  came  over  all,  and  whereas  they  thought  to  have 
confounded  Truth  that  day,  many  were  thereby  confirmed 
in  the  Truth  and  came  to  be  convinced  of  it  and  stand  in 


190  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655  j 

it;  and  a great  shake  it  was  to  the  priests  My  father  in  j 
the  flesh  thwacked  his  cane  on  the  ground  and  said,  ‘ Well  j 
said  he,  ‘ I see  he  that  will  but  stand  to  the  truth  it  will  carry  j 
him  out  ’,  though  he  was  a hearer  and  follower  of  the  j 
priests.  j 

So  I passed  into  the  country  and  that  day  seven-night  J 
I came  again  and  we  had  appointed  a meeting  at  my 
relations’  house:  Priest  Stephens  <having  had  notice  before-  ; 
hand  thereof,  had  got  another  priest  to  him,)  and  they  ; 
had  got  a company  of  troopers,  and  they  sent  for  me  and  ; 
I told  them  our  meeting  was  appointed,  and  they  might  ; 
come  to  me  if  they  would,  but  the  priest  came  not,  but  the  j 
troopers  came  and  a-many  rude  people,  and  this  was  the  i 
priests’  plot,  that  the  troopers  were  to  take  every  one’s  | 
name  and  then  to  command  them  to  go  home  and  if  they  I 
would  not  then  to  carry  them  away  with  them.  And  when  j 
they  had  taken  several  names  they  came  to  take  my  name.  ; 
So  my  relations  made  answer  that  I v/as  at  home  already,  ; 
and  so  they  could  not  take  me  away  that  time,  nevertheless  ! 
they  took  my  name ; and  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all  and  ; 
they  went  away,  both  priests,  professors,  and  troopers,  ; 
vexed  and  crossed  because  they  had  not  their  ends,  but  i 
several  were  convinced  that  day  and  admired  the  love  and 
power  of  God. 

And  this  was  that  Priest  Stephens  that  said  of  me,  j 
‘ Never  such  a plant  was  bred  in  England  ’,  and  yet  after-  i 
wards  he  reported  that  I was  carried  up  in  the  clouds  and  , 
after  found  full  of  gold  and  silver;  and  a-many  lies  and  ; 
reports  he  raised  on  me,  but  the  Lord  swept  them  all  away,  j 

And  the  reason  I would  not  go  into  their  steeplehouse  ; 
was  because  I was  to  bear  my  testimony  against  it,  and  to  j 
bring  all  off  such  things  to  the  spirit  of  God  that  they  ! 
might  know  their  bodies  to  be  the  temples  of  the  Holy  i 
Ghost;  and  to  bring  them  off  all  the  hireling  teachers  to  ! 
Christ  their  free  teacher,  that  had  died  for  them  and  pur- 
chased them  with  his  blood.  ; 

And  after  this  I went  into  the  country  and  had  several 
meetings  and  came  to  Swannington  and  there  the  soldiers 


1655]  ARRESTED  AT  LEICESTER  191 

came  again,  but  the  meeting  was  quiet  and  the  Lord’s 
power  was  over  all  and  they  did  not  meddle. 

And  after,  I went  to  Leicester,  amd  from  Leicester  to 
Whetstone;^  and  before  the  meeting  began  there  came  a 
matter  of  seventeen  troopers  of  Colonel  Hacker’s^  regiment 
with  his  marshall,  and  they  took  me  up^  before  the  meeting, 
though  several  Friends  were  gathered,  for  there  were 
several  Friends  come  out  of  several  parts;  and  before  the 
meeting  I told  tlie  marshall  he  might  let  all  these  Friends 
go  and  I would  answer  for  them  all.  So  the  marshall 
took  me  and  let  the  Friends  all  go  and  Alexander  Parker 
went  along  with  me. 

So  at  night  they  had  me  before  Colonel  Hacker,  and  his 
major  and  captains,  and  a great  company  of  them,  and  a 
great  deal  of  discourse  we  had  about  the  priests  and 
meetings,  for  at  this  time  there  was  a noise  of  a plot  against 
Oliver  Cromwell.  And  much  reasonings  I had  with  them 
about  the  spirit  of  Christ  who  enlighteneth  every  one  that 
cometh  into  the  world ; and  Colonel  Hacker  asked  whether 
it  was  not  this  light  of  Christ  that  made  Judas  betray  his 
master  and  after  led  him  to  hang  himself,  and  I told  him, 
‘No;  that  was  the  spirit  of  darkness  which  hated  Christ 
and  his  light.’  Then  Colonel  Hacker  said  that  I might 
go  home  and  keep  at  home  and  not  go  abroad  to  meetings, 
and  I told  him  I was  an  innocent  man  from  all  plots  and 
denied  all  such  works. 

Then  his  son  Needham^  said,  ‘ Father,  this  man  hath 
reigned  too  long.  It’s  time  to  have  him  cut  off.’  And 
I asked  him  for  what;  or  what  had  I done  or  whom  had  I 
wronged  from  a child,  for  I was  bred  and  born  in  that 
country,  and  who  could  accuse  me  of  any  evil  from  a child. 

And  then  Colonel  Hacker  asked  me  again  if  I would 
go  home  and  stay  at  home;  I told  him  if  I should  promise 

^ Whetstone,  about  5 miies  from  Leicester. 

^ Colonel  Francis  Hacker  (d.  1660)  lived  at  Withcote  Hall,  near 
Oakham. 

3 On  lith  February,  1655. 

^ Captain  Clement  Needham;  “ son  ” is  unconfirmed. 


192  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

him  so,  that  would  manifest  that  I was  guilty  of  something, 
for  to  go  home  and  make  my  home  a prison;  and  if  I went 
to  meetings  they  would  say  I brake  their  order;  but  I told 
them  I should  go  to  meetings  as  the  Lord  ordered  me,  and 
therefore  could  not  submit  to  that,  but  said  we  were  a 
peaceable  people. 

‘ Well  then  ’,  said  Cotonel  Hacker,  ‘ I will  send  you 
to-morrow  by  six  o’clock  to  miy  Lord  Protector  by  Captain 
Drury,  one  of  his  life-guard.’ 

So  that  night  I was  kept  a prisoner  at  the  Marshalsea, 
and  the  next  morning  by  the  sixth  hour  I was  ready  and 
delivered  to  Captain  Drury.  And  so  I desired  they  would 
let  mie  speak  with  Colonel  Hacker.  He  had  me  to  his 
bed-side;  and  he  was  at  me  again  to  go  home  and  keep 
no  more  meetings.  I told  him  I could  not  submit  to  that 
but  must  have  my  liberty  to  serve  God  and  go  to  meetings. 

Then  he  said  I must  go  before  Oliver,  Lord  Protector;  so 
I kneeled  on  his  bed-side  and  desired  the  Lord  to  forgive 
him,  for  he  was  Pilate,  though  he  would  wash  his  hands; 
and  when  the  day  of  his  misery  and  trial  should  come  upon 
him  1 then  bid  him  remember  what  I said  to  him. 

And  this  Priest  Stephens  aforesaid  with  the  rest  of  the 
priests  and  professors  had  stirred  him  up,  who  had  said 
so  of  me  before  that  never  such  a plant  was  bred  in  England ; 
and  yet  here  his  envy  was  manifested;  when  they  could  not 
overcome  me  by  their  disputes  nor  arguments,  nor  resist 
my  spirit,  then  they  got  soldiers  to  take  me  up. 

Now  when  this  Colonel  Hacker  was  in  the  Tower  of 
London,  a day  or  two  before  he  was  hanged,  it  was  told 
him  what  he  had  done  against  the  innocent,  and  he  remem- 
bered it  and  confessed  it  to  Margaret  Fell  and  said  he 
knew  well  whom  she  meant,  and  he  had  a trouble  upon 
him  for  it.  And  his  son  <who  told  his  father)  I had  reigned 
too  long  and  would  have  had  me  cut  off,  could  see  how 
soon  his  father  was  cut  off,  who  after  was  hanged  at  Tyburn 
when  the  King  came  in. 

So  I was  carried  up  by  Captain  Drury  aforesaid  from 
Leicester,  and  when  we  came  to  Harborough  he  told  me 


1655]  A LETTER  TO  OLIVER  CROMWELL  193 

that  if  I would  go  home  and  stay  a fortnight,  I should  have 
my  liberty  if  I would  not  go  to  nor  keep  meetings,  but  I 
told  him  I could  not  promise  any  such  thing.  And  several 
times  upon  the  road  did  he  ask  and  try  me  after  the  same 
manner,  and  I gave  him  the  same  answer.  So  he  brought 
me  to  London  and  lodged  me  at  the  Mermaid  over  against 
the  Mews  at  Charing  Cross,  and  I was  moved  of  the  Lord 
to  warn  people  at  the  inns  and  places  as  I went  of  the  day 
of  the  Lord  that  was  coming  upon  them.  And  William 
Dewsbury  and  Marmaduke  Storr  were  in  prison  at 
Northampton,  and  he  let  me  go  and  visit  them.  And 
when  I was  at  London  he  left  me  at  the  Mermaid  and  went 
and  told  Oliver  Cromwell  of  me. 

And  I gave  forth  a paper  and  bid  him  carry  it  to  Oliver, 
which  is  here  as  followeth: 

Dear  Friend, 

Be  still,  and  in  the  counsel  of  God  stand,  and  that  will  give  thee 
wisdom,  that  thou  mayest  frustrate  men’s  ends,  and  calm  men’s 
spirits,  and  crumble  men  under,  and  arise  and  stand  up  in  the 
power  of  the  Lord  God  and  the  Lamb’s  authority.  And  fear 
not  the  face  of  man  but  fear  and  dread  the  Lord  God,  then  his 
presence  and  wisdom  and  counsel  thou  shalt  have,  to  throw 
down  the  rubbish  and  quell  all  the  bad  spirits  under  thy 
dominion.  And  fear  them  about  thee. 

Live  in  the  Lord’s  power  and  life,  then  to  thee  he  will  give 
wisdom,  and  the  pure  feeling  thou  wilt  come  into,  whereby 
thy  soul  will  be  refreshed  and  it  will  be  thy  delight  to  do  the 
will  of  God,  and  thy  meat  and  drink,  as  thou  in  the  pure 
eternal  power,  counsel,  will,  and  wisdom  of  God  dwellest. 
Things  all  will  be  made  plain  before  thee,  for  thee  and  to  thee, 
from  the  Lord  God. 

In  what  thou  dost  for  the  Lord  God  thou  shalt  have  peace 
and  the  blessing;  and  in  that  so  doing,  all  the  sober,  truehearted 
people  will  be  one  with  thee  in  all  travails,  sorrows,  and  pains, 
in  feeling.  And  then  in  that  a blessing  from  the  Lord  will 
come  upon  thee,  will  abound  in  thee  and  cover  thee  as  thou 
livest  and  art  kept  in  the  power  and  dread  of  the  Lord  God 
of  heaven  and  earth,  where  wisdom  is  not  wanting,  nor  peace 
lacking;  but  where  peace  is  enjoyed  and  counsel  and  instruction 
from  the  Lord  God  are  given. 


194  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

And  the  helping  arm  and  hand  that  stretcheth  over  all  the 
nations  in  the  world  thou  wilt  feel.  And  with  that  thou  wilt 
come  to  break  down  all  men’s  ends,  that  they  have  to  themselves, 
and  the  worships  that  men  invent  and  images  they  have  set  up. 
For  the  arm  of  the  Lord  helps  the  righteous,  by  his  hand  he 
carries  his  lambs,  which  arm  is  turned  against  the  wicked, 
stretched  over  them.  And  the  hand  of  the  Lord  is  against 
those  that  do  evil,  in  which  hand  the  soul  is,  which  brings  it 
into  peace. 

Therefore  live  in  the  power  of  the  Lord  God,  and  feel  his  hand 
that  is  stretched  over  the  nations;  for  a mighty  work  hath  the 
Lord  to  do  in  other  nations,  and  their  quaking  and  shaking 
is  but  entering.  So  this  is  the  word  of  the  Lord  God  to  thee, 
and  a charge  to  thee  from  the  Lord  God.  In  the  presence  of 
the  Lord  God,  live  in  the  power  of  the  Lord  God  of  heaven 
and  earth,  that  will  make  all  nations  to  tremble  and  to  quake; 
for  those  are  God’s  enemies  that  be  out  of  his  power  and 
counsel. 

And  be  thou  faithful  to  God  singly,  without  respecting  any 
man’s  person.  But  respect  the  Lord  and  his  work;  and  be 
obedient  to  his  will  singly  without  any  end  to  thyself.  Live 
in  the  pure  wisdom,  counsel,  and  instruction  from  God;  then 
v/ilt  thou  see  God’s  enemies,  that  live  out  of  his  vdsdom.,  power, 
counsel,  fall  in  their  pits,  snare  themselves,  fear  where  there 
is  no  fear,  slaying  themselves  with  their  envy.  And  the  power 
of  the  Lord  will  stave  all  the  wicked  off  of  thee  as  thou  lives  in 
it  and  art  kept  in  it. 

And  this  is  the  word  of  the  Lord  God  to  thee.  Live  in  the 
wisdom  of  the  life  of  God,  that  with  it  thou  mayest  be  ordered 
to  his  glory,  and  order  his  creatures  to  his  glory.  And  be 
still  and  silent  from  thy  own  wisdom,  wit,  craft,  subtilty,  or 
policy  that  would  arise  in  thee,  but  stand  single  to  the 
Lord,  without  any  end  to  thyself.  Then  God  will  bless  thee 
and  prosper  thee  in  his  ways;  thou  wilt  feel  his  blessing  in  thy 
generation. 

And  thy  mind  stayed  upon  the  Lord,  thou  wilt  be  kept  in 
perfect  peace,  without  any  intent  to  thyself,  to  the  glory  of  God. 
And  there  wilt  thou  feel  no  want,  nor  never  a failing,  nor  for- 
saking, but  the  presence  of  the  Lord  God  of  life  with  thee.  For 
now  the  state  of  this  present  age  is,  that  the  Lord  is  bringing 
his  people  into  the  life  the  Scriptures  were  given  forth  from,  in 
which  life  people  shall  come  to  have  unity  with  God,  with 


1655]  PRISONER  IN  LONDON  195 

Scriptures  and  one  with  another,  for  the  establishing  righteous- 
ness, truth,  and  peace,  in  which  is  the  kingdom  of  God. 

From  a lover  of  thy  soul  and  eternal  good, 

George  Fox. 

< During  the  time  I was  prisoner  at  Charing  Cross) 
abundance  of  professors,  priests,  and  officers,  and  all  sorts 
of  people  came  to  see  me.  And  there  came  one  Colonel 
Packer^  and  his  officers  to  see  me;  and  there  came  one 
Cobbe,^  and  a great  company  of  Ranters  came  in  that 
time  also,  and  they  began  to  call  for  drink  and  tobacco; 
and  I desired  them  to  forbear  it  in  my  room ; if  they  had  a 
mind  of  it  they  might  go  into  another  room.  And  one 
of  them  cried,  ‘ All  is  ours  ’,  and  another  said,  ‘ All  is  well  ’ : 
but  I replied,  ‘ How  is  all  well  when  thou  art  so  peevish 
and  envious  and  crabbed  ? ’ for  I saw  he  was  of  a peevish 
nature.  And  so  I spake  to  their  conditions,  and  they  knew 
it  and  looked  at  one  another  wondering. 

And  then  Colonel  Packer  he  began  to  talk  with  a light 
chaffy  mind  of  God  and  Christ  and  the  Scriptures : and  that 
was  a great  grief  to  my  soul  and  spirit  when  I heard  him 
talk  so  lightly,  so  I told  him  he  was  too  light  to  talk  of  the 
things  of  God  and  he  did  hot  know  the  solidity  of  a man; 
upon  which  the  officers  raged  and  said  would  I say  so  to 
their  colonel:  and  then  Packer  and  the  Ranters  bowed 
and  scraped  one  to  another.  This  Packer  was  a Baptist. 
And  it  was  the  way  of  the  Ranters  to  be  so  extreme  in  their 
compliments  that  Packer  bid  them  give  over  their  compli- 
ments; and  I told  them  they  were  fit  to  go  together  for  they 
were  both  of  one  spirit. 

And  this  Colonel  Packer  had  gotten  Theobalds^  and  was 
made  a justice  of  peace  there,  and  there  set  up  a great 
meeting  of  the  Baptists  in  Theobalds  Park.  He  and  a com- 
pany of  officers  had  purchased  it;  and  they  were  exceeding 
high  and  railed  against  Friends  and  Truth,  and  threatened 

^ Major  William  Packer. 

^ Perhaps  Abiezer  Coppe  (1619-1672),  Ranter. 

3 A mansion  near  Cheshunt,  Herts.,  at  one  time  the  residence  of 
King  James  I. 


196  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

to  apprehend  me  with  their  warrants  if  ever  I came  down 
there. 

Some  time  after  I was  set  at  liberty  by  Oliver  Cromwell, 
I was  moved  of  the  Lord  God  to  go  down  to  Theobalds 
and  appoint  a meeting  hard  by  them,  where  a-many  of 
his  people  came,  and  were  convinced.  And  the  Lord’s 
power  came  over  him  so  that  he  had  not  power  to  meddle 
with  me;  and  several  of  his  hearers  being  convinced  of 
Christ,  the  way  and  free  teacher,  came  off  from  him; 
that  made  him  rage  the  more. 

So  I went  to  Waltham  and  there  was  a meeting,  but  the 
people  were  very  rude  and  they  broke  the  windows  and 
gathered  about  the  house.  I went  out  to  them  with  the 
Bible  in  my  hand  and  desired  them  to  come  in,  and  I would 
show  them  Scripture  both  for  our  practice  and  principles; 
and  showed  them  that  their  teachers  were  in  the  steps  of 
such  as  the  prophets,  Christ  and  the  apostles,  cried  against. 
So  I turned  them  to  the  light  and  spirit  of  God  in  their  hearts, 
that  by  it  they  might  come  to  know  their  free  teacher,  the 
Lord  Jesus  Christ. 

And  they  went  away  all  satisfied  and  quieted,  and  from 
that  time  after  they  never  made  any  disturbance;  so  as 
since  there  is  a large  meeting  settled  in  their  town  which  was 
gathered  in  the  name  of  Jesus  to  be  under  Christ’s  free 
teaching. 

And  after,  this  Colonel  Packer,  when  the  King  came  in, 
lost  all  his  offices  and  land  which  he  had  bought  belonging 
to  the  King — he  who  had  said  that  before  the  Quakers 
should  have  liberty  he  would  draw  his  sword  to  bring  in 
King  Charles;  but  when  the  King  was  come  in,  he  had  the 
reward  of  his  envy  and  wickedness.  And  thus  the  Lord’s 
power  wrought  for  his  lambs  and  Truth;  and  many  such  as 
he  were  overthrown  in  their  folly. 

And  about  this  time  there  was  one  Chandler,^  a great 
Ranter  that  had  been  a priest,  and  one  who  had  run  into 
so  much  wickedness  that  he  lay  as  a spectacle  to  all  people; 
and  he  cried  out  that  he  was  in  Hell  fire,  and  no  one  could 

^ John  Chandler  of  Southwark. 


1655]  A DECLARATION  TO  CROMWELL  197 

minister  any  comfort  to  him.  I was  moved  to  bid  Edward 
Burrough  to  go  to  him  and  turn  him  to  the  light  of  Christ 
and  settle  his  mind  upon  Christ;  and  so  he  did,  for  he  went 
forthwith  and  his  message  was  effectual;  and  he  became 
a very  fine  Friend  and  gave  forth  many  books  for  the  Truth 
and  died  in  Truth. 

And  after  a few  days  I was  had  before  Oliver  Cromwell 
by  Captain  Drury. 

^Upon  the  Fifth-day  of  the  First-month  [5th  March, 
t 1655]  Captain  Drury  who  brought  George  Fox  up  to 
London  by  order  from  Colonel  Hacker  did  come  to  the 
inn  into  the  chamber  where  George  Fox  lay  and  said  that 
1 it  was  required  of  George  Fox  from  Oliver  Cromwell 
\ that  he  would  promise  that  he  would  not  take  up  a sword 
; against  the  Lord  Protector  or  the  Government  as  it  is  now; 
1 and  that  George  Fox  would  write  down  the  words  in  answer 
I to  that  which  the  Protector  required,  and  for  George 
Fox  to  set  his  hand  to  it. 

The  Fifth-day  of  the  First-month  George  Fox  was  moved 
of  the  Lord  to  give  out  these  words  following  which  were 
i given  to  Oliver  Cromwell.  And  George  Fox  was  then 
presently^  brought  before  him  by  Captain  Drury. 

George  Fox  to  Oliver  Cromwell,  1654. 

I,  who  am  of  the  world  called  George  Fox,  do  deny 
: that  the  carrying  or  drawing  of  any  carnal  sword  against 

any,  or  against  thee,  Oliver  Cromwell,  or  any  man.  In 
the  presence  of  the  Lord  God  I declare  it. 

God  is  my  witness,  by  whom  I am  moved  to  give  this 
forth  for  the  Truth’s  sake,  from  him  whom  the  world  calls 
George  Fox;  who  is  the  son  of  God  who  is  sent  to  stand 
a witness  against  all  violence  and  against  all  the  works 
of  darkness,  and  to  turn  people  from  the  darkness  to  the 
; light,  and  to  bring  them  from  the  occasion  of  the  war 
and  from  the  occasion  of  the  magistrate’s  sword,  which  is 
i a terror  to  the  evil  doers  who  act  contrary  to  the  light 
of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  which  is  a praise  to  them  that  do 
I ^ i.e.  at  once. 


198  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

well,  a protection  to  them  that  do  well  and  not  evil.  Such 
soldiers  as  are  put  in  that  place  no  false  accusers  must  be, 
no  violence  must  do,  but  be  content  with  their  wages; 
and  the  magistrate  bears  not  the  sword  in  vain. 

From  under  the  occasion  of  that  sword  I do  seek  to  bring 
people.  My  weapons  are  not  carnal  but  spiritual,  and 
‘ m.y  kingdom  is  not  of  this  world  ’,  therefore  with  a carnal 
weapon  I do  not  fight,  but  am  from  those  things  dead; 
from  him  who  is  not  of  the  world,  called  of  the  world  by 
the  name  George  Fox.  And  this  I am  ready  to  seal  with 
my  blood. 

This  I am  moved  to  give  forth  for  the  Truth’s  sake, 
who  a witness  stand  against  all  unrighteousness  and  all 
ungodliness,  who  a sufferer  am  for  the  righteous  Seed’s 
sake,  waiting  for  the  redemption  of  it,  who  a crown  that  is 
mortal  seek  not,  for  that  fadeth  away,  but  in  the  light  dwell, 
which  comprehends  that  crown,  which  light  is  the  con- 
demnation of  all  such;  in  which  light  I witness  the  crown 
that  is  immortal,  that  fades  not  away. 

From  him  who  to  all  your  souls  is  a friend,  for  establishing 
of  righteousness  and  cleansing  the  land  of  evil  doers  and  a 
witness  against  all  wicked  inventions  of  men  and  murderous 
plots,  which  answered  shall  be  with  the  light  in  all  your 
consciences,  which  makes  no  covenant  with  death,  to  which 
light  in  you  all  I speak,  and  am  clear. 

F.G. 

who  is  of  the  world  called  George  Fox,  who  a new  name 
hath  which  the  world  knows  not. 

We  are  witnesses  of  this  testimony,  whose  names  in  the 
flesh  are  called  Thomas  Aldam 

Robert  Craven.^ 

He  brought  me  in  before  him  before  he  was  dressed,  and 
one  Harvey:^  (that  had  come  amongst  Friends  but  was 
disobedient)  waited  upon  him. 

^ Charles  Harvey,  groom  of  the  bed-chamber. 

s s Presumably  the  witnesses  to  the  testimony  are  the  authors 

of  the  introductory  paragraph  with  its  third  person  reference  to  Fox 
and  its  precise  dating.  The  title  is  in  Fox’s  own  hand. 


[ 1655]  INTERVIEW  WITH  CROMWELL  199 

And  so  when  I came  before  him^  I was  moved  to  say, 

1 ‘ Peace  be  on  this  house  ’ ; and  I bid  him  keep  in  the  fear 
• of  God  that  he  might  receive  wisdom,  that  by  it  he  might 
: be  ordered,  that  with  it  he  might  order  all  things  under  his 
hand  to  God’s  glory.  And  I spake  much  to  him  of  Truth, 

[ <and  a great  deal  of  discourse  I had  with  him  about  religion, 

[j  wherein  he  carried  himself  very  moderately;  but)  he  said 
I we  quarrelled  with  the  priests,  whom  he  called  ministers; 
p and  I told  him  I did  not  quarrel  with  them,  but  they 
. quarrelled  with  me  and  my  friends.  And  such  teachers, 
and  prophets,  and  shepherds,  that  the  prophets,  Christ, 
and  the  apostles  declared  against — if  we  owned  the  prophets, 

1 Christ,  and  the  apostles,  we  could  not  hold  them  up  but 
must  declare  against  them  by  the  same  power  and  spirit. 

; And  the  prophets,  Christ,  and  the  apostles  declared  freely; 
:!  and  they  declared  against  them  that  did  not  declare  freely; 
i such  as  preached  for  filthy  lucre  and  divined  for  money  and 
' preached  for  hire  and  were  covetous  and  greedy  like  the 
. dumb  dogs  that  could  never  have  enough;  and  such  priests 
; as  did  bear  rule  by  their  means  and  the  people  that  loved 
( to  have  it  so.  Now  they  that  have  the  same  spirit  that 
[ Christ,  and  the  prophets,  and  apostles  had  could  not  but 
' declare  against  all  such  now  as  they  did  then.  And  several 
I times  he  said  it  was  very  good,  and  truth,  and  I told  him 

i that  all  Christendom  so  called  had  the  Scriptures  but  they 
; wanted  the  power  and  spirit  that  they  had  that  gave  them 
I forth;  and  therefore  they  were  not  in  fellowship  with  the 
^ Son,  nor  with  the  Father,  nor  with  the  Scriptures,  nor  one 

with  another. 

And  many  more  words  I had  with  him.  And  many 
: people  began  to  come  in,  that  I drew  a little  backward,  and 
f as  I was  turning  he  catched  me  by  the  hand  and  said  these 
' words  with  tears  in  his  eyes,  ‘ Come  again  to  my  house; 
' for  if  thou  and  I were  but  an  hour  in  a day  together  we 
f should  be  nearer  one  to  the  other  ’,  and  that  he  wished 
( me  no  more  ill  than  he  did  to  his  own  soul.  And  I told 

ii  him  if  he  did  he  wronged  his  own  soul;  and  so  I bid  him 

^ The  meeting  took  place  6th  March,  1655. 


200  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

hearken  to  and  hear  God’s  voice  that  he  might  stand  in  his 
counsel  and  obey  it;  if  he  did  so,  that  would  keep  him  from 
hardness  of  heart,  and  if  he  did  not  hear  God’s  voice  his 
heart  would  be  hardened.  And  he  said  it  was  true.  So 
I went  out,  and  he  bid  me  come  again.  And  then  Captain 
Drury  came  out  after  me  and  told  me  his  Lord  Protector 
said  I was  at  liberty  and  might  go  whither  I would,  ‘ And  ’, 
says  he,  ‘ my  Lord  says  you  are  not  a fool  ’,  and  said  he 
never  saw  such  a paper  in  his  life  as  I had  sent  him  before 
by  him.  <Then  I was  brought  into  a great  hall,  where  the 
Protector’s  gentlemen  were  to  dine;  and  I asked  them  what 
they  did  bring  me  thither  for.  They  said,  it  was  by  the 
Protector’s  order,  that  I might  dine  with  them.  I bid 
them  let  the  Protector  know  I would  not  eat  a bit  of  his 
bread,  nor  drink  a sup  of  his  drink.  When  he  heard  this,) 
he  said  that  there  was  a people  risen,  meaning  us,  that  he 
could  not  win  either  with  honour,  high  places,  or  gifts, 
but  all  other  people  he  could.  For  we  did  not  seek  any 
of  their  places,  gifts,  nor  honours,  but  their  salvation 
and  eternal  good,  both  in  this  nation  and  elsewhere.  <But 
it  was  told  him  again  that  we  had  forsook  our  own,  and 
were  not  like  to  look  for  such  things  from  him.) 

So  I went  to  the  inn  again.  And  this  Captain  Drury 
was  an  enemy  to  me  and  Truth  and  opposed  it;  and  when 
professors  came  to  me  and  he  was  by,  he  would  scoff  at 
trembling  and  call  us  Quakers,  as  the  Independents  and 
Presbyterians  had  nicknamed  us  before.  And  he  came  to 
me  one  time  and  told  me,  as  he  was  lying  on  his  bed  in  the 
daytime  to  rest,  he  fell  a-trembling,  that  his  joints  knocked 
together  and  his  body  shook  so  he  could  not  get  off  the  bed. 
He  was  shaken  so  that  he  had  no  strength  left,  and  cried  to 
the  Lord,  and  he  felt  his  power  was  upon  him  that  he 
tumbled  off  the  bed,  and  cried  to  the  Lord  and  said  he  would 
never  speak  against  the  Quakers  more,  and  such  as  trembled 
at  the  word  of  God. 

And  one  time  a company  of  officers  desired  me  to  pray 
with  them  and  I was  loath,  but  at  last  I felt  the  power  and 
spirit  of  God;  and  the  Lord’s  power  did  so  shatter  them  and 


1655]  SET  FREE  IN  LONDON  201 

shake  them  that  they  wondered,  though  they  did  not  live 
in  it. 

And  thus  the  Lord  God  of  Heaven  carried  me  over  all 
in  his  power;  and  set  his  power  and  truth  over  the  nation. 

<When  I came  from  Whitehall  to  The  Mermaid  at 
Charing  Cross  (which  had  been  my  prison)  I stayed  not 
long  there  but)  went  into  the  city  of  London  and  great  and 
mighty  meetings  we  had.  Many  times  I could  hardly  go 
along  the  streets,  nor  hardly  get  to  a meeting,  nor  from  a 
meeting,  for  the  tumults  of  people;  and  the  Truth  spread 
exceedingly. 

And  the  sheriff  of  Lincoln,^  and  Thomas  Aldam,  and 
divers  Friends  came  up  to  London,  and  Alexander  Parker 
abided  with  me. 

And  I went  to  Whitehall  and  was  moved  to  declare 
the  day  of  the  Lord  amongst  them,  and  how  the  Lord  was 
come  to  teach  his  people  himself.  <So  I preached  Truth) 
both  to  the  officers  and  such  as  were  called  Oliver’s  gentle- 
men of  his  guard.  And  there  was  a priest  (Oliver  Protector 
had  several  priests  that  were  his  newsmongers),  one  that 
opposed  when  I was  declaring  the  word  of  the  Lord  amongst 

them,  that  was  an  envious  priest,  and  I bid  him  repent. 
And  he  put  it  in  his  news-book  the  next  week  that  I had 
been  at  Whitehall  and  had  bid  a godly  minister  repent.^ 

But  when  I went  again  I met  with  him  and  abundance 
that  gathered  about  me  and  I silenced  the  priest  and  mani- 
fested him  to  be  a liar  in  several  things  that  he  did  affirm 

then.  Also  he  put  in  the  news-book  that  I wore  silver 
buttons  which  was  false,  for  they  were  but  alchemy.  And 
after,  he  put  in  his  news-book  that  I hung  ribands  on 
people’s  arms  which  made  them  to  follow  me;  which  was 
another  of  his  lies  for  I never  wore  nor  used  ribands  in 
my  life. 

And  three  Friends  went  to  examine  this  priest  that  gave 
forth  this  false  intelligence  and  to  know  of  him  where  he  had 
that  information,  and  he  told  them  it  was  a woman  told 

^ Robert  Craven. 

^ The  newsmonger-priest  was  Henry  Walker. 


202  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

him  so,  and  when  they  came  again  he  would  tell  them  the 
woman’s  name:  but  when  they  came  again,  he  said  it  was  a 
man  but  would  not  tell  them  his  name  then,  but  if  they 
would  come  again  he  would  tell  them  his  name  and  where 
he  lived.  But  when  they  came  again  the  third  time  he 
said  if  I would  give  it  under  my  hand  there  was  no  such 
thing  he  would  put  it  in  the  news-book.  The  Friends 
carried  it  under  my  hand  to  him  but  he  would  not  put 
it  in,  but  was  in  a rage  and  threatened  them  with  the 
constable;  and  this  was  the  deceitful  doing  of  this  forger 
of  lies ; and  these  lies  they  spread  over  all  the  nation  in  the 
news-books  to  render  Truth  odious  and  to  put  evil  in 
people’s  minds  against  Friends  and  Truth,  which  may  be 
seen  more  at  large  in  the  printed  book,  of  clearing  the 
slanderous  lies  and  reports  against  Friends  and  Truth.  ^ 

And  these  priests,  the  newsmongers,  were  of  the  Indepen- 
dent sect  like  those  in  Leicestershire,  but  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  all  their  lies  and  many  came  to  see  them. 

The  Lord’s  power  went  over  the  nation  insomuch  that 
many  Friends  were  moved  to  go  into  most  parts  up  and 
down  the  nation  about  this  time,  and  into  Scotland  <to 
sound  forth  the  everlasting  Gospel);  and  the  glory  of  the 
Lord  was  set  over  all  to  his  everlasting  praise. 

And  a great  convincement  there  was  in  London,  and  many 
in  Oliver  Protector’s  house  and  family.^ 

And  I went  to  see  him  again  but  could  not  get  to  him, 
the  officers  began  to  be  so  rude. 

And  sometimes  they  would  turn  up  my  coat  and  see  for 
my  leather  breeches  and  then  they  would  be  in  a rage. 

And  the  Presbyterians  and  Independents  and  Baptists 
were  in  a great  rage,  for  many  of  their  people  came  to  be 
turned  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  sat  under  his  teaching 
and  received  his  power  and  felt  it  in  their  hearts;  and  then 
they  were  moved  of  the  Lord  to  declare  against  the  rest  of 

^ A Declaration  . . . against  several  false  Reports  ...  in  several 
News-Books,  etc.,  1655. 

^ Charles  Harvey  (for  a time),  Mary  Saunders,  Lettice  Shaine, 
Theophilus  Green,  are  known  to  have  been  Friends. 


1655]  ‘to  all  professors’  203 

them.  So  the  Lord’s  day  was  set  over  all.  And  I appointed 
a meeting  in  the  fields  near  Acton,  where  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  all  and  his  word  of  life  and  truth  was  declared 
freely. 

About  this  time  George  Fox  gave  forth  a paper  to  all 
professors;  and  to  the  Pope  and  ail  the  Kings  in  Europe; 
and  to  all  such  as  follow  after  the  world’s  fashions;  and  to 
Oliver  Protector  and  such  as  were  to  try  the  ministers; 
as  are  hereunto  annexed. 

To  all  Professors, 

All  they  that  professed  Jesus  Christ  in  words,  and  heard 
him  not  when  he  was  come,  they  said  he  was  a deceiver  and 
a devil.  The  chief  priests  were  they  that  called  him  so.  The 
Jews  said,  ‘ He  hath  a devil  and  is  mad;  why  do  ye  hear  him  ? ’ 
And  others  said,  ‘ These  are  not  the  words  of  him  that  hath  a 
devil : can  the  devil  open  the  eyes  of  the  blind  ? ’ And  the 
Jews  doubted  whether  he  was  the  Christ  or  no;  and  so  all,  Jews 
in  the  knowledge,  in  the  notion,  that  profess  a Christ  without, 
where  Christ  is  risen,  they  do  not  own  him,  but  do  doubt  of  him; 
the  same  Christ  now  and  for  ever.  Jesus  Christ  said,  ‘ I and  my 
Father  are  one  ’ ; and  then  the  Jews  took  up  stones  to  stone  him. 
And  where  Jesus  Christ  is  now  come  and  made  manifest,  the 
Jews  in  the  outward,  in  the  profession,  have  the  same  hard 
hearts  inwardly  now,  that  they  had  then;  and  do  cast  stones  at 
him  where  he  is  risen.  Jesus  said,  ‘ For  which  of  these  good 
works  do  ye  stone  me  ? ’ The  Jews  answered  and  said,  ‘ For 
thy  good  works  we  stone  thee  not;  but  for  blasphemy,  and 
that  thou  being  a man,  makest  thyself  God.’  Jesus  answered 
them  and  said,  ‘ Is  it  not  written  in  your  law,  I said.  Ye  are 
gods  ? ’ (John  X.  34)  and  the  Scripture  cannot  be  broken  . . . 

When  Stephen  confessed  Jesus,  the  substance  of  all  figures 
and  types,  and  was  brought  before  the  chief  priests  to  his  trial, 
he  told  them,  ‘ The  Most  High  dwelleth  not  in  temples  made  with 
hands  ’ ; and  brought  the  prophet  to  Vvitness,  and  told  them  they 
were  stiff-necked,  and  uncircumcised  hearts  and  resisted  the 
Holy  Ghost,  as  their  fathers  did.  And  Stephen  was  full  of  the 
Holy  Ghost,  and  said  he  saw  Jesus,  and  they  run  upon  him 
and  stoned  him  to  death,  calling  upon  the  Lord. 

When  Paul  confessed  Jesus  Christ  and  his  resurrection, 
Festus  said  he  was  mad.  And  when  Paul  preached  the 


204  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

resurrection,  some  mocked ; the  Jews  persuaded  the  people,  and 
stoned  him,  and  drove  him  out  of  the  city,  and  thought  he  had 
been  dead.  The  Jews  stirred  up  the  Gentiles  to  make  their 
minds  evil-affected  towards  their  brethren.  The  Jews  stirred 
up  the  devout  and  honourable  women,  and  the  chief  of  the  city, 
and  raised  up  persecution  against  Paul  and  Barnabas,  and 
expelled  them  out  of  their  coasts;  and  there  was  an  assault 
made  both  of  the  Gentiles  and  of  the  Jews,  with  their  rulers, 
to  use  them  despitefully  and  to  stone  them.  And  all  Jews 
in  the  notion  do  stir  up  the  rulers,  and  stir  up  the  ignorant 
people,  and  incense  them  against  Jesus  Christ  where  he  is  risen, 
to  stone  them  all  with  one  consent.  It  is  that  the  Scripture 
might  be  fulfilled  and  the  blindness  of  the  people  might  be 
discovered. 

And  the  same  power  now  is  made  manifest,  and  doth  over- 
turn the  world,  and  did  overturn  the  world,  to  the  exalting 
of  the  Lord,  and  to  the  pulling  down  of  the  kingdom  of  Satan 
and  of  this  world,  and  setting  up  of  his  own  kingdom,  to  bis 
everlasting  praise  . . . The  priests  they  incense  all  the  ignorant 
people  for  fear  their  trade  should  go  down;  and  the  professors 
they  show  forth  what  is  in  them,  full  of  rage  . . . Truth  hath 
been  talked  of,  but  now  it  is  possessed.  Christ  hath  been  talked 
of,  but  now  he  is  come  and  is  possessed.  The  glory  hath  been 
talked  of,  but  now  it  is  possessed,  and  the  glory  of  man  is 
destroyed.  The  Son  of  God  hath  been  talked  of,  but  now  he 
is  come,  and  hath  given  us  an  understanding.  Unity  hath  been 
talked  of,  but  now  it  is  come  . . . Praises,  praises  be  to  thee, 
whose  glory  now  shines,  whose  day,  which  is  hid  from  the  world, 
hid  from  all  wise  ones  and  all  the  prudent,  hid  from  the  fowls 
of  the  air,  hid  from  all  vultures’  eyes,  and  all  venomous  beasts, 
and  all  liars,  and  all  dogs,  and  all  swine.  But  to  them  that  fear 
thy  name  the  secrets  of  thee  are  made  manifest,  the  treasures 
of  wisdom  are  opened  and  the  fulness  of  knowledge;  for  thou 
thyself  dost  make  thyself  manifest  to  thy  children.^ 

To  the  Pope  and  all  the  Kings  in  Europe, 

Friends, 

Ye  heads,  and  rulers,  and  kings,  and  nobles  of  all  sorts,  be 
not  bitter,  nor  hasty  in  persecuting  the  lambs  of  Christ,  neither 
turn  yourselves  against  the  visitations  of  God,  and  his  tender 

^ In  full,  Camb.  JnL,  i,  170-4;  Ellv/ood,  pp.  141-3;  Bicent.,  i,  216-19. 
But  Fox’s  authorship  of  this  paper  is  in  doubt. 


■ 1655]  THE  FASHIONS  OF  THE  WORLD  205 

Jove  and  mercies  from  on  high,  who  sent  to  visit  you;  lest  the 
Lord’s  hand,  arm,  and  power  take  swiftly  hold  upon  you; 
which  is  now  stretched  over  the  world  . . . Let  this  go  to  the 
kings  of  France,  Spain,  and  the  Pope,  for  them  to  prove  all 
things  and  hold  that  which  is  good.  And  first  to  prove  that 
they  have  not  quenched  the  Spirit  ...  He  that  feeleth  the  light 
that  Christ  hath  enlightened  him  withal,  he  feeleth  Christ  in 
I his  mind,  which  is  the  power  of  the  cross  of  Christ,  and  shall 
not  need  to  have  a cross  of  wood  or  stone  to  put  him  in  the 
mind  of  Christ  or  his  cross,  which  is  the  power  of  God. 

G.F.^ 

To  such  as  follow  after  the  fashions  of  the  world. 

What  a world  is  this;  how  doth  the  devil  garnish  himself; 
how  obedient  are  the  people  to  do  his  will  and  mind,  that  they 
are  altogether  carried  with  fooleries  and  vanities,  both  men 
and  women,  that  they  have  lost  the  hidden  man  of  the  heart, 
and  the  meek  and  quiet  spirit,  which  is  of  the  Lord,  of  great 
price.  They  have  lost  the  adorning  of  Sarah;  they  are  putting 
I on  gold  gay  apparel,  plaiting  the  hair,  men  and  women,  they 
are  powdering  it;  making  their  backs  as  if  it  were  bags  of  meal. 
And  they  look  so  strange  that  they  cannot  look  at  one  another; 
they  are  so  lifted  up  in  pride.  Pride  hath  so  lifted  them  up  and 
I is  flown  up  into  their  heads  they  snuff  up,  like  wild  asses;  like 
‘ Ephraim,  they  feed  upon  wind;  and  are  gotten  to  be  like  wild 
heifers,  who  feed  upon  the  mountains.  And  pride  hath  puffed 
up  every  one.  They  are  out  of  the  fear  of  God,  men  and 
women,  young  and  old;  one  puffs  up  another.  They  are  not 
in  the  fashion  of  the  world  else,  they  are  not  in  esteem  else, 

' they  shall  not  be  respected  else,  if  they  have  not  gold  and  silver 
upon  their  backs,  or  his  hair  be  not  powdered.  Or  if  he  have 
a company  of  ribands  hung  about  his  waist,  red  or  white  or 
black  or  yellow,  and  about  his  knees,  and  gets  a company  in 
his  hat,  and  powders  his  hair,  then  he  is  a brave  man,  then  he 
is  accepted,  then  he  is  no  Quaker,  because  he  has  ribands  on 
his  back,  and  belly,  and  knees,  and  his  hair  powdered.  This 
is  the  array  of  the  world.  But  is  not  this  the  lusts  of  the  eye, 
the  lusts  of  the  flesh,  the  pride  of  life  ? 

Likewise  the  women  having  their  gold,  their  spots  on  their 
faces,  noses,  cheeks,  foreheads,  having  their  rings  on  their 
fingers,  wearing  gold,  having  their  cuffs  double  under  and  about 
^ In  full,  Camb,  JnL,  i,  174-5;  Ellwood,  pp.  146-7;  Bicent.,  i,  222-3. 


9 


206  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

like  unto  a butcher  with  white  sleeves,  having  their  ribands 
tied  about  their  hands,  and  three  or  four  gold  laces  about 
their  clothes:  ‘ This  is  no  Quaker  ’,  say  they.  This  is  that  that 
pleaseth  the  world,  this  array,  this  attire  pleaselh  the  world,  and 
if  they  cannot  get  these  things  they  are  perverse. 

Now,  are  not  all  these  that  have  got  their  ribands  hung  about 
their  arms,  backs,  waists,  knees,  hats,  hands,  like  unto  fiddler ’s- 
boys  and  show  that  you  are  gotten  into  the  basest  contemptible 
life  as  be  in  the  fashion  of  the  fiddler ’s-boys  and  stage-players, 
and  quite  out  of  the  paths  and  steps  of  solid  men.  Are  not 
these  the  spoilers  of  the  creation,  and  have  the  fat  and  the  best 
of  it,  and  waste  and  destroy  it  ? Do  not  these  cumber  God’s 
earth  ? Let  that  of  God  in  all  consciences  answer,  and  who 
are  in  the  wisdom,  judge.  And  further,  to  get  a pair  of  breeches 
like  a coat,  and  hang  them  about  with  points  and  up  almost 
to  the  middle,  and  a pair  of  double  cuffs  upon  his  hands,  and  a 
feather  in  bis  cap,  here’s  a gentleman;  bow  before  him,  put 
off  your  hats,  bow,  get  a company  of  fiddlers,  a set  of  music, 
and  women  to  dance.  This  is  a brave  fellow.  Up  in  the 
chamber;  up  in  the  chamber  without,  and  up  in  the  chamber 
within.  Are  these  your  fine  Christians  ? ‘ Yea  ’,  say  they, 

‘ They  are  Christians.’  ‘ But  ’,  say  the  serious  people,  ‘ They 
are  out  of  Christ’s  life,  and  out  of  the  apostles’  command,  and 
out  of  the  saints’  ornament.’  To  see  such  a company  as  is 
before  mentioned  as  are  in  the  fashions  of  the  world,  a company 
of  them  get  a couple  of  bowls  in  their  hands,  or  tables,  or  shovel- 
board;  or  a horse  with  a company  of  ribands  on  his  head,  as 
he  hath  on  his  own,  and  a ring  in  his  ear  and  so  go  to  horse- 
racing, to  spoil  the  creature;  Oh,  these  are  gentlemen,  these  are 
bred  up  gentlemen,  these  are  brave  fellows  and  they  must  have 
their  recreation,  and  pleasures  are  lawful.  And  these,  in  their 
sports,  set  up  th©ir  shouts  like  unto  the  wild  asses.  And  they 
are  like  unto  the  kine  or  beasts,  when  they  are  put  to  grass, 
lowing  when  they  are  full.  And  here  is  the  glorying  of  them 
before  mentioned;  but  it  is  in  the  flesh,  not  in  the  Lord  . . . 

G.F.^ 

<There  was  about  this  time  an  Order  for  the  Trying  of 
Ministers  and  for  approving,  or  ejecting  them  out  of  their 
places  or  benefices,  whereupon  I writ  a paper  as  follows:) 

^ In  full,  Camb.  JnL,  i,  175-7;  Ellwood,  pp.  144-5;  Bicent.,  i,  219-21. 


ON  TRYING  MINISTERS 


207 


1655] 

To  Oliver  Cromwell  and  the  justices  to  try  ministers,  1654,^ 
Friends, 

You  that  be  justices,  in  commission  to  try  ministers,  which 
hath  so  long  been  in  the  vineyard  of  God,  now  see  if  they  be 
according  to  the  Scriptures,  the  prophets,  Christ,  and  the  apostles, 
that  they  disapproved  . . . 

See  if  they  be  not  such  as  teach  for  filthy  lucre,  for  the  love 
of  money,  covetous,  such  as  love  themselves,  who  have  the  form 
of  godliness,  but  deny  the  power;  from  such  the  apostle  bids, 
turn  away  . . . Paul  gave  Timothy  an  order  to  try  ministers, 
and  he  said,  ‘ They  must  not  be  covetous,  given  to  wine,  nor 
filthy  lucre,  nor  a novice;  lest  they  be  lifted  up  into  pride,  and 
fall  into  the  condemnation  of  the  devil  ’ (1  Tim.  iii.).  And  these 
he  was  to  try  and  prove  without  partiality  . . . Christ,  when  he 
sent  forth  his  ministers  he  bade  them  give  freely,  as  they  had 
received  freely;  and  into  what  city  or  town  soever  they  came, 
enquire  who  were  worthy  and  there  abide;  and  what  they  ‘ set 
before  you  ’,  said  he,  ‘ that  eat  And  these  came  back  again 
to  Christ,  and  he  asked  them  if  they  wanted  anything,  and  they 
said,  ‘ No.’  They  did  not  go  to  a town,  and  call  the  people 
together  to  know  how  much  they  might  have  by  the  year,  as 
those  that  are  apostatized  do  now.  The  apostle  said,  ‘ Have 
I not  power  to  eat  and  to  drink  ? ’ But  he  did  not  say,  to  take 
tithes,  Easter-reckonings,  Midsummer-dues,  Augmentations, 
and  great  sums  of  money,  but,  ‘ Have  not  I power  to  eat  and  to 
drink  ? ’ But  he  did  not  use  that  power  amongst  the  Corin- 
thians . . . From  a lover  of  your  souls,  and  eternal  good. 

G.F." 


CHAPTER  IX 


A ND  after,  when  I had  cleared  myself  in  the  city,  I was 
ZA  moved  of  the  Lord  to  go  into  Bedfordshire  to  John 
± A Crook’s  where  there  was  a great  meeting, ^ and  people 
generally  convinced  of  the  Lord’s  truth.  And  John  Crook 
told  me  that  next  day  several  gentlemen  of  the  country 


^ The  Triers  of  Ministers  began  work  March,  1655. 

2 In  full,  Carnb.  JnL,  i,  178-80;  Ellwood,  pp.  147-9;  Bicent.,  i,  223-5. 

3 The  meeting  was  held  at  John  Crook’s  country  house,  Beckerings 
Park,  near  Ridgmont,  on  Sunday,  18th  March,  1655. 


208  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

would  come  to  dine  with  him,  he  being  a Justice  of  the 
Peace,  and  to  discourse  with  me.  And  they  came  and  were 
all  convinced  of  God’s  eternal  Truth.  And  several  Friends 
went  to  the  steeplehouses  that  day.  And  there  was  a 
meeting  in  the  country  which  Alexander  Parker  went  to; 
and  towards  the  middle  of  the  day,  it  came  upon  me  to  go, 
though  it  was  several  miles  distant.  And  John  Crook 
went  with  me.  And  when  we  came  there,  there  was  one 
Gritton^  that  had  been  a Baptist,  but  he  was  gotten  higher 
than  them  and  called  himself  a ‘ trier  of  spirits  ’,  and 
told  people  their  fortunes,  and  he  pretended  to  discover  to 
people  when  their  goods  were  stolen  or  houses  broken  up, 
who  the  persons  were  that  did  it,  with  which  he  had  got 
into  the  affections  of  many  people  thataways.  This  man 
was  got  into  the  meeting  and  was  speaking  and  making 
a hideous  noise  over  the  young  convinced  Friends  when  I 
came  in;  and  he  bid  Alexander  Parker  give  a reason  of  his 
hope.  And  because  he  did  not  speak  presently  to  him, 
he  cried  his  mouth  was  stopped.  But  Alexander  Parker 
told  him  Christ  was  his  hope. 

So  then  this  Gritton  directed  his  speech  to  me  for  I 
stood  still  and  heard  him.  And  he  spoke  many  things 
which  were  not  Scripture,  and  then  I asked  him  whether 
he  could  make  those  things  out  by  Scripture  which  he  had 
spoken,  and  he  said,  ‘ Yes,  yes.’ 

So  then  I bid  the  people  take  out  their  Bibles  to  search 
the  places  he  might  quote  for  proof  of  his  assertions,  but  he 
could  not  make  anything  good  by  Scripture  he  had  said,  so 
he  fled  out  of  the  house  and  was  ashamed.  And  his  people 
were  generally  convinced ; and  his  spirit  was  discovered  and 
he  came  no  more  amongst  them.  And  when  his  people 
came  to  be  convinced  of  God’s  Truth,  they  gave  forth  a 
book  against  him  and  denied  his  spirit  and  false  discoveries. 
And  many  were  turned  to  Christ  Jesus  that  day  and  came 
to  sit  under  his  teaching;  so  that  the  judges  were  in  a great 
rage  in  Bedfordshire,  and  many  of  the  magistrates,  because 

^ Nicholas  Greaton.  See  R.  Farnsworth:  Witchcraft  Cast  Out, 
1655. 


INTO  KENT 


1655] 


209 


there  were  so  many  turned  from  the  hireling  priests  to  the 
Lord  Jesus  Christ’s  free  teaching.  But  John  Crook,  by 
the  power  of  the  Lord,  was  kept  over  all,  though  he  was 
turned  out  from  being  a justice. 

And  then  at  last  I turned  up  through  the  country  to 
London  again,  where  Friends  were  finely  established  in  the 
Truth  and  great  comings-in  there  were. 

And  after  a while  I passed  into  Kent.  At  Rochester 
they  kept  a guard  and  there  they  were  examining  people, 
but  the  Lord’s  power  came  so  over  them  that  we  passed 
by  them  and  were  not  stopped.  So  I went  to  Cranbrook, 
where  there  was  a great  meeting,  and  several  soldiers,  and 
many  were  turned  to  the  Lord  that  day.  But  after  the 
meeting  some  of  the  soldiers  v/ere  somewhat  rude,  but  the 
Lord’s  power  came  over  them.  And  near  Cranbrook 
there  was  one  Thomas  Howsigoe,^  that  was  an  Independent 
preacher,  was  convinced  and  became  a faithful  minister 
for  the  Lord  Jesus. 

<Some  Friends  had  travelled  into  Kent  before,)  and 
about  this  time  the  priests  and  professors  stirred  up  the 
magistrates  to  whip  John  Stubbs  and  William  Caton  at 
Maidstone  for  declaring  God’s  Truth  unto  them,  <as  may 
be  seen  at  large  in  the  journal  of  William  Caton’s  life). 
And  there  was  one  Captain  Dunk^  was  convinced,  and  he 
went  with  me  to  Rye  where  we  had  a meeting.  And  the 
Major  and  officers  and  several  captains  came  in.  They 
took  what  I said  in  writing  and  I was  very  glad  of  it;  and 
all  were  quiet  and  affected  with  Truth.  And  about  this 
time  several  Friends  went  beyond  seas  to  declare  the  ever- 
lasting Truth  of  God. 

And  after,  I went  to  Romney,  they  having  knowledge 
of  my  coming  a pretty  while  before,  and  there  was  a mighty 
meeting  of  people.  And  Samuel  Fisher  was  there,  who 
was  an  eminent  preacher  among  the  Baptists.  He  had  been 
a parish  priest,  and  for  conscience  sake  had  laid  down  his 
parsonage  worth  about  two  hundred  pounds  a year.  And 


^ Thomas  Howsigoe  (d.  1660)  lived  at  Staplehurst. 

^ John  Dunk  of  Romney,  at  whose  house  the  meeting  was  held. 


210  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

there  was  another  pastor  of  the  Baptists  and  abundance 
of  their  people;  and  many  were  shaken  with  the  power  of 
God,  and  the  life  sprang  up  in  them.  And  one  of  the 
pastors  of  the  Baptists  was  so  amazed  at  the  Lord’s  power 
that  he  bid  one  of  our  Friends  that  was  so  wrought  upon, 
have  a good  conscience;  and  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to 
bid  him  take  heed  of  hypocrisy  and  deceit,  and  he  was 
silent.  And  a great  convincement  there  was  that  day, 
and  many  were  turned  from  the  darkness  to  the  divine 
light  of  Christ  and  came  to  see  their  teachers’  error,  and 
to  sit  under  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ’s  teaching,  and  to  know 
him  their  way  and  their  covenant  of  light,  that  God  had 
given  to  be  their  salvation  to  the  ends  of  the  earth;  and  they 
v/ere  brought  to  the  one  baptism  and  the  one  baptizer, 
Christ  Jesus. 

And  when  the  meeting  was  done  Samuel  Fisher’s  wife 
said,  ‘ Now  we  may  discern  this  day  betwixt  flesh  and  spirit, 
and  spiritual  teaching  from  fleshly.  ’ And  the  people  were 
mightily  satisfied;  and  the  two  Baptist  pastors  and  their 
company  fell  to  reasoning  amongst  the  people  when  they 
were  gone  from  the  meeting.  But  I walked  away.  And 
Samuel  Fisher  and  divers  others  reasoned  for  the  word 
of  life  that  was  declared  that  day,  and  the  other  pastor 
and  his  party  reasoned  against  it,  so  it  cut  and  divided 
them  in  sunder  and  cut  them  in  the  midst.  And  a Friend 
came  and  told  me  that  the  Baptists  were  disputing  one 
with  another,  and  he  desired  me  to  go  up  to  them,  but  I 
bid  them  let  them  alone,  for  the  Lord  would  divide  them  and 
they  that  reasoned  for  Truth  would  be  too  hard  for  the 
other,  and  so  it  was. 

And  Samuel  Fisher  denied  all  and  came  to  be  a faithful 
and  free  minister  and  preacher  of  Christ  and  his  Truth 
and  was  often  in  prisons  in  England  and  continued  till 
the  King  came  in  and  at  last  died  a prisoner  for  the  Lord’s 
Truth.  And  he  went,  being  moved  of  the  Lord  to  declare 
his  word  of  life,  to  Dunkirk  and  to  Holland,  <divers  parts 
of  Italy,  as>  Leghorn,  Rome;  and  yet  the  Lord  preserved 
him  and  John  Stubbs  over  their  Inquisitions, 


IN  SUSSEX 


1655] 


211 


And  at  that  time  John  Love  was  in  prison  in  the  Inquisi- 
tion at  Rome.  And  there,  as  it  was  reported  by  the 
nuns  in  France,  they  hanged  him  in  the  night-time;  not 
that  they  had  anything  against  him,  but  that  they  said  he  was 
a dangerous  person  and  might  do  hurt  to  their  religion. 
And  then  after  they  had  hanged  him  they  reported  that  he 
had  fasted  himself  to  death.  And  much  might  be  written 
of  these  things. 

And  from  Romney  I passed  to  Dover,  and  near  unto 
Dover  there  was  a governor  that  was  convinced  and  his 
wife  that  had  been  Baptists.  And  at  Dover  I had  a meeting 
where  several  were  convinced:  and  the  Baptists  were  very 
much  offended  and  envious,  but  the  Lord’s  power  came 
over  all.  And  there  Luke  Howard  was  convinced  who 
became  a faithful  minister;  and  so  I passed  to  Canterbury 
where  there  were  a few  honest-hearted  people  turned  to  the 
Lord,  who  stand  to  this  day,  and  are  become  a great 
meeting  since. 

And  so  I came  to  Cranbrook  again,  where  I had  a great 
meeting  and  one  that  was  with  me  went  to  the  steeplehouse 
and  was  cast  into  prison^  but  the  Lord’s  power  came  over 
all  and  his  Truth  spread. 

And  from  thence  I passed  into  Sussex  where  I came  to  a 
lodge  near  Horsham^  where  there  was  a great  meeting  and 
many  were  convinced.  And  from  thence  I passed  to 
Steyning  v/here  we  had  a meeting  in  the  market-house, 
and  several  were  convinced  thataways,  and  the  Lord’s 
power  came  over  all. 

And  several  meetings  I had  thataways.  And  there  was 
a meeting  appointed  at  a great  man’s  house.  And  he  and 
his  son  went  to  fetch  several  priests  that  had  threatened 
to  come  and  dispute,  but  when  the  time  came  none  of  them 
would  come,  the  Lord’s  power  struck  them.  And  a glorious 
meeting  we  had;  and  the  man  of  the  house  and  his  son 
were  vexed  because  none  of  the  priests  would  come.  So 
the  hearts  of  people  were  opened  by  the  Spirit  of  God, 


^ This  was  Henry  Clark,  of  Bankside,  Southwark. 
2 Sidgwick  Lodge,  home  of  Bryan  Wilkinson, 


212  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

and  they  were  turned  from  the  hirelings  to  Christ  Jesus 
their  shepherd  who  had  purchased  them  without  money 
and  would  feed  them  without  money  or  price.  And 
Nicholas  Beard  and  many  others  were  convinced  that  day, 
that  came  to  hear  the  dispute.  And  so  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  all  and  his  day  many  came  to  see.  And  abun- 
dance of  Ranters  and  professors  there  were  that  had  been 
so  loose  in  their  lives  that  they  began  to  be  weary  of  it  and 
had  thought  to  have  gone  into  Scotland  to  have  lived 
privately,  and  the  Lord’s  Truth  catched  them  all  and  their 
understandings  were  opened  by  his  light,  spirit,  and  power, 
through  which  they  came  to  be  settled  upon  the  Lord; 
and  so  became  very  good  Friends  in  the  Truth  and  became 
very  sober  men,  that  great  blessing  and  praising  the  Lord 
there  was  amongst  them,  and  admiration  in  the  country. 

And  from  thence  I passed  through  the  countries  till  I 
came  to  Reading,  and  there  were  a few  that  had  been 
convinced;  and  on  the  First-day  in  George  Lamboll’s 
orchard  almost  all  the  whole  town  came  together.  And 
there  came  two  of  Judge  Fell’s  daughters  to  me  and  George 
Bishop  <of  Bristol)  with  his  sword  by  his  side  <for  he 
was  a captain).  And  a glorious  meeting  it  was,  and  a great 
convincement  of  people  there  was  that  day,  and  people 
were  mightily  satisfied.  And  many  Baptists  and  Ranters 
came  privately  after  meeting,  reasoning  and  disputing, 
but  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  all.  And  the  Ranters 
pleaded  that  God  made  the  devil,  but  I denied  it  and  I told 
them  I was  come  into  the  power  of  God  and  the  Seed  Christ 
which  was  before  the  devil  was,  and  bruised  the  head  of  him, 
and  he  became  a devil  by  going  out  of  truth  and  so  became  a 
murderer  and  a destroyer.  And  so  I showed  them  that 
God  did  not  make  the  devil,  for  God  is  a God  of  Truth 
and  made  all  things  good  and  blessed  them,  but  did  not 
bless  the  devil  and  the  devil  is  bad  and  was  a liar  and  a 
murderer  from  the  beginning  and  spoke  of  himself  and  not 
from  God.  So  the  Truth  stopped  them  and  bound  them 
and  came  over  all  the  highest  notions  in  the  nation  and  con- 
founded them,  for  with  the  power  of  the  Lord  God  I was 


IN  ESSEX 


1655] 


213 


manifest  and  sought  to  be  manifest  to  the  spirit  of  God  in 
all,  that  with  it  (which  they  vexed  and  quenched  and 
grieved),  they  might  be  turned  to  God,  as  many  were  turned 
to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  by  the  spirit  of  God  and  to  sit 
under  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ’s  teaching.  And  there  was  a 
great  meeting  settled  there. 

And  from  thence  I passed  up  to  London ; and  after  I had 
stayed  there  a while  and  had  large  meetings  I passed  into 
Essex  and  came  to  Coggeshall  where  there  had  been  lately 
dead  a fine  young  man,  a minister.^  And  there  were  about 
two  thousand  people  at  a meeting^  (as  it  was  judged)  and 
Amor  Stoddard  and  Richard  Hubberthorne  were  with  me, 
and  a glorious  meeting  there  was,  and  the  word  of  life  freely 
declared,  and  people  were  turned  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ 
their  teacher  and  saviour,  their  way,  their  truth,  and  their 
life.  Several  hours  it  lasted  and  after  the  meeting  was  done 
I walked  out  into  the  fields  as  I used  to  do.  And  when 
I was  gone,  two  or  three  Justices  of  the  Peace  came  riding 
up  fiercely  to  me  in  the  field,  and  they  stopped  when  they 
came  at  me.  And  I turned  and  looked  at  them  and  they 
then  turned  and  spoke  never  a word  to  me.  And  one  of 
them  said  to  the  other,  ‘ What,  will  you  go  away,  sir  ? ’ 
‘ Yes  said  the  other,  and  so  they  went  to  the  house.  And 
Friends  had  some  books  of  our  principles,  and  they  bought 
some  of  the  books,  and  went  their  ways;  but  they  had 
mischief  in  their  hearts,  for  they  were  a kind  of  Presbyterian 
Independent  justices  that  had  sent  James  Parnell  to 
Colchester  prison. 

And  on  the  sixth  day  I had  a meeting  near  Colchester,^ 
where  the  Independent  teachers  came  and  many  professors ; 
and  when  I had  stepped  down  from  the  place  where  I spoke, 
one  of  the  Independent  teachers  began  to  make  a jangling, 
and  Captain  Stoddard  being  with  me,  said,  ‘ Stand  up  again, 
George  ’,  for  I was  going  away  and  did  not  at  the  first 


^ James  Parnell  (1636-1656),  Quaker  martyr,  died  in  Colchester 
Castle,  but  not  until  the  following  year. 

^ Held  near  the  end  of  July,  1655. 

3 At  Lexden,  29th  July,  1655. 


214  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

hear  them.  So  I stood  up  again,  and  after  a while  the 
Lord’s  power  came  over  them  and  they  were  confounded 
and  the  Lord’s  Truth  came  over  all.  And  a great  flock  of 
sheep  has  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  in  that  country  that  feeds 
in  his  pasture  of  life. 

And  from  thence  I went  to  a place  near  Colchester  where 
the  First-day  we  had  a mighty  meeting  and  the  Lord’s 
power  came  over  all,  and  people  were  mightily  satisfied  and 
they  were  turned  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ’s  free  teaching, 
and  they  received  it  gladly:  and  many  of  these  people  were 
of  the  stock  of  the  martyrs. 

And  as  I went  through  Colchester  I v/ent  to  visit  James 
Parnell  in  prison,  but  the  cruel  gaoler  would  hardly  let 
us  come  in  or  stay  with  him. 

Now  the  manner  of  his  casting  into  prison  was  thus: 
he  was  at  a meeting  at  Coggeshall  aforesaid  and  the 
Independent  justices  and  priests^  then  kept  a fast-day  there 
and  they  sent  for  James  from  the  meeting  into  the  steeple- 
house;  and  when  he  came  in,  under  a pretence  to  reason 
with  him  and  to  dispute  with  him,  a justice  of  the  peace 
clapped  him  on  the  back  and  said  he  arrested  him  and  so 
sent  him  to  the  gaol. 

And  there  the  gaoler’s  wife  threatened  to  have  his  blood, 
and  there  they  did  destroy  him  as  before  is  mentioned,  [and] 
as  in  the  book  of  his  life  and  death^  may  be  more  fully  seen. 

And  from  thence  I came  to  Ipswich  where  we  had  a little 
meeting  but  exceeding  rude;  but  the  Lord’s  power  came 
over  them  and  I said  after  the  meeting  if  any  had  a desire  j 
to  hear  further  they  might  come  to  the  inn.  And  there 
came  in  a company  of  rude  butchers  that  had  abused 
Friends,  but  the  Lord’s  power  so  chained  them  that  they 
could  not  do  mischief.  And  I writ  and  gave  forth  a paper  ! 
to  the  town  warning  them  of  the  day  of  the  Lord  and  to 
repent  of  the  evil  they  lived  in,  and  turning  them  to  Christ 
their  teacher  and  way,  and  from  their  own  hireling  teachers. 

^ John  Sams,  Independent  vicar  of  Coggeshall. 

^ See  p.  163  ante,  and  in  The  Lamb's  Defence  against  Lies  . . ,, 
1656. 


IN  NORFOLK 


1655] 


215 


And  from  thence  vve  passed  to  Mendlesham  in  Suffolk 
where  Robert  Duncon  and  his  wife  lived,  where  we  had  a 
large  meeting  that  was  quiet,  and  the  Lord’s  power  was 
over  all. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  to  Captain  Lawrence^  where 
it  was  judged  there  was  above  a thousand  people,  and 
a-many  people  of  quality  were  there.  And  a great  con- 
vincement  there  was,  they  being  turned  to  Christ  their  way 
and  their  teacher;  and  they  sit  under  him  their  vine  to  this 
day.  And  all  was  quiet.  And  there  we  left  Amor  Stoddard 
and  some  more  Friends  to  meet  us  again  in  Huntingdon- 
shire. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  about  the  second  hour  in 
the  morning  to  Norwich  where  Christopher  Atkinson  that 
dirty  man,  had  run  out  and  brought  dishonour  upon  the 
Lord’s  Truth  and  his  nam.e;  but  he  was  judged  and  denied 
by  Friends,  and  he  after  gave  forth  a paper  of  condem- 
nation of  his  sin  and  evil. 

And  so  we  came  to  Yarmouth  and  stayed  there  a while, 
where  there  was  a Friend  one  Thomas  Bond  in  prison 
for  the  Truth  of  Christ.  And  there  we  had  some  service 
for  the  Lord,  and  some  were  turned  to  the  Lord  in  that 
town. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  to  another  town  about  twenty 
miles  off  and  there  were  many  tender  people  in  that  town, 
and  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  as  I sat  upon  my  horse  to 
speak  to  the  people  in  several  places  as  I passed  alongst. 

And  from  thence  we  went  about  five  miles  to  another 
town,  and  so  we  went  to  an  inn  and  set  up  our  horses, 
having  travelled  forty  five  miles  that  day,  Richard  Hubber- 
thorne  being  with  me.  And  there  were  some  Friendly 
people  in  the  town,  and  we  had  a tender,  broken  meeting 
amongst  them  in  the  Lord’s  power,  to  his  praise.  And  we 
bade  the  hostler  to  have  our  horses  ready  by  three  of  the 
clock  in  the  morning  for  we  were  to  ride  to  Lynn  about 
thirty  three  miles  next  morning.  But  when  we  were  in 
bed  at  our  inn,  about  eleven  o’clock  at  night  came  in  the 

^ Captain  John  Lawrence  of  Wramplingham,  near  Norwich. 


216  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

constable  and  officers  with  a great  rabble  of  people  into  the 
inn,  and  said  they  were  come  to  search  for  two  horsemen 
that  rid  upon  grey  horses  and  in  grey  clothes,  with  a hue 
and  cry  to  apprehend  us,  from  a justice,  who  lived  near 
that  town  about  five  miles  off  where  I had  spoken  to  the 
people  in  the  street  as  I passed  along,  a house  having 
been  broken  the  Seventh-day  at  night. 

And  so  they  set  a guard  with  forks  and  pikes  upon  us 
that  night  and  made  many  of  those  friendly  people  to 
watch  us  with  others.  And  we  told  them  we  were  honest 
and  innocent  men  and  scorned  and  abhorred  such  things. 
And  the  next  day  we  were  up  betimes  and  the  constable 
with  his  guard  carried  us  before  a Justice  of  Peace  about 
five  miles  off.  And  we  took  two  or  three  of  the  sufficient 
men  of  the  town  with  us  that  had  been  with  us  at  Captain 
Lawrence’s  at  the  great  meeting,  and  they  could  testify 
that  I lay  the  Seventh-day  and  the  First-day  night  at  Captain 
Lawrence’s.  For  they  said  the  house  was  broken  up  the 
Seventh-day  night. 

Now  when  I was  brought  a prisoner  to  London^  to  the 
Mermaid  and  had  before  Oliver,  this  Captain  Lawrence 
brought  to  me  about  ten  Independent  justices,  and  a great 
deal  of  discourse  I had  with  them  that  grieved  them,  for 
they  pleaded  for  imperfection  and  sin  as  long  as  they  lived 
and  did  not  like  to  hear  of  Christ’s  teaching  his  people 
himself,  and  making  people  as  clean  here  whilst  upon  the 
earth  as  Adam  and  Eve  were  before  they  fell. 

So  they  had  plotted  together  this  mischief  against  me  in 
the  country,  and  pretended  and  forged  that  a house  was 
broken,  and  so  sent  this  hue  and  cry  after  me;  their  malice 
was  so  against  the  righteous  and  the  just.  And  they  were 
vexed  and  troubled  to  hear  of  the  great  meeting  at  John 
Lawrence’s  aforesaid  for  there  was  a Colonel  convinced 
there  that  day  that  lived  and  died  in  the  Truth.  But  the 
constable  and  his  guard  carried  Richard  Hubberthorne 
and  me  to  the  justice  about  five  miles  off  (as  aforesaid),  in 

^ This  paragraph  refers  to  Fox’s  removal  to  London  in  February, 
1655;  see  p.  193  ante. 


1655]  ‘the  forged  hue  and  cry’  217 

our  way  towards  Lynn,  who  was  not  an  Independent 
justice  as  the  rest.  And  when  we  were  brought  before 
him  he  began  to  be  angry  because  we  would  not  put  off  our 
hats  to  him,  and  I told  him  I had  been  before  the  Protector 
and  he  was  not  offended  at  my  hat,  and  why  should  he  be 
offended  at  it  who  was  but  one  of  his  servants.  So  he  read 
the  forged  hue  and  cry  for  the  pretended  house-breaking. 
And  the  constable  told  him  that  we  had  good  horses  and 
if  it  pleased  him  he  would  carry  us  to  Norwich  Gaol. 

But  I told  the  justice  that  that  night  they  pretended  the 
house  was  broken  I was  at  Captain  Lawrence’s  and  these 
men  could  testify  the  truth  thereof ; and  the  justice,  after 
examination  of  us  and  them,  said  he  was  sorry  he  had  no 
more  against  us,  for  he  believed  we  were  not  the  men  that 
had  broken  the  house;  but  we  told  him  he  ought  not  to  be 
sorry  for  not  having  evil  against  us,  but  rather  be  glad, 
for  to  rejoice  when  he  got  evil  against  people  for  house- 
breaking and  the  like,  that  was  not  a good  mind  in  him. 

So  it  was  a good  while  before  he  would  resolve  either 
to  let  us  go  or  send  us  to  prison,  and  the  wicked  constable 
stirred  him  up  as  aforesaid;  but  after  we  had  admonished 
him  to  fear  the  Lord  God  in  his  day,  and  he  confessed  we 
were  not  the  men,  he  let  us  go.  And  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  him  and  their  snare  was  broken. 

And  after,  a great  people  came  out  of  that  town  to  the 
Lord:  where  I was  moved  to  speak  to  them  in  the  street 
and  from  whence  this  hue  and  cry  came. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  to  Lynn,  and  came  there 
about  three  o’clock  in  the  afternoon,  and  set  up  our  horses; 
and  we  lighted  on  Joseph  Fuce  who  was  an  ensign;  and 
we  bid  him  speak  to  as  many  people  of  the  town  that  feared 
God,  and  the  officers  and  captains,  to  come  together. 
And  we  had  a very  glorious  meeting  amongst  them  and 
turned  them  to  the  spirit  of  God  by  which  they  might  know 
God  and  Christ  and  know  the  Scriptures  and  so  to  learn 
of  God  and  Christ  as  the  prophets  and  apostles  did,  and 
many  were  convinced  there  that  day.  And  it  became 
a fine  meeting  that  sits  under  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ’s 


2i8  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

teaching  and  is  come  off  the  hirelings.  And  so  we  desired 
Joseph  Fuce  to  get  us  the  gates  opened  by  three  o’clock 
in  the  morning,  it  being  a garrison,  for  we  had  forty  miles 
to  ride  the  next  day. 

And  so  about  the  eleventh  or  twelfth  hour  the  next  day 
we  came  to  a town  near  the  Isle  of  Ely  called  Sutton  where 
Amor  Stoddard  and  his  company  met  us  again.  And  a 
multitude  of  people  was  gathered  there  and  there  were 
four  priests  and  the  priest  of  the  town,^  and  a great  jangle 
he  made,  but  the  Lord’s  power  so  confounded  him  that 
he  passed  away.  And  the  other  three  priests  stayed, 
whereof  one  was  convinced. 

And  one  of  the  other  two,  whilst  I was  speaking,  came 
to  lean  upon  me : and  I bid  him  sit  down  seeing  he  was  so 
slothful.  And  a great  convincement  there  was  that  day; 
and  many  hundreds  were  turned  from  the  darkness  to  the 
light  and  from  the  power  of  Satan  unto  God,  and  from  the 
spirit  of  error  to  the  spirit  of  truth  to  lead  them  into  all 
truth.  And  people  came  to  this  meeting  from  Huntingdon 
and  beyond,  and  the  mayor’s  wife  of  Cambridge,^  and  they 
were  settled  under  Christ’s  teaching  and  knew  him  their 
shepherd  to  feed  them,  and  they  died  in  Truth.  And  a 
glorious  meeting  it  was,  and  the  word  of  life  was  freely 
declared  and  gladly  received.  And  the  meeting  ended  in 
the  power  of  the  Lord  and  in  peace.  And  after  it  was  done 
I walked  away  and  desired  them  to  give  our  horses  some 
provender  for  we  had  ridden  a great  way,  and  I walked 
up  into  a garden  and  a Friend  came  to  me  and  said  several 
justices  were  come  to  break  up  the  meeting;  but  many 
people  were  gone  away,  so  they  missed  their  design;  and 
after  they  had  stayed  awhile  they  passed  away  in  a fret. 

And  after  this  I passed  to  Cambridge  that  evening,  and 
when  I came  into  the  town  ^it  was  all  in  an  uproar,  hearing 
of  my  coming,^  and  the  scholars  were  up,  and  were  exceed- 
ing rude.  But  I kept  on  my  horse-back  and  rid  through 

^ William  Hunt. 

2 Samuel  Spalding  was  mayor  in  1655. 

a a S.J.,  p.  40. 


1655]  ‘scholars  exceeding  rude’  219 

them  in  the  Lord’s  power.  ‘ Oh  ! ’ said  they,  ‘ he  shines, 
he  glisters  ! ’ but  they  unhorsed  Captain  Amor  Stoddard 
before  he  could  get  to  the  inn;  and  when  we  were  in  the 
inn  they  were  exceeding  rude  in  the  inn,  and  in  the  courts 
and  in  the  streets.  The  miners,  and  colliers,  and  cartmen 
could  never  be  ruder. 

And  there  John  Crook  met  us  at  the  inn.  And  the  people 
of  the  house  asked  me  what  I would  have  for  supper,  as  is 
the  usual  v/ay  of  inns.  ‘ Supper  ’,  said  I,  ‘ were  it  not 
that  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  these  rude  scholars  it  looked 
as  if  they  would  make  a supper  of  us  and  pluck  us  to  pieces  ’ ; 
for  they  knew  I was  so  against  their  trade,  which  they  were 
there  as  apprentices  to  learn,  the  trade  of  preaching,  that 
they  raged  as  bad  as  ever  Diana’s  craftsmen  did  against 
Paul. 

And  within  night  ^an  alderman  who  was  a Friend  came 
to  the  inn  to  us,  the  people  thronging  up  into  the  very 
chamber  door  in  the  inn.  And  after  a while,  I passed 
through  all  the  multitude^  to  his  house.  And  as  I walked 
through  the  streets  all  the  town  was  up,  but  they  did  not 
know  me,  it  was  darkish.  But  they  were  in  a rage  not  only 
against  me,  but  against  him  also,  so  that  he  was  almost 
afraid  to  walk  the  streets  with  me  for  the  tumult.  So 
when  I came  into  his  house  we  sent  for  all  the  friendly 
people,  and  had  a ^sweet  heavenly^  meeting  in  the  power 
of  God  amongst  them,  and  there  I stayed  all  night. 

And  the  next  morning  I ordered  my  horse  to  be  ready 
saddled  by  the  sixth  hour  in  the  morning  and  so  we  passed 
out  of  town,  and  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all.  And  the 
destroyers  were  frustrated  the  next  morning,  for  they 
thought  I would  have  stayed  in  the  town  and  they  thought 
to  have  done  us  mischief.  And  so  we  passed  through  the 
countries  to  Bishop  Stortford  and  there  were  some  con- 
vinced, and  so  to  Hertford  where  there  are  some  convinced 
also  and  are  become  a fine  meeting. 

And  so  from  thence  we  returned  back  to  London,  where 
Friends  gladly  received  us,  and  the  Lord’s  power  carried  us 

^ b S.J.,  p.  40. 


220  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

through  many  snares  and  dangers  and  we  had  great  service 
for  the  Lord.  And  many  hundreds  were  turned  to  sit 
under  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  their  saviour’s  teaching  and 
to  praise  the  Lord  through  him. 

And  then  we  stayed  at  London  awhile  visiting  Friends, 
and  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  all.  And  James  Nayler 
was  come  up  to  London.  And  we  had  great  disputes 
with  professors  of  all  sorts  and  many  reproaches  they  cast 
upon  Truth,  and  lying  slanderous  books  they  gave  forth 
against  us,  but  we  answered  them  all  and  cleared  God’s 
Truth  and  set  it  over  them  all.  The  wicked  priests,  Presby- 
terians and  Independents,  raised  lies  upon  us,  as  that  we 
should  carry  bottles  which  we  gave  people  to  drink  which 
made  them  follow  us.^ 

And  this  year  came  out  the  Oath  of  Abjuration  from 
Oliver  Protector,^  by  which  many  Friends  suffered.  And 
several  Friends  went  to  speak  with  him  but  he  began  to 
harden.  < And  sufferings  increasing  upon  Friends  by  reason 
that  envious  magistrates  made  use  of  that  oath  as  a snare 
to  catch  Friends  in,  who,  they  knew  could  not  swear  at  all,) 
thereupon  a paper  was  given  forth  to  the  magistrates  as  ; 
folio  weth : I 

A Paper  of  George  Fox’s  to  Oliver  Protector  concerning  his  f 
making  people  to  suffer  for  not  taking  the  Oath  of  Abjura-  | 
tion.  1655.  i 

The  magistrate  is  not  to  bear  the  sword  in  vain,  which  is  a ' 
terror  to  the  evil  doers,  but  the  magistrates  bearing  the  sword  in  I 
vain,  are  not  a terror  to  evil  doers,  so  they  are  not  a praise  to  | 
them  that  do  well.  So  God  hath  raised  up  a people  v/ith  his 
spirit,  whom  people  and  priests  and  magistrates  without  the 
fear  of  God  scornfully  call  Quakers,  which  do  cry  against 
^ Ellwood  editions  here  print  a paper,  To  those  that  made  a scorn  of 
Trembling  and  Quaking,  Ellwood  ed.,  1694,  pp.  156-60;  Bicent.,  i,  ‘ 
238-43.  It  had  in  fact  already  been  published  as  a tract  in  1654. 
And  another  entitled.  An  Epistle  to  Churches  gathered  into  outward 
forms  upon  the  Earth,  Ellwood  ed.,  1694,  pp.  161-3;  Bicent.,  i,  243-6. 

2 On  26th  April,  1655,  a Proclamation  required  persons  suspected 
to  be  Roman  Catholics  to  take  an  oath  abjuring  papal  authority  and  | 
doctrine,  upon  pain  of  imprisonment  and  forfeiture  of  estate.  This  j 
occurred  at  the  time  of  Fox’s  visit  to  London,  recorded  on  p.  209.  i 


1655]  A PAPER  TO  THE  PROTECTOR  221 

drunkenness,  for  such  are  they  that  destroy  God’s  creatures; 
and  do  cry  against  oaths,  for  because  of  such  the  land  mourns, 
and  they  we  see  are  at  liberty,  to  which  the  sword  should  be  a 
terror;  and  for  crying  against  such  are  many  cast  into  prison 
. . . The  royal  law  of  Christ  is  trodden  under  foot,  to  do  as 
you  would  be  done  by;  so  that  men  can  profess  him  in  words 
and  talk,  but  crucify  him  wheresoever  he  appears,  and  cast 
him  into  prison,  as  the  talkers  of  him  always  did  in  the  genera- 
tions and  ages  past. 

If  men  fearing  God  and  men  of  courage  did  bear  the  sword, 
and  covetousness  were  hated,  then  that  would  be  a terror  to 
evil  doers  and  a praise  to  them  that  do  well,  and  not  cause  them 
to  suffer.  Here  equity  would  be  heard  in  our  land,  and  righteous- 
ness would  stand  up  and  take  place,  which  gives  not  place  to 
the  unrighteous,  but  judgeth  it.  To  the  measure  of  God  in 
thee  I speak,  to  consider,  ...  for  whom  thou  dost  rule,  that  thou 
mayest  receive  power  from  God  for  him  to  rule,  and  all  that  is 
contrary  to  God  may  be  with  his  light  condemned. 

From  a lover  of  thy  soul  and  eternal  good, 

G.F.^ 

<But  sufferings  and  imprisonments  continuing  and 
increasing,  and  the  Protector  (under  whose  name  they  were 
inflicted)  hardening  himself  against  the  complaints  that  were 
made  unto  him,  I was  moved  to  give  forth  the  following 
lines  amongst  Friends,  to  bring  the  weight  of  their  sufferings 
more  heavy  upon  the  heads  of  the  persecutors:) 

Who  is  moved  by  the  power  of  the  Lord  to  go  lie  in  prison 
and  offer  himself  to  the  justice  for  his  brother  or  sister  that  lies 
in  prison,  that  his  brother  or  sister  may  come  forth  of  prison, 
and  so  to  lay  down  his  life  for  his  brother  or  sister  ? . . . If 
any  brother  in  the  light  ...  be  moved  of  the  Lord  to  go  to 
the  priest  or  to  the  justice  or  impropriator,  to  lie  in  prison  for 
his  brother,  ...  he  may  cheerfully  do  it,  and  heap  coals  of  fire 
upon  the  head  of  the  adversaries  of  God.  Or  likewise  any  that 
suffer  for  the  Truth  by  them  who  be  in  the  untruth  . . .,  as  Christ 
hath  laid  down  his  life  for  you,  so  lay  down  your  lives  one  for 
another.  Hence  you  may  go  over  the  heads  of  the  persecutors, 
and  reach  the  witness  of  God  in  them  all  . . . And  this  shall 

^ In  full,  Camb.  JriL,  i,  192-4;  Ellwood,  pp.  163-5;  Bicent.,  i,  246-8. 


222  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

lay  a judgment  upon  them  all  for  ever,  and  be  witnesses  to  that 
in  their  consciences  for  ever. 

G.F.^ 

<Besides  this,  1 writ  also  a short  epistle  to  Friends, 
as  an  encouragement  to  them  in  their  several  exercises.)^ 

And  after  a while  I passed  down  through  the  countries 
to  Bedfordshire  and  Northamptonshire.  And  at  Welling- 
borough I had  a great  meeting,  and  the  Lord’s  everlasting 
power  and  truth  was  over  all.  And  many  in  that  country 
were  turned  to  the  Lord,  though  a great  rage  was  amongst 
the  professors,  but  the  power,  and  spirit,  and  truth  of 
God  kept  Friends  over  the  rage  of  people;  and  great  spoiling 
of  goods  there  was  upon  Friends  for  tithes  by  the  Indepen- 
dent and  Presbyterian  priests  and  some  Baptist  priests 
that  had  gotten  into  steeplehouses,  as  the  books  of  sufferings 
will  declare.  So  I went  into  Leicestershire  v/here  Colonel 
Hacker  said  if  I came  down  there  he  would  imprison  me 
again,  though  Oliver  Protector  had  set  me  at  liberty; 
but  I came  down  to  Whetstone  where  his  troopers  had 
taken  me  before;  and  Colonel  Hacker’s  wife^  and  his 
marshall  came  to  the  meeting  and  were  convinced.  And 
the  glorious,  powerful  day  of  the  Lord  was  set  over  all, 
and  many  were  convinced  that  day  at  that  meeting,  where 
were  two  Justices  of  Peace,  Peter  Price  and  Walter  Jenkins, 
that  came  out  of  Wales,  that  were  convinced  and  came 
to  be  ministers  of  Christ. 

So  I passed  from  thence  to  Sileby  to  William  Smyth’s 
where  there  was  a great  meeting  and  there  came  several 
Baptists;  and  there  was  one  of  their  Baptist  teachers  con- 
vinced that  said  he  had  baptized  thirty  of  a day,  and  came  to 
the  Lord’s  teaching  by  his  spirit  and  power. 

And  I passed  from  thence  to  Drayton  my  native  town 
where  all  the  priests  and  professors  had  gathered  so  much 
against  me,  through  which  I was  sent  to  Oliver,  and  never 

^ George  Fox  Papers  (x),  p.  99;  also  printed  in  Ellwood,  p.  165; 
Bicent.,  i,  248,  249. 

2 Printed,  Ellwood,  p.  166;  Bicent.,  i,  249. 

3 Isabel  Flacker,  formerly  Brunts. 


1655]  ‘out  of  their  snares’  223 

a priest  or  professor  did  appear.  And  I asked  some  of 
my  relations  where  were  all  the  priests  and  professors 
now,  and  they  said  that  the  priest  of  Nuneaton  was  dead 
and  there  were  eight  or  nine  of  them  seeking  to  get  into  his 
benefice,  and,  ‘ They  will  let  you  alone  now,  for  they  are 
like  a company  of  crows,  when  a rotten  sheep  is  dead, 
they  all  gather  together  to  pluck  out  his  puddings,  and  so 
do  the  priests  for  a fallen  benefice.’  And  these  were  some 
of  their  own  hearers  said  so  of  them.  So  they  had  spent 
their  venom  against  me,  and  the  Lord  delivered  me  by  his 
power  out  of  their  snares. 

And  then  I went  to  Baddesley^  where  there  was  a great 
meeting  from  many  parts,  and  many  came  far  to  it.  And 
many  were  convinced  and  turned  to  the  Lord,  and  they  that 
were  convinced  came  under  Christ’s  teaching  and  were 
settled  upon  him,  their  foundation  and  their  rock.  And 
from  thence  I passed  into  Nottinghamshire  and  had  large 
meetings  there,  and  so  into  Derbyshire  where  the  Lord’s 
power  came  over  all,  and  many  were  turned  from  the 
darkness  to  the  light  and  from  the  power  of  Satan  unto  God 
and  came  to  receive  the  Holy  Ghost;  and  great  miracles 
by  the  power  of  the  Lord  were  done  in  many  places  by 
several. 

And  there  James  Nayler  met  me  in  Derbyshire  where 
seven  or  eight  priests  had  challenged  him  to  a dispute. 
And  I had  a travail  in  my  spirit  for  him  and  the  Lord 
answered  me.  And  I was  moved  to  bid  him  go  on,  and 
that  God  Almighty  would  go  with  him  and  give  him  the 
victory  in  his  power.  And  so  the  Lord  did,  that  all  the 
people  saw  the  priests  were  nothing  and  foiled,  and  cried, 

‘ A Nayler,  a Nayler,  hath  confuted  them  all.’  So  after, 
he  came  to  me  again,  praising  the  Lord. 

And  so  the  Lord’s  day  was  proclaimed  and  set  over  all: 
and  people  began  to  see  the  apostacy  and  slavery  they  had 
been  in,  under  their  hireling  teachers  for  means;  and  they 
came  to  know  their  teacher  the  Lord  Jesus  who  had  bought 

^ Baddesley  Ensor,  near  Atherstone.  Fox  was  there  6th  November, 
1655.  {Ann.  Cata.  165a.) 


224  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

them  and  purchased  them  and  made  their  peace  betwixt 
them  and  God.  And  Friends  came  out  of  Yorkshire 
to  see  us  and  were  glad  of  the  prosperity  of  Truth. 

And  after  this  I passed  into  Warwickshire  through 
Friends,  visiting  their  meetings,  and  so  into  Worcestershire. 
And  I had  a meeting  at  Birmingham  as  I went,  where  there 
were  several  convinced  and  turned  to  the  Lord  and  stand 
to  this  day. 

And  I came  to  one  Cole’s^  house  in  Worcestershire,  near 
Chadwick,^  who  gave  an  Independent  preacher  a meeting 
place.  And  the  Independent  came  to  be  convinced. 
And  a great  meeting  it  was ; and  the  meeting  place  would  not 
hold  the  people,^  and  many  were  turned  to  the  Lord  that 
day.  And  this  Cole,  the  old  man,  gave  the  Independent 
preacher  a hundred  pounds  a year  when  he  was  convinced. 
But  after  he  was  convinced  he  laid  aside  his  preaching. 
And  then  the  time  of  trials  came,  and  this  Independent 
did  not  stand  to  that  which  did  convince  him  but  turned 
back;  and  then  the  old  Cole  took  away  his  hundred  pounds 
a year  from  him  again.  And  the  old  man  died  in  God’s 
Truth. 

And  I heard  at  Evesham  that  the  magistrates  there  had 
cast  several  of  my  friends  in  prison.  And  they  had  heard 
of  my  coming  and  they  made  a pair  of  stocks  a yard  and  a 
half  high  with  a trap  door  to  come  to  them.  And  I sent 
for  Edward  Pittway,^  a Friend,  that  lived  near  Evesham 
and  he  came  to  me  about  fifteen  miles  and  I asked  him  the 
truth  of  the  thing,  and  he  said  it  was  so.  And  that  night 
I went  back  again  with  him  to  Evesham;  and  at  night  we 
had  a large  precious  meeting  and  Friends  and  people  were 
refreshed  with  the  word  of  life  and  the  power  of  the  Lord. 
And  the  next  morning  I got  up  and  rid  to  one  of  the  prisons 
and  visited  Friends  and  encouraged  them;  and  then  I rid 
to  the  other  prison  where  there  were  several  in  prison, 

^ Anthony  Cole. 

2 3 miles  from  Bromsgrove. 

3 Fox  preached  on  the  hill  side.  {F.P.T.) 

^ Edward  Pittway  lived  at  Bengeworth. 


1655]  WORCESTER  AND  TEWKESBURY  225 

and  one  Friend,  Humphrey  Smith,  that  had  been  a priest, 
but  was  become  a fine  minister  of  Christ.  And  as  I was 
turned  away  from  the  prison  and  going  out  of  town  I espied 
the  magistrates  coming  up  the  town  to  have  seized  on 
me  in  prison,  but  the  Lord  frustrated  their  intent  that  the 
innocent  escaped  their  snare  and  the  Lord  God’s  blessed 
power  came  over  them  all. 

And  exceeding  rude  and  envious  were  the  priests  and 
professors  about  this  time,  as  the  books  of  the  sufferings 
of  Friends  at  this  Evesham  do  show  it.^ 

And  as  I was  going.  Friends  asked  me  whither  I would  go, 
and  I told  them  to  Worcester,  and  when  we  came  to  Wor- 
cester we  went  to  an  inn  and  had  a precious  meeting  and 
quiet:  and  so  as  we  came  down  the  street,  some  of  the 
professors  fell  a-discoursing  with  Friends  and  like  to  have 
made  a mutiny  in  the  city.  And  as  we  went  into  the  inn 
they  all  cluttered  in  the  yard,  but  I went  down  amongst 
them  and  got  them  quieted;  and  the  next  day  I went  into 
the  town  and  had  a great  deal  of  discourse  with  some 
professors  concerning  Christ  and  Truth,  one  of  which 
denied  that  Christ  according  to  the  flesh  was  of  Abraham 
and  that  according  to  the  spirit  he  was  declared  the  son  of 
God,  unto  which  I answered  that  he  was  of  the  seed  of 
Abraham  and  made  of  the  seed  of  David  according  to  the 
flesh;  and  according  to  the  spirit  declared  to  be  the  Son 
of  God  as  in  Romans  i.  And  after,  I writ  a paper  to  it. 

And  so  from  thence  I went  to  Tewkesbury.  And  at 
night  I had  a great  meeting  and  there  came  in  their  priest 
with  a great  deal  of  rabble  and  rude  people,  and  the  priest 
boasted  he  would  see  whether  he  or  I should  have  the 
victory.  And  I turned  the  people  to  the  divine  Light  which 
Christ  the  heavenly  and  spiritual  man  had  enlightened 
them  withal;  that  with  that  Light  they  might  see  their  sins 
and  how  that  they  were  in  death  and  darkness  and  without 
God  in  the  world ; and  with  the  same  Light  they  might  see 
Christ  from  whence  it  came,  their  Saviour  and  Redeemer, 
who  had  shed  his  blood  for  them  and  died  for  them ; who  was 

^ The  Sufferings^  Tryals  and  Purgings  of  the  Saints  at  Evesham,  n.d. 


226  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

their  way  to  God,  their  truth,  and  life.  And  the  priest 
began  to  rage  against  the  Light  and  denied  it,  and  so  went 
away;  for  the  light  of  Christ  they  could  not  endure  to  hear 
speak  of,  neither  priest  nor  professor;  and  so  he  left  his 
rude  company  amongst  us.  But  the  Lord’s  power  came 
over  them,  though  mischief  was  in  their  hearts. 

And  from  Tewkesbury  we  passed  back  again  through  the 
country  to  Warv/ick  and  went  to  an  inn;  and  at  night  had  a 
meeting  at  a widow  woman’s  house  where  many  sober 
people  came  together.  And  a precious  meeting  we  had  in 
the  Lord’s  power,  and  several  were  convinced  and  turned 
to  the  Lord  and  stand  there  to  this  day.  And  after  the 
meeting  was  done,  as  I was  walking  out  some  of  the  Baptists 
began  to  jangle,  and  the  bailiff  of  the  town  and  his  officers 
came  in  and  said,  ‘ What  do  these  people  here  at  this  time 
of  night  ? ’ And  so  he  secured  Justice  John  Crook,  and 
Captain  Amor  Stoddard,  and  me,  and  Gerard  Roberts,  a 
merchant  of  London,^  but  we  had  leave  to  go  to  our  inn,  all 
that  were  strangers,  and  were  to  come  forth  in  the  morning. 
And  the  next  morning  there  came  a-many  rude  people  into 
the  inn  and  into  our  chambers,  desperate  fellows,  but  the 
Lord’s  power  gave  us  dominion  over  them.  And  Gerard 
Roberts  and  John  Crook  went  up  to  the  bailiff  to  speak 
with  him  and  to  know  what  he  had  to  say  to  us,  and  he 
said  we  might  go  our  ways : he  had  little  to  say  to  us.  And 
it  lay  upon  me  as  we  rid  out  of  town  to  ride  to  his  house, 
and  Friends  went  with  me  to  speak  to  him  and  to  tell  him 
how  that  Oliver  Protector  had  given  forth  an  Instrument 
of  Government  in  which  liberty  of  conscience  was  granted; 
and  it  was  very  much  that  he  would  trouble  peaceable 
people  that  feared  God,  contrary  to  the  Instrument  of 
Government. 

^And  the  town  rose  up  against  us  in  the  open  street,"^ 
and  the  rude  people  gathered  about  us  and  got  stones,  and 
one  of  them  took  hold  upon  my  horse  bridle.  horse 

^ Gerard  Roberts  (c.  162M703),  wine  cooper,  whose  house  was 
often  a rendezvous  for  Quaker  leaders  in  London. 

® S.J.,  p.  41, 


i 

! 

I 

I 

? 

i 

1 

I 

1 

? 

■ I ■ 


1655]  CUDGELS  AND  STONES  AT  WARWICK  227 

being  a strong  horse  turned  his  head,  and  turned  the  man 
under  his  feet,  so  he  hung  upon  the  bridle^^  and  broke  it. 
^And  there  came  another  man  or  tv/o  to  throw  stones  at 
my  face ; and  they  were  stopped  and  were  made  to  loose  the 
other  man’s  hands  that  hung  at  the  horse  bridle.  And 
as  we  rode  through  the  streets  people  fell  upon  us  with 
cudgels  and  stones  and  much  abused  us,*^  throwing  stones 
I and  striking  at  us.  And  the  bailiff  did  not  stop  or  so 
much  as  rebuke  the  rude  multitude,  so  that  it  was  much 
we  were  not  slain  in  the  streets  among  them,  '^And  when 
we  were  ridden  quite  through  the  town  I was  moved  of 
the  Lord  to  go  back  again  into  the  street  to  offer  up  my  life 
among  them,  and  said  to  Friends  whoever  found  freedom 
might  follow  me,^  and  they  that  did  not  might  go  on  to 
Duncow.^  And  John  Crook  followed  me,  declaring  the 
word  of  life  to  them.  ^So  I passed  up  the  street,  and  people 
fell  upon  me  with  their  cudgels  and  abused  me  and  struck 
me  and  threw  my  horse  down,  yet  by  the  power  of  the  Lord 
I passed  through  them,  and  called  upon  the  town  and  shop- 
keepers and  told  them  of  their  immodest  state,  how  they 
were  a shame  to  Christians  and  the  profession  of  Chris- 
tianity."^ 

And  from  thence  I passed  to  Coventry,  and  when  we 
came  there  they  were  closed  up  with  darkness.  I went  to  a 
professor’s  house  that  I had  formerly  tabled  at,  and  he  was 
drunk.  And  it  grieved  my  soul  so  as  I did  not  go  into  any 
house  in  the  tov/n,  but  rid  into  some  streets  of  the  town  and 
into  the  market  place;  and  set  the  power  of  the  Lord  over 
the  town,  "^and  so  passed  away  to  Daventry,  where  I had 
some  jangling  with  priests."^ 

And  from  thence  I came  to  Duncow  and  there  I had  a 
meeting  at  night;  and  there  were  some  turned  to  the  Lord 
by  his  spirit,  and  many  at  Warwick  and  Tewkesbury  before 
mentioned. 

So  we  lay  at  the  Duncow^  all  night  and  there  we  met 

^ Now  Dunchurch. 

^ Probably  the  inn  with  the  sign  of  the  Dun  Cow. 

S./.,  p.  41. 


228  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

with  John  Camm,  a faithful  minister.  In  the  morning 
there  was  gathered  a rude  company  of  priests  and  people; 
and  they  behaved  themselves  more  like  beasts  than  men, 
for  some  of  them  came  riding  a-horseback  into  the  room 
where  we  were,  but  the  Lord  gave  us  dominion  over  them 
all.  And  we  came  into  Leicestershire  where  we  had  a great 
meeting  again  at  the  place  where  I was  taken  aforesaid;  ' 
and  so  back  into  Warwickshire  to  Baddesley. 

<Here  William  Edmondson,  a Friend  that  lived  in  Ireland, 
had  some  drawings  upon  his  spirit  to  come  over  into 
England  to  see  me,  and  by  him  I writ  a few  lines  to  the  few 
Friends  then  convinced  in  the  north  of  Ireland,  as  follows : 
Friends, 

In  that  which  convinced  you  wait,  that  you  may  have  that 
removed  you  are  convinced  of.  And  all  my  dear  Friends,  dwell 
in  the  life  and  love  and  power  and  wisdom  of  God,  in  unity  one 
with  another  and  with  God;  and  the  peace  and  wisdom  of  God 
fill  your  hearts,  that  nothing  may  rule  in  you  but  the  life,  which 
stands  in  the  Lord  God.  G.F. 

When  these  few  lines  were  read  among  the  Friends  in 
Ireland  at  their  meeting,  the  power  of  the  Lord  seized 
upon  them  all  that  were  in  the  room.) 

From  Baddesley  we  passed  to  Swannington  and  Higham, 
and  so  through  the  countries  into  Northamptonshire  and 
Bedfordshire,  having  great  meetings,  and  many  were  turned 
to  the  Lord  by  his  power  and  spirit. 

And  we  were  at  a place  called  Baldock  in  Hertfordshire, 
and  I said  to  them,  ‘ Is  there  nothing  in  this  town,  no 
profession  ? ’ And  they  told  me  there  were  some  Baptists 
and  a Baptist  woman  sick,  and  John  Rush  went  along  to 
visit  her.  And  when  we  came  there  were  a-many  people 
in  the  house  that  were  tender  about  her;  and  they  told  me 
she  was  not  a woman  for  this  world,  and  if  I had  anything 
to  comfort  her  concerning  the  world  to  come  I might  speak 
to  her.  So  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  God  to  speak  to  her,  and 

the  Lord  raised  her  up  that  she  was  well,  to  the  astonishment 
of  the  town  andcountry.  Her  husband’sname  was  Baldock.^ 

* Thomas  Baldock. 


1655]  HEALING  AND  PEACE  AT  BALDOCK  229 

And  so  we  went  to  our  inn^  again,  and  there  were  two 
desperate  fellows  fighting  so  that  none  durst  come  nigh 
them  to  part  them,  but  I was  moved  in  the  Lord’s  power 
to  go  to  them,  and  when  I had  loosed  their  hands,  I held 
one  by  one  hand  and  the  other  by  the  other  hand;  and  I 
showed  them  the  evil  of  their  doings,  and  convinced  them, 
and  reconciled  them  each  to  other  that  they  were  loving 
and  very  thankful,  so  that  people  admired  at  it. 

And  this  Baptist  woman  and  her  husband  came  to  be 
convinced;  and  many  hundreds  of  people  have  there  been 
at  meetings  at  their  house  since,  and  great  meetings  and 
convincement  there  was  up  and  down  in  those  parts,  of 
people  that  had  received  the  world  of  life,  and  that  are  come 
under  Christ’s  teaching,  their  saviour. 

And  from  thence  I passed  through  the  country  to  Market 
Street^  where  God  had  a people,  and  to  Albans,  and  so  to 
London,  where  Friends  were  glad  of  the  glorious  prosperity 
of  Truth  and  the  Lord’s  power  that  delivered  and  carried 
us  over  all. 


CHAPTER  X 


AFTER  a while,  when  I had  visited  the  meetings  there 
and  all  things  were  well,  I went  out  of  the  city. 
JL  IL  Only  there  was  one  John  Toldervy  run  out,  who  had 
been  convinced;  and  the  priests  took  occasion  to  make  a 
book  of  it  with  many  lies  to  render  Truth  odious  in  people’s 
eyes  and  minds,  and  intitled  it.  The  Foot  out  of  the  Snare, 
This  man  came  to  see  his  folly  and  answered  the  priests’ 
book^  and  manifested  all  their  lies  and  folly,  and  came  over 
them,  and  died  in  the  Truth;  and  the  Lord’s  power  came 
over  them  all  and  his  everlasting  seed  reigned  and  reigns  to 
this  day.  After  awhile  I went  out  of  the  city  and  left  James 
Nayler  behind  me  in  London.  And  as  I parted  from  him 


^ Probably  the  George  Inn,  known  later  as  the  ‘ Quaker’s  Hostel 
^ Markyate  Street. 

3 In  The  Naked  Truth  laid  open^  1656. 


230  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 

I cast  my  eyes  upon  him,  and  a fear  struck  in  me  concerning  S 
him. 

And  so  we  came  to  Reigate  in  Surrey  where  we  had  a r 
little  meeting.  They  told  me  of  one  Thomas  Moore,  a I 
justice  of  peace,  that  was  a friendly,  moderate  man;  so 
I went  to  his  house^  and  he  was  convinced,  and  he  stands  a - 
faithful  Friend  to  this  day.  From  thence  to  one  Pachin’s,^  • 
where  we  had  a meeting;  several  Friends  came  from  London 
thither  after  me,  and  John  Bolton  and  his  wife  came  a-foot 
some  miles  in  frost  and  snow,  who  were  moved  of  the  Lord 
so  to  do.  After  we  had  parted  from  Friends  we  went 
towards  Horsham  Park^  and  visited  Friends. 

From  thence  we  passed  to  Arundel  and  Chichester,  where 
we  had  meetings.  And  at  Chichester  there  were  many 
professors  came  in  and  some  janglings  there  were,  but  the 
Lord’s  power  was  over  all.  And  the  woman  of  the  house  : 
where  the  meeting  was,  though  she  was  convinced,  she  fell  j 
into  love  with  one  of  the  world  who  was  there  at  that  time.  ■ 

And  after,  I took  her  aside  and  was  moved  to  pray  for  i 
her,  and  to  speak  to  her;  and  a light  thing  got  up  in  her  and 
she  slighted  it.  And  after  she  married  this  man  of  the 
world  she  went  distracted,  for  he  was  greatly  in  debt  and 
she  was  greatly  disappointed ; I was  sent  for  to  her  and  the 
Lord  was  entreated,  and  raised  her  up  again,  and  settled  • 
her  mind  by  his  power;  and  after,  her  husband  died  and  she  j; 
acknowledged  the  just  judgments  of  God  were  come  upon  ^ 
her  for  slighting  my  exhortations  when  I prayed  for  her. 

And  so  we  passed  through  the  country  till  we  came  to 
Portsmouth.  And  there  ^the  guard  bid  me  stand  and  light 
off  my  horse,  where  I was  never  unhorsed  before,  and  the  f 
captain  of  the  guard  proved  to  be  a friendly  man.^  The 
soldiers  had  us  to  the  governor’s  house,  and  after  some 
examination  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  that  we  were 

^ Thomas  Moore  lived  at  Hartswood. 

2 Thomas  Patching  lived  at  Bonwicks  Place  in  [field. 

The  home  of  Bryan  Wilkinson  was  in  a park  at  Sidgwick  Lodge, 
in  Nuthurst  parish,  two  miles  from  Horsham. 

» p.  71. 


1655]  POOLE  AND  DORCHESTEPv  231 

set  at  liberty  and  had  a meeting  in  the  tov/n.  And  so  we 
passed  through  the  countries  to  Ringv/ood,  and  at  night 
we  had  a meeting  there  where  several  were  convinced 
and  turned  to  the  spirit  of  the  Lord  and  Christ  Jesus’ 
teaching,  their  saviour,  and  stand  to  this  day. 

And  from  Ringwood  we  came  to  Poole  and  went  to  an 
inn,  and  sent  into  the  town  to  enquire  for  such  as  feared 
the  Lord  and  who  were  worthy;  and  v/e  had  a meeting 
with  several  sober  people.^  William  Bayly,  a Baptist 
teacher,  was  convinced  there  that  time.  And  the  people 
received  the  Truth  in  the  inward  parts  and  were  turned 
to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  their  rock  and  foundation,  teacher 
and  saviour,  and  to  this  day  continue  under  Christ’s 
teaching;  and  there  is  become  a great  gathering  in  the  name 
of  Jesus  of  a very  tender  people. 

And  we  went  also  to  Southampton  where  we  had  a 
meeting  and  several  were  convinced  there.  And  Edward 
Pyott  passed  with  me  all  this  western  journey. 

And  from  thence  we  came  to  Dorchester  and  we  lighted 
at  an  inn  that  was  a Baptist’s  house;  and  we  sent  into  the 
town  to  the  Baptists  to  let  us  have  their  meeting-house 
to  meet  in,  and  to  invite  the  sober  people  to  the  meeting; 
but  they  denied  us,  and  we  sent  them  word  again  why  would 
they  deny  us  their  synagogue.  And  so  it  was  noised  in  the 
town;  and  we  had  sent  them  word  if  they  would  not  let 
us  come  to  their  house  they  might  come  to  our  inn,  or  any 
people  that  feared  God.  And  they  were  in  a great  rage, 
and  their  teacher  and  many  of  them  came  up  and  they 
slapped  their  Bibles  on  the  table;  and  I asked  them  why 
they  were  so  angry,  were  they  angry  with  the  Bible.  And 
they  fell  into  discourse  about  their  water-baptism,  and 
I asked  them  whether  they  could  say  they  were  sent  of  God 
to  baptize  people,  as  John  was,  and  whether  they  had  the 
same  power  and  spirit  the  apostles  had,  and  they  said  they 
had  not.  Then  I asked  them  how  many  powers  there 
were  whether  there  were  any  more  than  the  power  of  God 
and  the  power  of  the  devil,  and  they  said  there  were  not. 

^ The  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of  Walter  Spurrier,  Baptist. 


232  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655  | 

Then  1 said,  ‘ If  you  have  not  the  power  of  God  as  the  j 
apostles  had  then  you  act  by  the  power  of  the  devil.’ 
There  were  many  sober  people  there  that  said,  ‘ They  have 
thrown  themselves  on  their  backs  and  there  were  many 
substantial  people  convinced  that  night,  and  a precious 
service  we  had  there,  for  the  Lord  and  his  power  came  over 
all.  i 

And  the  next  morning,  as  we  were  passing  away,  the  | 
Baptists  being  in  a rage  began  to  shake  the  dust  off  their  | 
feet  after  us.  ‘ What  ! ’ said  I,  ‘ In  the  power  of  darkness; 
we  which  are  in  the  power  of  God  shake  off  the  dust  of  our 
feet  against  you.’  ^In  Dorsetshire  there  were  but  few  | 
convinced  and  in  some  places  none  at  all.^  | 

So  from  there  we  came  to  Weymouth  where  we  enquired  | 
after  the  sober  people;  and  about  eighty  of  them  gathered  | 
together  at  a priest’s  house,  all  very  sober  people.  And 
they  received  the  word  of  life  and  were  turned  to  their  i 
teacher,  Christ  Jesus,  who  had  enlightened  them,  by  which 
they  might  see  their  sins  and  see  him  who  saved  them  I 
from  their  sins.  And  a blessed  meeting  we  had  with  them 
and  they  received  the  Truth  in  the  love  of  it  with  gladness  ! 
of  heart.  The  meeting  held  for  several  hours.  And  the  | 
state  of  their  teachers  and  the  apostacy  was  opened  to  ! 
them  and  the  state  of  the  apostles  and  the  church  in  their 
days:  and  the  state  of  the  law  and  the  prophets  before  ; 
Christ,  and  how  Christ  came  to  fulfil  them,  and  how  he  was 
their  teacher  in  the  apostles’  days,  and  how  he  was  come 
now  to  teach  his  people  again  himself  by  his  power  and 
spirit.  And  all  was  quiet  and  loving,  and  the  meeting 
broke  up  peaceably.  Many  are  added  to  them,  and  some  | 
that  had  been  Ranters  came  to  own  the  Truth  and  came  to  | 
be  very  sober. 

There  was  a captain  of  horse  in  the  town  that  sent  for  me  | 
and  fain  would  have  had  me  stay  longer  in  the  town.  But  | 

I was  not  to  stay;  so  he  passed  out  with  me  about  seven  ’ 
miles,  and  his  man  and  Edward  Pyott  were  with  me. 

And  this  captain  was  the  fattest,  merriest,  cheerfulest  i 

b 42. 


1655]  HONITON  AND  TOPSHAM  233 

man  and  the  most  given  to  laughter  that  ever  I met  with;  so 
that  I several  times  was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  speak  to  him 
in  the  dreadful  power  of  the  Lord.  And  yet  still  he  would 
presently  after  laugh  at  any  thing  that  he  saw;  and  I still 
admonished  him  to  sobriety  and  the  fear  of  the  Lord  and 
sincerity.  And  we  lay  at  an  inn  that  night.  And  the  next 
morning  I was  moved  to  speak  to  him  again,  and  then  he 
parted  from  us  the  next  morning.  But  he  confessed  next 
time  I saw  him  that  the  power  of  the  Lord  had  so  amazed 
him  that  before  he  got  home  he  was  serious  enough  and 
left  his  laughing.  And  the  man  came  to  be  convinced, 
and  became  a serious  and  good  man,  and  died  in  the 
Truth. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  on  to  Honiton,  and  at  the  inn 
we  enquired  what  people  there  were  in  the  town  that  feared 
the  Lord,  and  sent  for  them,  and  so  there  came  some 
Particular  Baptists  to  us,  where  we  had  a great  deal  of 
reasoning  with  them.  And  I told  them  they  held  their 
doctrine  of  particular  election  in  Esau’s,  Cain’s,  and  Ish- 
mael’s  nature  and  not  in  Jacob’s,  the  second  birth’s,  for 
they  must  be  born  again  before  they  enter  the  kingdom 
of  God.  And  the  promise  of  God  was  to  the  Seed,  not  as 
many  but  as  one,  which  was  Christ;  so  the  election  and 
choice  stands  in  Christ;  and  they  must  be  such  as  walk 
in  his  light,  grace,  spirit  and  faith.  And  many  more  words 
we  had  with  them. 

So  we  passed  from  thence  to  Topsham  and  there  we  stayed 
the  First-day:  and  the  innkeeper’s  people  were  rude. 
And  at  this  time  Miles  Halhead  and  Thomas  Salthouse 
were  in  prison  at  Exeter.  The  next  morning  we  gave  forth 
some  queries  to  the  priests  and  professors,  and  some  rude 
professors  came  in  to  us,  and  had  we  not  gone  when  we 
did  they  had  stopped  us.  I wore  a girdle,  and  forgot 
my  girdle  there  behind  me;  and  I sent  for  it  to  the  innkeeper 
and  he  kept  it.  But  he  was  so  plagued  about  it  after,  that 
he  went  and  burnt  it  lest  he  should  be  bewitched  by  it, 
as  he  said,  his  mind  was  so  devilish;  but  after  he  had  burned 
it  he  was  more  tormented  than  before.  And  some  were 


234  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1655 


convinced,  nevertheless,  and  there  continues  a meeting  of 
good  Friends  ever  since  in  that  town. 

And  after  this  we  passed  to  Totnes  which  was  a dark  town : 
and  there  we  lodged  all  night  at  an  inn,  and  there  Edward 
Pyott  was  sick,  but  the  Lord’s  power  healed  him  again. 
And  the  next  day  we  came  to  Kingsbridge,  and  went  to 
an  inn,  and  enquired  for  the  sober  people  of  the  town. 
And  there  was  one  Nicholas  Tripe  and  his  wife,  and  we 
went  down  to  their  house  and  they  sent  for  the  priest,  and 
some  words  we  had  with  them  but  he  v/as  soon  confounded 
and  so  passed  away.  But  Tripe  and  his  wife  were  con- 
vinced; and  since  there  is  a meeting  of  good  Friends 
in  that  country. 

In  the  evening  we  went  to  our  inn,  and  there  being  many 
people  drinking  in  the  house,  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to 
go  amongst  them  and  to  turn  them  to  the  light  which  Christ, 
the  heavenly  man,  had  enlightened  them  withal ; with  which 
light  they  may  see  all  their  evil  ways,  and  deeds,  and  words ; 
and  with  the  same  light  they  may  see  Christ  Jesus  their 
saviour.  And  the  innkeeper  stood  uneasy,  seeing  it  hindered 
his  guests  from  drinking,  snatched  up  the  candle.  ‘ Come 
says  he,  ‘ here  is  a light  for  you  to  go  into  your  chamber.  ’ 
So  the  next  miorning  I spoke  to  him  and  told  him  what  an 
uncivil  thing  it  was  for  him  so  to  do,  and  warned  him  of  the 
day  of  the  Lord,  and  so  we  passed  away. 

And  the  next  day  we  came  to  Plymouth  to  an  inn.  And 
at  Robert  Cary’s  house  in  Plymouth  we  had  a very  precious 
meeting.  And  there  was  one  Elizabeth  Trelawny,  a 
baronet’s^  daughter,  and  she  came  into  the  meeting  close 
up  to  me  and  clapped  her  ear  very  nigh  me;  which  after  I 
perceived  she  was  somewhat  thick  of  hearing.  And  she 
was  convinced.  And  after  the  meeting  was  done  there  came 
some  jangling  Baptists,  but  the  Lord’s  power  came  over 
them.  And  this  Elizabeth  Trelawny  came  and  said, 

‘ George  is  over  all  ’,  with  a loud  voice.  And  there  was  a 
fine  meeting  settled  there  ever  since  in  the  Lord’s  power 
and  many  faithful  Friends  there  were  convinced. 

^ Sir  John  Trelawny  0592-1664). 


CORNWALL 


656] 


235 


And  from  thence  we  passed  into  Cornwall,  ^a  dark 
country,  through  many  desperate  services  and  great 
opposition,  but  through  the  power  of  the  Lord  we  came 
over  all,^  to  Menheniot  parish  and  there  came  to  an  inn. 
And  at  night  we  had  a m.eeting  at  Edward  Hancock’s.^ 
And  thither  came  Thomas  Mounce^  and  a priest  and  a great 
deal  of  people;  and  we  made  the  priest  to  confess  that  he 
was  a minister  made  by  the  State  and  maintained  by  the 
State  ""and  not  sent  by  Christ.^  And  he  was  confounded 
and  went  his  ways.  But  many  of  the  people  stayed  and 
I turned  them  to  the  light  of  Christ  by  which  they  might 
see  their  sins  and  see  their  saviour  Christ  Jesus,  who  was 
their  way  to  God  and  their  mediator  that  made  their  peace 
betv/ixt  them  and  God,  and  was  their  shepherd  to  feed  them ; 
and  their  prophet  to  teach  them.  And  I turned  them  to  the 
spirit  of  God  in  themselves,  by  which  they  might  know 
the  Scriptures  and  be  led  into  all  the  truth  of  them,  and  with 
the  spirit  to  know  God;  and  in  it  to  have  unity  one  with 
another.  And  many  were  convinced  that  time  there  and 
came  under  Christ’s  teaching.  And  there  are  fine  gatherings 
in  the  name  of  Jesus  thereaways  to  this  day. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  through  the  countries  and 
through  Penryn  and  came  to  Helston;  and  we  could  not 
get  to  the  knowledge  of  any  sober  people  through  the 
badness  of  the  innkeepers.  And  from  thence  we  passed 
up  to  a village  where  there  were  some  Baptists  and  sober 
people  lived;  and  some  discourse  we  had  with  them,  and 
some  were  made  to  confess,  but  they  stumbled  at  the  light 
of  Christ;  and  they  would  have  had  us  to  have  stayed 
but  we  passed  on  from  thence  to  Market  Jew^  and  lodged 
at  an  inn.  ^When  we  came  thither  in  the  evening  I heard 
one  say,  ‘ These  men  should  be  examined  before  they  go 
away.’  Therefore  I was  not  to  go  away  till  I was 


^ Edward  and  Elizabeth  Hancock  lived  at  Menheniot. 

^ Thomas  Mounce  (d.  1679)  lived  at  Halbathick,  near  Liskeard. 

3 Now  Marazion.  Market  Jew  denotes  ‘ the  market  on  the  ridge 
of  the  hill 

^ S.J.,  p.  42. 


236  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

examined.'^  And  we  sent  out  over  night  to  enquire  for  any 
people  that  feared  the  Lord,  and  the  next  morning  the 
mayor  and  aldermen  gathered  together  with  the  high  sheriff 
of  the  county,  and  they  sent  first  the  constables  to  us  to 
bid  us  come  before  them,  at  the  town  hall.  And  we  asked 
them  for  their  warrant  and  they  said  they  had  none.  And 
then  we  told  them  we  should  not  go  along  with  them 
without  a warrant.  Then  they  sent  their  sergeants  and 
we  asked  them  for  their  warrant,  and  they  said  they  had 
none.  And  they  told  us  the  mayor  and  aldermen  stayed  for 
us;  and  we  told  them  the  mayor  and  his  company  did  not 
well  to  trouble  us  in  our  inn  and  we  should  not  go  with 
them  except  they  had  a warrant.  And  so  they  went  their 
way,  and  then  they  came  again  and  we  asked  them  for 
their  warrant,  and  then  one  of  them  plucked  his  mace 
from  under  his  cloak.  And  we  asked  them  whether  it 
were  their  custom  to  molest  and  trouble  strangers  in  their 
inns  and  lodgings.  And  so  at  last  I said  to  Edward  Pyott, 

‘ Go  thy  ways,  Edward,  and  see  what  ails  the  mayor  and 
his  company.’  And  a great  deal  of  discourse  he  had  with 
them,  but  the  Lord’s  power  gave  him  dominion  over  them 
all.  And  when  we  came  away  there  came  several  of  the 
officers  to  us,  and  we  declared  unto  them  the  incivility  and 
unworthiness  of  their  carriage  towards  us,  to  the  Lord’s 
Truth  and  servants,  thus  to  stop  and  trouble  them  in  their 
inn  and  lodgings  and  what  an  unchristian  act  it  was. 

And  there  I gave  forth  a little  paper  "^to  the  conditions 
of  that  dark  people"^  to  be  sent  to  the  seven  parishes  at  the 
Land’s  End  as  followeth:  how  the  Lord  was  come  to  teach  j 
his  people  himself  by  his  own  son  Christ  Jesus.  j 

The  mighty  day  of  the  Lord  is  come  and  coming,  that  all  < 
hearts  shall  be  made  manifest;  the  secrets  of  everyone’s  heart 
shall  be  revealed  with  the  light  of  Jesus,  which  cometh  from  Jesus 
Christ,  who  lighteneth  every  man  that  cometh  into  the  world, 
who  saith,  ‘Learn  of  me.’  And,  ‘This  is  my  beloved  Son, 
hear  ye  him,’  saith  God;  that  all  men  through  him  might  believe  j 
and  the  world  through  him  might  have  life. 

^ d sj,,  p.  42. 


ST.  IVES 


1656] 


237 


And  Christ  is  come  to  teach  the  second  priesthood  himself. 
And  everyone  that  will  not  hear  this  prophet  which  God  hath 
raised  up,  and  which  Moses  spoke  of  and  said,  ‘ Like  unto  me 
will  God  raise  you  up  a prophet,  him  shall  you  hear  ’ ; everyone 
that  doth  not  hear  this  prophet  is  to  be  cut  off.  . . . Those 
that  despise  Moses’s  law  died  under  the  hand  of  two  or  three 
witnesses,  but  how  much  greater  punishment  will  come  upon 
them  that  neglect  this  great  salvation,  Christ  Jesus,  . . . 

If  you  do  this  light  hate,  this  will  be  your  condemnation, 
if  you  do  it  love  and  come  to  it,  you  will  come  to  Christ,  which 
light  will  bring  you  off  all  the  world  and  teachers  and  ways  of  all 
the  deceivers  in  it,  to  learn  of  Christ  who  is  the  way  to  the 
Father.  George  Fox^ 

Edward  Pyott 
William  Salt. 


And  when  we  came  about  three  or  four  miles  out  of  the 
town  towards  the  west,  William  Salt,  that  was  with  me, 
having  a copy  of  the  paper,  gave  it  to  Major  Peter  Ceely’s^ 
clerk^  whom  he  met  with,  and  he  rides  on  before  us  to  a 
place  called  St.  Ives,  and  there  showed  it  to  his  master, 
a justice  of  the  peace  in  that  county. 

But  when  William  Salt  told  me,  ®and  as  soon  as  he  had 
given  it,  I felt  we  were  taken  as  prisoners®  above  ten  miles 
before  I came  to  St.  Ives  where  we  were  taken.  ®He  should 
have  given  it  to  me  before  he  gave  it  abroad.  But  I saw  it 
would  be  well,  for  if  I fell  upon  that  bad  nature  I should 
crush  it  and  make  the  good  to  come  forth.® 

And  we  rid  from  thence  across  the  country  till  we  came 
to  Ives.  Edward  Pyott’s  horse  had  lost  a shoe  and  so  we 
stayed  at  Ives  whilst  he  was  shoeing  his  horse.  And  I 
walked  down  to  the  seaside  in  the  meanwhile,  and  when 
I came  up  again  all  the  town  was  up  in  an  uproar,  and  they 
were  haling  Edward  Pyott  and  William  Salt  before  Major 

^ MS.  G.  Fox  Papers  (30  R).  In  full,  Camb.  JnL,  i,  206-7 ; Ellwood, 
pp.  175,  176;  Bicent.,  i,  266-7.  The  printed  versions  bear  the  name 
of  Fox  only. 

^ Of  the  Puritan  family  of  St.  Ives. 

3 This  was  John  Keate,  see  p.  239. 

® ® S.J.,  p.  42. 


10 


338  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1658 

scattered  and  done  the  hurt;  by  the  Seed  Christ  Jesus,  he 
coming  into  him,  he  might  come  to  gather  them  again 
by  this  heavenly  Seed;  though  it  would  be  a hard  work 
for  him  to  gather  them  again  out  of  those  vanities  he  had 
led  them  into. 

At  this  Rice  Jones  said,  ‘ Thou  liest;  it  is  not  the  Seed 
of  the  woman  that  bruises  the  serpent’s  head.’ 

‘ No  ? ’ said  I,  ‘ what  is  it  then  ? ’ 

‘ I say  it  is  the  law,’  said  he. 

‘ But  ’,  said  I,  ‘ the  Scripture,  speaking  of  the  Seed  of 
the  woman,  saith : “ It  shall  bruise  thy  head,  and  though  shalt 
bruise  his  heel.”  Now,  hath  the  law  an  heel  ’,  said  I,  ‘ to 
be  bruised  ? ’ 

Then  Rice  Jones  and  all  his  company  were  at  a stand, 
and  I was  moved  in  the  power  of  the  Lord  to  speak  to  him, 
and  say,  ‘ This  Seed,  Christ  Jesus,  the  Seed  of  the  woman, 
which  should  bruise  the  serpent’s  head,  shall  bruise  thy 
head,  and  break  you  all  to  pieces.’  Thus  did  I leave  on 
the  heads  of  them  the  Seed,  Christ.  And  not  long  after, 
he  and  his  company  scattered  to  pieces,  several  of  whom 
came  to  be  Friends,  and  stand  to  this  day.  For  many  of 
them  had  been  convinced  about  eight  years  before,  but  | 
had  been  led  aside  by  this  Rice  Jones;  for  they  denied  the  | 

inward  cross,  the  power  of  God,  and  so  went  into  vanity.  ! 

It  was  about  eight  years  since  I had  been  formerly 
amongst  them,  in  which  time  I was  to  pass  over  them  and 
by  them,  seeing  they  had  slighted  the  Lord’s  Truth  and  i 

power,  and  the  visitation  of  his  love  unto  them.  But  now  | 

was  the  time  that  I was  moved  to  go  to  them  again,  and  j 

it  was  of  great  service,  for  many  of  them  were  brought  to  ii 

the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  were  settled  upon  him,  sitting  | 

down  under  his  teaching  and  feeding,  where  they  were  kept  | 

fresh  and  green ; and  the  others  that  would  not  be  gathered 
to  him  soon  after  withered.  This  was  that  Rice  Jones  | 
that  some  years  before  had  said  I was  then  at  the  highest,  i 
and  should  fall.  But,  poor  man,  he  little  thought  how  near 
his  own  fall  was. 

We  left  Nottingham,  and  went  into  Warwickshire,  and 


j 1658]  A GENERAL  MEETING  339 

thence  passing  through  some  parts  of  Northamptonshire 
and  Leicestershire,  visiting  Friends,  and  having  meetings 
' with  them  as  we  travelled,  came  into  Bedfordshire,  where 
we  had  large  gatherings  in  the  name  of  Jesus. 

After  some  time  we  came  to  John  Crook’s  house,  where 
a General  Yearly  Meeting^  for  the  whole  nation  was 
appointed  to  be  held.  This  meeting  lasted  three  days, 
and  many  Friends  from  most  parts  of  the  nation  came  to  it, 
so  that  the  inns  and  towns  around  were  filled,  for  ^a  matter 
of  three  or  four  thousand  people'^  were  at  it.  And  although 
i there  was  some  disturbance  by  some  rude  people  that  had 
run  out  from  Truth,  yet  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all, 
and  a glorious  meeting  it  was.  The  everlasting  Gospel 
was  preached,  and  many  received  it,  which  brought  life 
and  immortality  to  light  in  them,  and  shined  over  all. 

Then  I was  moved  by  the  power  and  spirit  of  the  Lord, 
to  open  unto  them  the  promise  of  God,  how  that  it  was  made 
to  the  Seed,  not  to  seeds,  as  many,  but  to  one,  which  Seed 
was  Christ;  and  that  all  people,  both  males  and  females,  should 
feel  this  Seed  in  them,  which  was  heir  of  the  promise;  that  so 
they  might  all  witness  Christ  in  them,  the  hope  of  glory,  the 
mystery  which  had  been  hid  from  ages  and  generations,  which 
was  revealed  to  the  apostles,  and  is  revealed  again  now,  after 
this  long  night  of  apostacy  . . . Nov/  again,  the  everlasting 
Gospel  must  be  preached  to  all  nations,  and  to  every  creature, 
that  they  may  come  into  the  pure  religion,  to  worship  God  in 
the  spirit  and  in  truth,  and  may  know  Christ  Jesus  their  way  to 
God,  and  him  to  be  the  author  of  their  faith,  and  may  receive 
the  Gospel  from  heaven,  and  not  from  men;  in  which  Gospel, 
received  from  heaven,  is  the  heavenly  fellowship,  which  is  a 
1 mystery  to  all  the  fellowships  in  the  world.^ 

And  after  the  people  were  turned  to  the  divine  light  of 
Christ,  and  his  spirit,  by  which  they  might  come  ^oth  to 
: know  God  and  Christ,  and  the  Scriptures,  and  to  have 
fellowship  with  them,  and  one  with  another  in  the  same 

^ Probably  at  Crook’s  country  house,  Beckerings  Park,  near 
Ridgmont,  Beds.  Fox’s  discourse  is  dated  31st  May. 

2 In  full  Ellwood,  pp.  284*-285*;  Bicent,  i,  418-21. 

b b sj.,  p.  54. 


240  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

room  and  he  himself  stands  without.  And  he  walks 
huffing  up  and  down  the  room  and  I bid  him  fear  the  Lord; 
and  he  comes  upon  me  and  struck  me  with  both  his  hands 
and  clapped  his  leg  behind  me  and  would  fain  have  thrown 
me  down,  but  he  could  not.  But  I stood  stiff  and  still 
and  let  him  strike.  And  I looked  without  and  I saw  this 
Keate  looking  on  and  seeing  his  brother  or  cousin,  thus 
to  beat  and  abuse  me;  and  I said  unto  him,  ‘ Keate,  dost 
thou  allow  this  ? ’ and  he  said  he  did.  ‘ Is  this  manly 
or  civil  ’,  said  I,  ‘ to  have  us  under  a guard  and  put  a man 
to  abuse  and  beat  us  ? Is  this  manly,  civil  or  Christian  ? ’ 
So  I desired  one  of  our  Friends  to  send  for  the  constables, 
and  they  came;  and  I desired  Keate  to  let  the  constables 
see  his  warrant  or  order  by  which  he  was  to  carry  us;  and 
his  warrant  was  that  he  was  to  conduct  us  safe  to  Captain 
Fox,^  the  governor  of  Pendennis  Castle,  and  if  he  was  not 
at  home  to  carry  us  to  Launceston  gaol.  So  I bid  the 
constable  keep  the  warrant,  for  Keate  had  broken  his 
order  concerning  us.  For  we  who  were  his  prisoners 
were  to  be  safely  conducted,  and  yet  he  brought  a man  to 
beat  and  abuse  us.  And  then  we  and  the  constable  bid 
him  and  the  rest  of  them  to  go  their  ways ; and  the  constable 
kept  the  warrant  and  said  if  it  cost  twenty  shillings  in 
charges  to  carry  us  up  they  should  not  have  it  again. 

And  I showed  the  soldiers  the  baseness  of  their  carriage 
towards  us  and  so  they  walked  up  and  down  the  house  and 
were  pitifully  blank  and  down;  and  the  constables  stayed 
with  us;  and  then  the  soldiers  came,  by  way  of  entreaty, 
to  us,  and  said  they  would  be  civil  to  us  if  we  would  go 
with  them,  and  thus  they  continued  till  towards  the  eleventh 
hour  of  the  day.  And  the  constables  went  to  the  castle  and 
told  the  officers  what  they  had  done  and  they  very  much 
disliked  Keate ’s  base  carriage  towards  us.  And  they  told 
the  constables  that  Major-General  Desborough^  was  coming 
to  Bodmin,  and  that  we  should  meet  him,  and  it’s  like  he 

^ John  Fox,  lieutenant-governor,  1646-1658;  governor,  1658-1660. 

^ John  Desborough  (Disbrowe)  (1608-1680)  in  charge,  under 
Cromwell,  of  the  six  western  counties. 


PRISONER  TO  BODMIN 


241 


1656] 

would  free  us.  The  governor  was  not  at  home  but  was 
gone  to  meet  him.  And  after  the  soldiers’  entreaty  and 
promise  to  be  more  civil,  the  constables  gave  them  the 
order  again,  and  we  went  with  them;  and  great  was  the 
civility  of  the  constables  and  that  town’s  people  towards 
us,  who  kindly  did  entertain  us,  and  the  Lord  did  reward 
them  with  his  Truth,  that  many  of  them  stand  convinced 
of  the  Lord’s  everlasting  Truth  and  are  gathered  in  to  the 
name  of  Jesus,  and  sit  under  Christ  their  teacher  and  saviour 
to  this  day. 

And  the  next  night  we  came  to  Bodmin,  and  as  we  went 
we  met  Major-General  Desborough.  And  the  captain 
of  his  troop  that  rid  before  him  knew  me,  and  said : 

‘ Oh  Mr.  Fox  ’,  said  he,  ‘ What  do  you  do  here  ? ’ 

And  I said,  ‘ I am  a prisoner.  ’ 

‘ Alack,  for  what  ? ’ said  he. 

And  I said,  ‘ I was  taken  up  as  I was  travelling.’ 

Then  said  he,  ‘ I will  speak  to  my  lord  and  he  shall  set 
you  at  liberty.’ 

And  so  he  came  from  the  head  of  his  troop  and  rid  up  to 
the  coach,  and  he  spoke  to  General  Desborough;  and  we 
gave  him  an  account  how  we  were  taken.  And  he  began 
to  speak  against  the  light  of  Christ  and  I admonished  him, 
but  being  a hard-hearted  man  he  slighted  us;  and  he  told 
the  soldiers  they  might  carry  us  to  Launceston  and  that 
he  could  not  stay  to  talk  with  us,  his  horses  would  take  cold. 
And  when  we  came  at  night  to  Bodmin,  Keate  went  into 
the  inn  before  us  and  he  put  me  into  a room  within  the 
door  and  went  his  way.  And  when  I came  in,  there  stood 
a man  with  a naked  rapier  in  his  hand,  and  I turned  out 
again  and  called  for  Keate  and  said  unto  him, 

‘ What  now,  Keate  ? What  trick  hast  thee  played  now 
to  put  me  into  a room  where  there  is  a man  with  his  naked 
rapier  ? What  is  thy  end  in  this  ? ’ 

‘ Oh,’  said  he,  ‘ pray  hold  your  tongue,  for  if  you  speak 
to  this  man  we  cannot  all  rule  him  he  is  so  devilish.’ 

‘ So  ’,  I said,  ‘ dost  thee  put  me  into  a room  where  there 
is  such  a man,  with  a naked  rapier,  that  thou  sayest  you 


242  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656  i 

cannot  all  rule  him  ? What  an  unworthy  bad  trick  is  ' 
this  ? ’ I 

And  they  put  me  single  in  this  room  from  the  rest  of  | 
my  friends  that  were  fellow-prisoners  with  me.  And  so  j 
his  plot  was  discovered,  and  after,  we  got  another  room  j 
where  we  were  together  all  night.  And  in  the  evening  | 
we  declared  the  Truth  to  the  people,  but  they  were  a 
hardened  dark  people;  and  the  soldiers  were  very  rude  i 
and  wicked  unto  us  again  and  sat  up  drinking  and  roaring 
that  night. 

And  the  next  day  we  came  to  Launceston  where  Keate 
delivered  us  to  the  gaoler.^  Now  there  were  no  Friends  nor 
friendly  people  near  us  then.  And  the  town  was  a dark 
hardened  town,  that  they  made  us  to  pay  seven  shillings 
a week  for  our  horses  and  seven  shillings  a week  for  our 
diet  a-piece.  But  at  last  several  sober  and  friendly  people 
came  to  see  us  and  som.e  of  the  town  came  to  be  con- 
vinced. , 

And  there  we  lay  nine  weeks,  under  a very  bad  gaoler 
who  much  abused  us,  till  the  Assizes.  And  in  that  time 
many  friendly  people  out  of  several  parts  of  the  county 
came  to  visit  us  and  were  convinced.  And  a great  rage  | 
there  was  amongst  professors  and  priests,  for  they  said, 

‘ They,  thee  and  thou  all  people  without  respect,  and  will 
not  doff  their  hats  to  one  nor  bow  the  knee  to  any  man.’ 
And  this  troubled  them  fearfully.  But  at  the  Assizes  they 
expected  we  should  have  been  all  hanged.  ‘ And  then  ’, 
said  they,  ‘ let’s  see  whether  they  dare  thou  and  thee  and 
keep  on  their  hats  before  the  judge.’  But  all  this  was 
little  to  us,  for  we  saw  how  God  would  stain  the  world’s  | 
honour  and  glory;  for  we  were  commanded  not  to  seek  i 
that  honour  nor  give  it  but  know  the  honour  that  came  from 
God  only  and  seek  for  that. 

And  when  the  Assizes  came,^  abundance  of  people  , 
came  far  and  nigh  to  hear  the  trial  of  the  Quakers,  being  a 
strange  thing  to  them.  And  there  was  one  Captain 

^ 22nd  January,  1656. 

^ They  began  on  24th  March,  1656. 


1656]  LAUNCESTON  ASSIZES  243 

Braddon^  that  had  his  troop  of  horse  there,  and  the  soldiers 
and  the  sheriff’s  men  guarded  us  up  the  streets  through  the 
multitude  of  people  which  they  had  much  to  do  to  get  us 
through  them,  and  the  chambers  and  windows  were  full 
of  people  looking  out  upon  us.  And  they  brought  us 
into  the  court,  where  we  stood  with  our  hats  on  a pretty 
while,  and  all  was  quiet. 

And  I was  moved  to  say:  ‘ Peace  be  amongst  you.’ 

And  at  last  Judge  Giynne,^  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  of 
England,  a Welshman,  said  to  the  gaoler: 

‘ What  be  these  you  have  brought  here  into  court  ? ’ 

‘ Prisoners,  my  lord  ’,  said  he. 

‘ Why  do  not  you  put  off  your  hats  ? ’ said  the  judge. 

And  we  said  nothing. 

‘ Put  off  your  hats  ’,  said  the  judge  again. 

But  we  said  nothing. 

Then  again  the  judge: 

‘ The  court  commands  you  to  put  off  your  hats.’ 

And  then  I replied  and  said,  ‘ Where  did  ever  any 
magistrate,  king,  or  judge  from  Moses  to  Daniel  command 
any  to  put  off  their  hats  when  they  came  before  them  into 
their  courts  amongst  the  Jews  the  people  of  God  or  amongst 
the  heathen,  or  where  did  any  of  the  heathen  command 
any  such  thing  in  all  their  courts  or  their  kings  or  judges  ? 
Or  show  me  where  it  is  written  or  printed  in  any  law  of 
England  where  any  such  thing  is  commanded;  show  it  me 
and  I will  put  off  my  hat.’ 

And  then  the  judge  grew  very  angry  and  said,  ‘ I do 
not  carry  my  law  books  on  my  back.’ 

Then  said  I,  ‘ Tell  me  where  it  is  printed  in  a statute 
book  that  I may  read  it.’ 

Then  said  the  judge,  ‘ Take  him  away,  prevaricator.  I’ll 
firk^  him.’ 

Then  they  took  us  away  and  put  us  amongst  the  thieves ; and 
presently  after  he  calls  to  the  gaoler,  ‘ Bring  them  up  again.’ 

^ William  Braddon  of  Trevv^orgie. 

2 Sir  John  Glynne  (1603-1666). 

3 Firk,  i.e.  trounce. 


244  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

‘ Come  said  he,  ‘ where  had  they  hats  from  Moses 
to  Daniel  ? Come,  answer  me,  I have  you  fast  now,’ 
said  he. 

Then  I said,  ‘ Thou  mayest  read  in  the  third  of  Daniel 
that  the  three  children  were  cast  into  the  fiery  furnace  by 
Nebuchadnezzar  with  their  cloaks,  hose,  and  hats  on.’ 
§And  you  may  see  that  Nebuchadnezzar  was  not  offended 
at  their  hats.s 

He  cried  again,  ‘Take  them  away,  gaoler.’  So  then 
they  put  us  again  amongst  the  thieves;  and  there  we  were 
kept  a great  while;  and  then,  at  last,  the  sheriff’s  men 
and  troopers  made  way  for  us,  that  we  were  almost  spent 
*to  get  through  the  crowd  of  people,  and  so  guarded  us 
to  the  prison  again,  and  a multitude  of  people  followed  us, 
and  great  disputes  and  discourses  we  had  with  them  at  the 
gaol.  And  we  had  some  very  good  books  to  inform 
people  of  the  Truth  and  our  principles;  and  the  judge  | 
and  justices  heard  of  it,  and  they  sent  out  Captain  Braddon 
and  he  came  into  the  gaol  and  violently  took  our  books 
from  us  out  of  Edward  Pyott’s  hands  and  carried  them  away, 
so  that  we  never  got  them  again.  And  in  the  afternoon 
we  were  had  up  again  by  the  gaoler,  and  sheriff’s  men,  and  I 
troopers;  and  a mighty  broil  they  had  to  get  us  through  | 
the  crowd  of  people  into  the  court.  <When  we  were  in  ! 
the  court,  waiting  to  be  called),  I,  seeing  the  jury  and  such  | 
a multitude  of  swearers,  it  grieved  my  life  to  see  such  as 
professed  Christianity  should  so  openly  disobey  the  com- 
mand of  Christ  Jesus  and  the  Apostle,  that  I was  moved 
of  the  Lord  God  to  give  forth  a large  paper  against  swearing,  ^ 
to  the  grand  and  petty  juries,  which  was  as  followeth:  j 

Concerning  Swearing 

Take  heed  of  giving  people  oaths  to  swear,  for  Christ  our  Lord  | 
and  master  saith,  ‘ Swear  not  at  all,  but  let  your  communications  i 
be  yea,  yea,  and  nay,  nay,  for  whatsoever  is  more  than  these  ! 
cometh  of  evil.’  And  if  any  man  was  to  suffer  death,  it  must  I 
be  by  the  hand  of  two  or  three  witnesses;  and  the  hands  of  the 

g p.  44. 


1656]  BEFORE  THE  JUDGE  245 

witnesses  were  to  be  put  first  upon  him  to  put  him  to  death. 
And  the  Apostle  James  saith,  ‘ My  brethren,  above  all  things 
swear  not,  neither  by  heaven,  nor  by  earth,  nor  by  any  other 
oath,  lest  ye  fall  into  condemnation.’  Now  you  may  see,  those 
that  swear  fall  into  condemnation,  and  are  out  of  Christ’s  and 
the  Apostle’s  doctrine.  Therefore,  every  one  of  you  having 
a light  from  Christ,  who  saith,  ‘ I am  the  light  of  the  world  ’, 
and  doth  enlighten  every  man  that  cometh  into  the  world; 
who  also  saith,  ‘ Learn  of  me  ’,  whose  doctrine  is  not  to  swear; 
and  the  Apostle’s  doctrine  is  not  to  swear;  but  ‘ Let  your  yea  be 
yea,  and  your  nay  be  nay,  in  all  your  communications;  for 
whatsoever  is  more,  cometh  of  evil  ’.  So  then  they  that  go  into 
more  than  yea  and  nay,  go  into  the  evil,  and  are  out  of  the 

doctrine  of  Christ.  ...  ^ ^ . 

G.F.^ 

And  when  we  were  brought  before  the  judge  into  the 
court  the  jury  and  the  justices  had  presented  this  paper^ 
unto  the  judge:  and  the  judge  bid  the  clerk  give  me  that 
paper  and  then  asked  me  whether  that  seditious  paper  was 
mine.  So  I told  them  if  they  would  read  it  up  that  I might 
hear  it  in  the  open  court,  and  if  it  was  mine  I would  stand 
by  it  and  own  it;  and  they  would  have  had  me  to  have  taken 
it  in  my  hand  and  looked  upon  it.  And  I desired  them 
again  to  read  it  and  let  all  the  country  hear  it  and  judge 
whether  there  was  any  sedition  in  it  or  no ; and  if  there  were 
I was  willing  to  suffer  for  it. 

And  at  last  the  clerk  of  the  Assizes  read  it  with  an  audible 
voice  that  all  the  people  might  hear  it,  and  when  they 
had  done  I told  them  it  was  my  paper  and  I would  own  it, 
and  so  might  they  too,  except  they  denied  the  Scripture,  for 
was  not  this  Scripture  language,  and  Christ’s  and  the 
Apostle’s  words  and  commands  which  all  true  Christians 
ought  to  obey  ? So  then  they  left  that  subject;  and  the 
judge  fell  upon  us  about  our  hats  again  and  bid  the  gaoler 
take  them  off,  and  he  did  so  and  gave  them  unto  us  again 
and  after  a while  we  put  them  on  again.  And  then  we 
asked  the  judge  and  the  justices  what  we  had  lain  in  prison 

^ In  full,  Ellwood,  pp.  180,  181;  Bicent.,  i,  273-5. 

^ i.e.  the  paper  to  the  Land’s  End  Parishes,  p.  236-7  ante. 


246  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

for  this  nine  weeks,  seeing  now  they  objected  nothing 
to  us  but  about  our  hats;  <and  as  for  putting  off  our  hats, 

I told  them)  that  was  the  honour  which  God  would  lay 
in  the  dust,  which  they  made  so  much  ado  about;  which 
men  seek  one  of  another  and  which  is  the  honour  of  men 
and  the  mark  of  unbelievers;  for  ‘ How  can  you  believe  ’, 
says  Christ,  ‘ that  seek  honour  one  from  another  and  not  ( 
the  honour  which  comes  from  God  only  ’,  and  Christ  | 
saith,  ‘ I receive  not  honour  of  man.’  And  all  true  j 
Christians  should  be  of  his  mind. 

And  so  the  judge  began  to  make  a great  speech  how  he 
represented  the  Lord  Protector’s  person;  and  he  had  made  j 
him  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  England  and  sent  him  to  come  I 
that  circuit,  and  so  on.  So  we  desired  him  then  that  he  ' 
would  do  us  justice  for  our  false  imprisonment  that  we  j 
had  lain  all  that  nine  weeks  wrongfully  for.  | 

And  then  they  brought  in  an  indictment  that  they  had  li 
framed  against  us,  such  a strange  thing  full  of  lies  that  I I 
thought  it  had  been  against  some  of  the  thieves;  how  that  ' 
v/e  came  ‘ by  force  of  arms  and  in  a hostile  manner  into  the  i 
court  ’,  who  were  brought  in  as  aforesaid.  So  I told  them  i 
it  was  all  false;  and  still  we  cried  for  justice  for  our  wrong  ! 
imprisonment  who  were  taken  up  in  our  journey  without 
cause  by  Major  Peter  Ceely.  And  then  this  Ceely  spoke 
to  the  judge  and  the  court  and  said,  ‘ May  it  please  you,  my 
lord;  this  man  (meaning  me),  he  went  aside  with  me  and 
told  me  how  serviceable  I might  be  for  his  design  and  that 
he  could  raise  four  thousand^  men  in  an  hour’s  warning 
and  involve  the  nation  into  blood  and  so  bring  in  King 
Charles,  and  I would  have  aided  him  out  of  the  country  ! 
but  he  would  not  go : and,  if  it  please  you,  my  lord,  I have  i 
a witness  to  swear  it.’  And  so  he  called  up  his  witness, 
but  the  judge  not  being  very  forward  to  call  for  the  witness  , 

I desired  of  the  judge  that  he  would  be  pleased  to  let  my  ' 
mittimus  be  read  in  the  face  of  the  court  and  country  in 
v/hich  my  crime  was  signified  for  which  I was  sent  to  prison. 

The  judge  said  it  should  not.  I said  it  ought  to  be, 

^ MSS.  vary  between  400,  4,000  and  40,000.  I 


1656]  HIS  MITTIMUS  READ  247 

seeing  it  concerned  my  life  and  liberty.  And  the  judge 
said  again,  it  should  not  be  read. 

And  I said,  ‘ It  ought  to  be  read;  and  if  I have  done 
anything  worthy  of  death  or  bonds,  let  all  the  country 
know  of  it.’ 

So  I spoke  unto  one  of  my  fellow-prisoners,  ‘ Thou  hast 
a copy  of  it.  Read  it  up,’  said  I. 

‘ But  it  shall  not  be  read,’  said  the  judge.  ‘ Gaoler,  take 
him  away.  I will  see  whether  he  or  I shall  be  master.’ 
So  they  did,  and  after  a while  they  called  for  me  again, 
and  I still  cried  to  have  my  mittimus  read  up;  for  that 
signified  my  crime.  And  then  I bid  William  Salt  read  it 
up  again,  and  he  read  it  up,  and  the  judge  and  justices  and 
whole  court  were  silent,  for  the  people  were  mighty  willing 
to  hear  it. 

The  mittimus  was  as  follows: 

Peter  Ceely,  one  of  the  Justices  of  the  Peace  of  this  County, 
to  the  Keeper  of  His  Highness’s  gaol  at  Launceston,  or  his 
lawful  Deputy  in  that  behalf.  Greeting. 

I send  you  herewithal  by  the  bearers  hereof,  the  bodies  of 
Edward  Pyott  of  Bristol,  and  George  Fox  of  Drayton-in-the- 
Clay,  in  Leicestershire,  and  William  Salt  of  London,  which 
they  pretend  to  be  the  places  of  their  habitations,  who  go  under 
the  notion  of  Quakers  and  acknowledge  themselves  to  be  such, 
who  have  spread  several  papers  tending  to  the  disturbance  of 
the  public  peace,  and  cannot  render  any  lawful  cause  of  coming 
into  these  parts,  being  persons  altogether  unknown,  and  having 
no  pass  for  their  travelling  up  and  down  the  country,  and 
refusing  to  give  sureties  of  their  good  behaviour,  according  to 
the  law  in  that  behalf  provided;  and  refuse  to  take  the  oath  of 
abjuration,  &c.  These  are  therefore,  in  the  name  of  his  Highness 
the  Lord  Protector,  to  will  and  command  you,  that  when  the 
bodies  of  the  said  Edward  Pyott,  George  Fox,  and  William 
Salt,  shall  be  unto  you  brought,  you  them  receive,  and  in  his 
Highness’s  prison  aforesaid  you  safely  keep  them,  until 
by  due  course  of  law  they  shall  be  delivered.  Hereof  fail  you 
not,  as  you  will  answer  the  contrary  at  your  perils. 

Given  under  my  hand  and  seal,  at  St.  Ives,  the  eighteenth 
day  of  January,  1656. 


P.  Ceely. 


248  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

And  when  it  was  read,  ‘ Now  said  I,  ‘ thou  sayest  thou 
art  the  Chief  Justice  of  England,  and  you,  the  rest  of  you 
that  be  justices,  you  know  that  if  I had  put  in  sureties 
<I  might  have  gone  whither  I pleased,  and)  then  I might 
have  gone  on  with  my  design  which  Major  Ceely  hath 
charged  me  of;  and  if  I spoke  such  words  to  him  then 
judge  ye  whether  bail  or  main  prize  ought  to  be  taken  in 
that  case  of  high  treason.’ 

And  I said  to  Peter  Ceely,  ‘ When  did  I take  thee  aside 
or  where  ? Was  not  thy  house  full  of  rude  people  and 
thou  as  rude  as  any  of  them  at  our  examination,  so  that  I 
asked  for  a constable  or  some  other  officer  to  keep  the 
people  civil  ? And  that  is  not  a place  for  thee  to  sit  in, 
for  accusers  do  not  use  to  sit  with  the  judges,  for  thou 
oughtest  to  come  down  and  stand  by  me  and  look  me  in  the 
face.  And  now  I would  ask  the  judge  and  justices  this 
question:  whether  or  no  Major  Ceely  is  not  guilty  of  this 
treason  he  charges  against  me  in  concealing  of  it  so  long, 
or  does  understand  his  place  either  as  a soldier  or  a justice 
of  peace.  For  he  tells  you  here  that  I went  aside  with  him 
and  told  him  what  a design  I had  in  hand,  and  how  service- 
able he  might  be  for  my  design  and  that  I could  raise  four 
thousand  men  in  an  hour’s  time  and  bring  in  King  Charles 
and  involve  the  nation  into  blood.  And  he  says,  moreover, 
‘‘  May  it  please  you,  my  lord,  I would  fain  have  had  him 
go  out  of  the  country  and  he  would  not  go  ”,  and  therefore 
he  committed  me  to  prison  for  want  of  sureties  for  the  good 
behaviour  as  the  mittimus  declares  here.  And  do  not 
you  see  clearly  that  Major  Ceely  is  guilty  of  this  plot  and 
treason,  and  made  himself  a party  in  it  by  desiring  me 
to  go  out  of  the  country  and  asking  me  bail,  and  charging 
me  not  with  this  pretended  treason  till  now,  nor  discovering 
it.  But  I deny  and  abhor  his  words  and  am  innocent  of 
this  devilish  design.’ 

So  that  business  fell,  and  the  judge  saw  clear  enough 
that  instead  of  ensnaring  me  he  had  ensnared  himself. 

And  then  this  Major  Ceely  got  up  again  and  said,  ‘ If  it 
please  you,  my  lord,  to  hear  me,  this  man  struck  me  and 


1656]  A BLOW  FOR  MAJOR  CEELY  249 

gave  me  such  a blow  as  I never  had  in  my  life  ’ ; at  which  1 
smiled  in  my  heart,  and  said, 

‘ Pray  thee.  Major  Ceely,  where  did  I strike  thee,  and 
who  is  thy  witness  for  that  ? And  who  was  by  ? ’ 

And  he  said,  ‘ In  the  Castle  Green,  and  Captain  Braddon 
was  standing  by  when  you  struck  me.’ 

‘ Art  thou  a justice  of  peace,’  said  I,  ‘ and  a major  of 
a troop  of  horse,  and  for  thee  to  say  in  the  face  of  the  court 
before  the  judge  that  I struck  thee  and  gave  thee  such  a 
blow  as  thou  never  had  the  like  in  thy  life  ? What  ! Art 
thou  not  ashamed  ? ’ So  I desired  the  judge  to  let  him 
produce  his  witness  for  that.  ‘ And  ’,  I said,  ‘ Major 
Ceely,  thou  oughtest  to  come  down  off  the  bench  and  stand 
by  me:  for  it  is  not  a place  for  accusers  to  sit  there.’ 

But  I called  again  for  his  witness  and  then  he  said 
Captain  Braddon  was  his  witness.  So  I said,  ‘ Speak, 
Captain  Braddon ; didst  thou  see  me  give  him  such  a blow 
and  strike  him  as  he  says  ? ’ And  he  bowed  his  head  to  me ; 
but  I desired  him  to  speak  up  if  he  knew  any  such  thing, 
but  he  bowed  his  head  again.  ‘ Nay,  speak  up,’  said  1, 
‘ and  let  the  court  and  country  hear,  and  let  not  bowing 
of  the  head  serve  turn.  And  if  I have  done  so  let  me  have 
the  law  inflicted  upon  me,  for  I fear  not  sufferings  nor 
death  itself;  and  I am  an  innocent  man  concerning  this 
charge.’  But  Captain  Braddon  never  testified  to  it. 

And  the  judge  <finding  those  snares  would  not  hold) 
cried,  ‘ Take  him  away  gaoler,’  and  so  he  fined  us  twenty 
marks  a-piece  for  not  putting  off  our  hats,  and  to  be  kept 
in  prison  till  we  paid  it,  and  sent  us  back  to  the  gaol  again. 

And  so  at  night  Captain  Braddon  came  to  us,  and  seven 
or  eight  justices  of  peace  and  they  were  very  civil  to  us 
and  they  told  us  they  did  believe  that  neither  the  judge 
nor  any  there  did  believe  any  of  those  charges  that  Major 
Ceely  had  charged  against  me  in  the  face  of  the  country, 
but  Braddon  said  that  Major  Ceely  had  an  intent  to  have 
taken  away  my  life  if  he  could  have  got  another  witness. 
‘ But  ’,  I said,  ‘ Captain  Braddon,  why  didst  not  thou 
witness  for  me  or  against  me,  seeing  Major  Ceely  produced 


250  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

thee  for  a witness  that  thou  saw  me  strike  him  ? And 
when  I desired  thee  to  speak  either  for  me  or  against  me 
according  to  what  thou  knew  or  saw,  thou  wouldst  not.’ 

‘ Why  says  he,  ‘ when  Major  Ceely  and  I came  by 
you  when  you  were  walking  in  the  Castle  Green,  he  doffed 
his  hat  to  you  and  said,  “ How  do  you,  Mr.  Fox  ? Your 
servant.  Sir.”  Then  you  said  unto  him,  “ Major  Ceely, 
take  heed  of  hypocrisy  and  a rotten  heart,  for  when  came 
I to  be  thy  master  and  thee  my  servant  ? Do  servants 
use  to  cast  their  masters  into  prison  ? ” ’ And  this  was 
the  great  blow  he  meant  that  I gave  him  and  struck  him 
and  that  wounded  him  so  that  he  complained  to  the  judge 
of  it  in  the  face  of  the  country  and  open  court,  and  yet 
made  the  court  to  believe  that  I struck  him  outwardly 
with  my  hand.  And  then  I did  remember  that  they  walked 
by  us  and  that  he  spoke  to  me  as  aforesaid  and  I spoke 
those  words  unto  him  as  aforesaid;  which  hypocrisy  and 
rotten-heartedness  he  manifested  openly. 

So  we  were  kept  in  prison  and  divers  people  came  far 
and  nigh  to  see  us,  and  several  people  of  account.  It 
was  the  talk  of  the  town  and  country  that  never  men 
answered  so  as  we  did,  and  that  the  judge  and  justices  were 
not  able  to  answer  us  one  word  in  twelve. 

And  then  there  came  up  Humphrey  Lower,  a grave, 
sober,  ancient  man,  a justice  of  peace,  to  visit  us.  And  he 
was  very  sorry  we  should  be  in  prison  and  spoke  to  us  and 
said  how  serviceable  we  might  be  if  we  were  out  of  prison ; 
and  we  reasoned  with  him  about  swearing  and  how  they 
tendered  the  Oath  of  Abjuration  to  us  because  we  could  not 
swear;  and  no  people  could  be  serviceable  to  God  if  they 
disobeyed  the  command  of  Christ.  And  they  which 
imprisoned  us  for  the  hat  honour,  which  was  of  men,  and 
men  looked  for  it,  prisoned  the  good,  and  vexed  and  grieved 
the  spirit  of  God  in  themselves,  which  should  turn  their 
minds  to  God;  and  so  we  turned  him  to  the  spirit  of  God 
in  his  heart  and  to  the  light  of  Christ  Jesus;  and  he  was 
thoroughly  convinced  <and  continued  so  to  his  death,) 
and  was  very  serviceable  unto  us. 


1656]  COLONEL  ROUS  TOUCHED  251 

And  there  came  one  Colonel  Rous/  a justice  of  peace, 
with  a great  company.  And  he  was  as  full  of  words  and 
talk  as  ever  I heard  a man  in  my  life,  so  as  there  was  no 
speaking  to  him;  so  at  last  I asked  him,  to  stop  him, 
whether  he  had  been  ever  at  school  and  knew  what  belonged 
to  questions  and  answers. 

‘ At  school  ! ’ said  he,  ‘ Yes.’ 

‘ At  school  ! ’ said  the  soldiers,  ‘ Doth  he  say  so  to  our 
Colonel  that  is  a scholar  ? ’ 

Then  said  I,  ‘ If  he  be  so,  let  him  be  still  and  receive 
answers  from  me  to  what  he  hath  said.’ 

^And  so  he  was  desired  to  hold  his  peace,  or  see  if  he 
could  hold  his  peace  a little  while,  till  Truth  were  spoken 
to  him.  And  then  the  light  was  spoken  of  to  him  (which 
let  him  see  his  sinful  life  that  he  had  lived  in,  and  his  words 
and  his  ways),  that  would  be  his  teacher  to  lead  him  from 
them,  if  he  minded  it,  and  his  condemnation  if  he  acted 
against  it.  And  if  he  had  anything  to  speak  he  might 
speak. 

And  he  was  stricken  dumb  and  his  mouth  was  shut,  and 
he  cast  his  head  up  and  down  and  his  face  swelled,  and  he 
could  not  speak  for  a good  space.  His  face  was  as  red 
as  a turkey.^  And  his  lips  rent  and  he  mumbled,  and  the 
people  thought  he  would  have  fallen  down.  And  I stepped 
to  him ; and  he  said,  ‘ I was  never  so  in  my  life  before.  ’ For 
the  Lord’s  power  stopped  the  evil  power  and  air  in  him 
and  almost  choked  him. 

And  for  ever  after  the  man  was  very  loving  to  Friends 
and  never  so  full  of  airy  words  after  to  us,  though  he  was 
a man  full  of  pride.  But  the  Lord’s  power  came  over 
him  and  the  rest  that  were  with  him.  And  we  continued 
still  in  prison,  and  at  last  there  came  another  officer  of  the 
army,  a very  malicious,  bitter  professor  whom  I knew  in 
London,  and  he  was  so  full  of  his  airy  talk  also  and  speaking 
slightingly  of  the  light  of  Christ,  and  against  the  Truth 

^ Probably  Anthony  Rous,  successor  to  John  Fox,  as  governor 
of  Pendennis  Castle,  in  1660. 

^ ^ S.J.,  p.  46. 


252  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

as  Colonel  Rous  did,  and  the  spirit  of  God  being  in  men 
as  it  was  in  the  apostles’  days,  till  the  power  of  God 
that  bound  the  evil  in  him  had  almost  choked  him  also 
as  it  did  Colonel  Rous  aforesaid.  He  was  so  full  of  evil 
air  that  he  could  not  speak  but  blubbered  and  stuttered. 
And  from  that  time  the  Lord’s  power  struck  through  him 
and  came  over  him  that  he  was  ever  after  more  loving 
to  us. 

And  several  Friends  from  most  parts  of  the  nation  came 
into  the  country  to  visit  us.  For  those  were  very  dark 
countries  at  that  time;  but  the  Lord’s  light  and  truth  shined 
over  all  and  many  were  turned  from  darkness  to  the  light 
and  from  Satan’s  power  unto  God.  And  many  were 
moved  to  go  to  the  steeplehouses  and  several  were  sent  to 
prison  to  us;  and  there  began  to  be  a great  convincement 
in  the  country  and  a great  rage  in  the  priests  and  professors. 

<Now  the  Assize  being  over,  and  we  settled  in  prison 
upon  such  a commitment,  that  we  were  not  likely  to  be  soon 
released,)  we  brake  olf  from  the  gaoler,  from  giving  seven 
shillings  a week  for  our  horses  and  seven  shillings  a week 
a-piece  for  ourselves,  and  sent  our  horses  into  the  country. 
And  then  he  grew  very  devihsh  and  wicked,  and  carried 
us  and  put  us  into  Doomsdale,^  a nasty  stinking  place 
where  they  said  few  people  came  out  alive;  where  they  used 
to  put  witches  and  murderers  before  their  execution; 
where  the  prisoners’  excrements  had  not  been  carried  out 
^ for  scores  of  years,  as  it  was  said.  It  was  all  like  mire, 
and  in  some  places  at  the  top  of  the  shoes  in  water  and  piss, 
and  never  a house  of  office  in  the  place,  nor  chimney.  The 
gaoler  would  not  let  us  cleanse  the  place,  nor  let  us  have 
beds  nor  straw  to  lie  on ; but  at  night  some  friendly  people 
of  the  town  brought  us  a candle  and  a little  straw,  and 
we  went  to  burn  a little  of  our  straw  to  take  away  the 
stink.  The  thieves  were  put  over  our  heads  and  the  head 
gaoler  lay  above  with  the  thieves.  It  seems  the  smoke 
went  up  into  the  room  and  the  gaoler  was  in  such  a rage 

^ The  prisoners  were  put  into  Doomsdale  on  9th  April,  1656, 
and  kept  there  thirteen  days. 


DOOMSDALE 


1656] 


253 


that  he  ^stamped  with  his  foot  and  stick^  and  took  the  pots 
of  excrements  of  the  prisoners  and  poured  it  down  a hole 
a-top  of  our  heads  in  Doomsdale,  so  that  we  were  so 
bespattered  with  the  excrements  that  we  could  not  touch 
ourselves  nor  one  another,  that  our  stink  increased  upon  us. 
He  quenched  our  straw  with  it.  And  he  called  us  hatchet- 
faced dogs  and  such  names  as  we  never  heard  in  our  lives. 
What  with  the  stink  and  what  with  the  smoke,  we  were 
like  to  be  choked  and  smothered,  for  we  had  the  stink 
under  our  feet  before  but  now  we  had  it  on  our  backs. 
In  this  manner  we  stood  all  night  for  we  could  not  sit  down 
the  place  being  so  full  of  the  prisoners’  excrements.  And 
a great  while  he  kept  us  of  this  manner  before  he  would 
let  us  cleanse  it  or  suffer  us  to  have  any  victuals  in  but 
what  we  got  through  the  grate. 

And  at  one  time  a lass^  brought  us  a little  meat  and  he 
arrested  her  for  breaking  his  house,  and  had  her  into  the 
town  court  for  breaking  the  prison.  And  a great  deal  of 
trouble  he  brought  the  young  woman  to,  so  that  we  had 
much  to  do  to  get  water,  or  drink,  or  victuals.  And  the 
noise  was  amongst  the  prisoners  and  people  how  the  spirits 
haunted  and  walked  in  Doomsdale  and  how  many  died 
in  it,  but  I told  them  and  Friends  that  if  all  the  spirits  and 
devils  in  hell  were  there  I was  over  them  and  feared  no 
such  thing,  for  Christ  our  priest  would  sanctify  the  walls 
and  the  house  to  us,  that  bruised  the  head  of  the  Devil. 
For  the  priest  under  the  law  he  was  to  cleanse  the  plague 
out  of  the  walls  of  the  house,  which  Christ  our  priest, 
ended,  who  sanctifies  both  inwardly  and  outwardly  the 
walls  of  the  house  and  the  walls  of  the  heart  and  all  things 
to  his  people. 

And  this  head  gaoler  had  been  a thief  and  was  burnt 
in  the  hand  and  burnt  in  the  shoulder;  and  his  wife  had 
been  burnt  in  her  hand  for  some  wickedness;  and  the 
underkeeper^  was  burnt  in  the  hand  and  in  the  shoulder, 

^ Susanna  Kemp. 

^ Nicholas  Freeleven. 

i i 5./.,p.  45. 


254  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

and  his  wife  was  burnt  in  the  hand  also.  And  Colonel 
Bennet/  a Baptist  teacher,  who  had  taken  or  purchased 
the  office  and  gaol  and  land  belonging  to  the  Castle,  had 
put  them  in.  Such  we  had  over  us. 

And  we  drew  up  our  sufferings  and  sent  them  to  Bodmin 
Sessions,  and  sent  up  a copy  of  that  to  Oliver  Cromwell, 
Protector,  how  we  were  taken  by  Peter  Ceely  and  abused 
by  Keate  that  commanded  the  horse  guard  that  carried 
us  to  gaol.  And  at  the  Sessions  the  justices  gave  order 
that  Doomsdale  door  should  be  opened  and  that  we  should 
have  liberty  to  cleanse  it  and  to  buy  our  meat  in  the  town. 

<Near  this  time)  we  sent  for  a young  woman,  one  Anne 
Downer,^  from  London,  that  could  write  <and  take  things 
well  in  shorthand),  to  get  and  dress  our  meat  for  us,  <which 
she  was  very  willing  to  do,  it  being  also  upon  her  spirit 
to  come  to  us  in  the  love  of  God),  and  she  was  very  service- 
able to  us. 

And  Oliver  Protector  sent  down  an  order  to  Captain  Fox 
to  Pendennis  Castle  to  examine  the  soldiers’  abusing  of  us 
and  striking  of  me;  and  at  that  time  many  of  the  gentry 
of  the  country  were  at  the  castle,  and  Keate ’s  kinsman 
that  struck  me  was  sent  for  before  them  and  much 
threatened ; and  they  told  him  that  Mr.  Fcx,  if  he  should 
change  his  principle  might  take  the  extremity  of  the  law 
upon  him  and  recover  sound  damages.  So  they  threatened 
him  for  abusing  the  prisoners;  which  was  of  great  service 
in  the  country,  after  which  Friends  might  have  spoken 
in  any  market  or  steeplehouse  thereabouts  and  none  would 
meddle  with  them. 

And  Hugh  Peters,^  Oliver  Protector’s  chaplain,  told  him 
they  could  not  do  George  Fox  a greater  service  for  the 
spreading  of  his  principles  in  Cornwall  than  to  imprison 

^ Robert  Bennet  (1605-1683),  M.P.  for  Launceston,  1653,  1659. 

2 Anne  Downer  (1624-1686)  married  George  Whitehead,  her 
second  husband.  A testimony  to  her,  written  in  Fox’s  hand,  says: 

‘ she  came  afoot  above  two  hundred  miles  and  lay  in  the  town  of 
Launceston  and  carried  herself  very  wisely.’ 

3 Hugh  Peters  (1598-1660),  Independent,  active  in  the  parliamentary 
cause,  chaplain  to  the  Council  of  State,  1650,  executed  as  a regicide. 


1656]  THE  WORD  OF  LIFE  255 

him;  and  so  it  was  of  the  Lord  and  for  his  service,  my 
imprisonment  in  those  parts.  And  then  we  had  liberty 
to  come  out  and  to  walk  in  the  Green,  and  divers  people 
came  to  us  on  the  First-days  and  great  service  we  had 
amongst  them,  to  whom  we  declared  the  word  of  life, 
and  many  were  turned  to  God  here  and  there,  up  and  down. 

And  there  came  an  envious  professor;^  and  he  writ 
many  Scripture  phrases  and  invited  the  town  of  Launceston 
into  the  Castle  Yard  to  read  it  to  them;  and  a-many 
Scriptures  to  prove  that  we  ought  to  bow  and  put  off  our 
hats  to  the  people  and  said,  ‘ Saul  bowed  to  the  witch  of 
Endor.’  And  so  when  he  had  done  we  got  a little  liberty, 
whether  the  gaoler  would  or  no,  to  speak,  and  showed 
him  and  the  people  how  that  Saul  was  gone  from  God 
and  had  disobeyed  God,  like  them,  when  he  went  to  the 
witch  of  Endor,  and  that  neither  the  prophets,  Christ, 
nor  the  apostles  ever  taught  people  to  bow  to  the  witch 
of  Endor,  nor  any  other,  and  at  the  last  the  man  and  his 
rude  people  went  away,  though  some  stayed  v/ith  us.  So 
we  showed  the  people  that  this  was  not  Gospel  instructions, 
to  teach  people  to  bow  to  the  witch  of  Endor.  For  then 
people  began  to  be  affected  with  Truth,  and  then  the  Devil 
began  to  rage,  <so  that  we  were  in  great  danger  many  times.  > 

And  there  came  two  justices  of  peace  out  of  Wales^  to 
visit  us,  which  came  to  be  fine  ministers  and  turned  many 
to  the  spirit  of  God  and  to  sit  under  Christ’s  teaching,  and 
they  suffered  much  imprisonment;  and  one  of  them  con- 
vinced three  priests,  and  one  of  them  became  a fine  minister 
and  stands  to  this  day. 

And  there  came  a soldier,  and  one  of  our  Friends  was 
admonishing  of  him  and  exhorting  him,  and  I savv^  him 
begin  to  draw  his  sword  at  him,  and  I stepped  to  him  and 
told  him  what  a shame  it  was  to  offer  to  draw  his  sword 
of  a naked^  man  and  a prisoner,  and  how  unfit  and  unworthy 
he  was  to  carry  such  a weapon,  for  some  men  would  have 

^ Degorie  Pearse. 

^ Probably  Walter  Jenkins  and  Peter  Price.  See  p.  222  ante. 

3 That  is,  unarmed. 


256  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

taken  it  from  him  if  he  should  have  offered  such  a thing, 
and  have  broken  it  to  pieces;  and  so  he  was  shamed  with 
it  <and  went  his  way).  And  the  Lord’s  power  did  mightily 
preserve  us  there. 

And  the  gaoler  came  and  told  me  one  night  about  the 
eleventh  hour  at  night,  when  he  was  half  drunk,  that  he 
had  gotten  a man^  now  to  dispute  with  me.  And  I felt 
as  soon  as  he  spoke  those  words  there  was  a snare  intended 
to  my  body,  all  that  night  and  the  next  day.  This  was  when 
we  had  leave  to  go  a little  into  the  town. 

And  the  next  day  I lay  down  on  a grass  plot  to  slumber 
and  I felt  something  still  about  my  body,  and  I started  up 
and  struck  at  it  in  the  power  of  the  Lord : and  yet  still  it  was 
about  my  body.  And  I rose  and  walked  into  the  Castle 
Green  and  the  underkeeper  told  me  there  was  a maid 
would  speak  with  me  at  the  prison.  And  I felt  a snare 
in  his  words  too  and  I went  <not  into  the  prison,  but) 
to  the  grate  and  there  I saw  the  <man  that  was  lately 
brought  to  prison  for  being  a)  conjurer  and  he  had  a naked 
knife  in  his  hand.  And  I spoke  to  him  and  he  threatened 
to  cut  my  chops  as  he  said,  but  he  was  in  the  gaol  and 
could  not  come  at  me. 

And  this  was  the  gaoler’s  great  disputant;  and  when  I 
came  in,  the  gaoler  was  at  breakfast  <and  had  then  got  his 
conjurer  out  with  him);  and  I told  the  gaoler  his  plot 
was  discovered,  and  he  got  up  from  the  table  and  wrung 
his  hands,  and  struck  his  napkin  away  in  a rage.  And  I 
went  away  into  the  chamber  and  left  them,  for  at  that 
time  we  were  out  of  Doomsdale. 

But  at  the  time  that  the  gaoler  said  the  dispute  should 
be,  I went  into  the  court  and  walked  there  in  the  place 
appointed,  till  about  the  eleventh  hour,  and  nobody 
came;  and  then  I walked  up  into  the  chamber  again; 
and  1 heard  one  call  for  me  and  I went  to  the  stair  head, 
and  the  gaoler’s  wife  was  upon  the  stairs,  and  the  fortune 
teller  was  at  the  bottom  of  the  stairs  in  a rage  holding  his 
hand  behind  his  back. 

^ George  Roach. 


A WICKED  DESIGN 


) 

i 

i 


i 

i 

! 


1656] 


257 


And  I said  unto  him,  ‘ Man,  what  hast  in  thy  hand  behind 
thy  back  ? Pluck  thy  hand  before  thee,  let  us  see  thy  hand 
and  what  thou  hast  in  it.’  And  in  a rage  he  took  forth  his 
hand  with  a naked  knife  in  it;  and  then  I showed  the  gaoler’s 
wife  the  wicked  design  of  her  and  her  husband,  which 
was  the  man  they  had  brought  to  dispute  of  the  things  of 
God ; but  the  Lord  discovered  their  plot  and  their  design. 
And  so  they  both  raged  and  he  threatened;  and  I was 
moved  of  the  Lord  to  speak  sharply  to  him  in  the  dreadful 
power  of  the  Lord  and  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  him 
and  bound  him  down  so  as  he  never  after  durst  appear 
before  me  to  speak  unto  me. 

And  I saw  that  it  was  the  Lord  alone  that  did  preserve 
me  out  of  and  over  their  bloody  hands,  for  the  Devil  had  a 
great  enmity  to  me,  <and  stirred  up  his  instruments  to  seek 
my  hurt.  But  the  Lord  prevented  them. 

Now  Edward  Pyott,  who  before  his  convincement  had 
been  a captain  in  the  army,  and  had  a good  understanding 
in  the  laws  and  rights  of  the  people,  being  sensible  of  the 
injustice  and  envy  of  Judge  Glynn  to  us  at  our  trial,  writ 
an  epistle  to  him  on  behalf  of  us  all,  thus:) 


Edward  Pyott  to  Judge  Glynn,  Chief  Justice  of  England. 
Friend,  We  are  free  men  of  England,  free  born;  our  rights 
and  liberties  are  according  to  law  and  defended  by  it ; and  there- 
fore with  thee,  by  whose  hand  we  have  so  long  suffered,  and  yet 
do  suffer,  let  us  a little  plainly  reason  concerning  thy  proceedings 
against  us,  whether  they  have  been  according  to  lav/,  or  agreeable 
to  thy  duty  and  office,  as  chief  minister  of  the  law,  or  justice 
of  England  . . . 

The  afternoon  before  v/e  were  brought  before  thee  at  the 
Assizes  at  Launceston,  thou  didst  cause  divers  scores  of  our 
books  violently  to  be  taken  from  us  by  armed  men  without 
due  process  of  law;  which  being  perused  if  so  be  anything  in 
them  might  be  found  to  lay  to  our  charge,  who  were  innocent, 
and  then  upon  our  legal  issue,  thou  hast  detained  till  this  very 
day.  Now  our  books  are  our  goods,  and  our  goods  are  our 
property;  and  our  liberty  it  is  to  have  and  enjoy  our  property; 
and  of  our  liberty  and  property  the  law  is  the  defence,  which 
saith,  ‘ No  free-man  shall  be  disseized  of  his  freehold,  liberty. 


258  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656  B 

or  free  customs,  &c.,  nor  any  wa.y  otherwise  destroyed:  nor  we  Bi 
shall  not  pass  upon  him  but  by  lawful  judgment  of  his  peers 
or  by  the  law  of  the  land.’  Magna  Carta,  cap.  29.  ... 

And  these  things.  Friend,  we  have  laid  before  thee  in  all  1| 
plainness,  to  the  end  that  with  the  light  of  Jesus  Christ,  who  I ^ 
lighteth  every  one  that  cometh  into  the  world,  a measure  of  which  | ^ 
thou  hast  received  which  showeth  thee  evil,  and  reproveth  thee  f 
for  sin,  for  which  thou  must  be  accountable,  thou,  being  still  I 
and  cool,  mayest  consider  and  see  what  thou  hast  done  against 
the  innocent;  and  shame  may  overtake  thee,  and  thou  turn  ; = 
unto  the  Lord,  who  now  calleth  thee  to  repentance  through  his 
servants,  who  for  witnessing  his  living  Truth  in  them,  thou 
hast  cast  into,  and  yet  continues  under  cruel  bonds  and  sufferings. 

Edward  Pyott.^ 

From  the  Gaol  in 
Launceston  the  14th  day 
of  the  5th  month  [July]  1656. 

<By  the  foregoing  letter  the  reader  may  observe  how 
contrary  to  law  we  were  made  to  suffer;  but  the  Lord,  who 
who  saw  the  integrity  of  our  hearts  to  him  and  knew 
the  innocency  of  our  cause,  was  with  us  in  our  sufferings, 
and  bore  up  our  spirit  through,  and  made  them  easy  to  us,  j 
and  gave  us  opportunities  of  publishing  his  name  and 
Truth  amongst  the  people.)  And  several  of  the  towns- 
people came  to  be  convinced,  and  were  made  loving  to  us. 

And  in  Cornwall,  Devonshire,  Dorsetshire  and  Somerset- 
shire, Truth  began  mightily  to  spread.  And  many  were 
turned  to  Christ  Jesus  and  his  free  teaching.  And  they 
revived  an  old  law  made  in  Queen  Elizabeth’s  time^  against  h 
sturdy  vagrants  and  beggars  going  up  and  down,  which  ) 
law  they  put  into  execution  against  our  friends  and  set 

^ Abridged  from  a MS.  copy  in  Friends  House  Library,  headed  j 
in  Fox’s  hand,  G.  Fox  and  E.  Pyott  to  Judge  Glynn.  Printed  in  full, 

West  Answering  North  (1657),  pp.  16-31;  Ellwood,  pp.  189-200; 
Bicent.,  i,  287-300. 

The  pages  omitted  argue  the  illegality  and  injustice  of  the  proceed- 
ings at  the  Assizes.  The  letter  was  delivered  to  Judge  Glynn  at  the  i 
Assizes  at  Gloucester.  I 

^ 39  Eliz.  cap.  4. 


1656]  WATCHES  SET  AGAINST  FRIENDS  259 

up  watch  and  ward  in  the  highways,  to  take  up  all  sus- 
picious persons,  as  they  called  it,  which  were  the  Friends 
that  came  to  visit  us  in  prison,  which  they  only  took  up 
that  they  might  not  pass  up  and  down  in  the  Lord’s  service. 
And  them  they  brought  before  the  justices.  And  some 
clothiers  and  other  men  they  whipped  ^as  sturdy  beggars 
and  vagrants,  which  were  sober  people^  <of  about  a hundred 
or  eighty  pounds  a year),  which  they  took  up  not  above 
four  or  five  miles  from  their  families,  that  were  going  to 
mills  with  their  cloth. 

And  when  Friends  were  got  amongst  the  watches  it 
would  be  a fortnight  or  three  weeks  before  they  could 
get  out  of  them  again;  for  no  sooner  had  one  party  taken 
them  and  carried  them  before  the  justices  and  they  had 
discharged  them,  but  then  another  would  take  them  up  and 
carry  them  before  other  justices,  which  put  the  country 
to  a great  deal  of  needless  cost  and  charges.  And  that 
which  they  thought  to  have  stopped  the  Truth  by  was  the 
means  to  spread  it  so  much  the  more.  For  then  Friends 
were  continually  moved  to  speak  to  one  constable  and  to 
the  other  officer  and  justice.  And  this  caused  the  Truth 
to  spread  the  more  amongst  them  in  all  their  parishes. 

And  as  Thomas  Rawlinson  was  coming  up  to  visit  us 
out  of  the  north  a constable  in  Devonshire  took  him  up, 
and  at  night  took  twenty  shillings  out  of  his  pocket.  And  he 
and  many  Friends  were  cruelly  beat  many  times  by  them. 
And  they  cast  him  into  Exeter  gaol  after  they  had  robbed 
him. 

And  the  mayor  of  Launceston^  was  a very  wicked  man, 
for  he  would  take  them  up  and  search  substantial  grave 
women,  their  petticoats,  and  head-clothes  for  letters,  and 
cast  them  into  prison. 

And  there  was  a Friend,  a young  man,  came  to  me,  that 
came  not  through  the  town.  And  I drew  up  all  the  gross 
inhuman  and  unchristian  actions  of  the  mayor,  for  his 
carriage  was  more  like  a heathen  than  a Christian;  and  I 

^ Philip  Pearce,  in  1655-6. 

j j S.J.,  p.  48. 


JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX 


260 


[1656 


gave  it  the  young  man  and  bid  him  seal  it  up  and  go  out 
the  backside  of  the  town  and  come  into  the  town  through 
the  gates.  And  the  young  man  did  so,  and  the  watchman 
took  him  up  and  carried  him  before  the  mayor;  and  he 
presently  searched  his  pockets  and  took  out  that  letter 
where  he  saw  all  his  actions  characterized;  and  from  that 
time  he  meddled  little  more  with  the  servants  of  the  Lord, 
he  was  so  ashamed. 

And  they  cast  Henry  Polixphen  into  prison  in  Devonshire 
for  being  a Jesuit,  who  had  been  a justice  of  peace  for  the 
most  part  of  forty  years  past.  And  this  was  the  rage  and 
fruits  of  the  Presbyterians,  Independents,  and  Baptists 
in  that  which  they  called  their  Gospel  times,  which  were 
the  times  of  the  power  of  darkness. 

<Now  from  the  sense  I had  of  the  snare  that  was  laid, 
and  mischief  intended,  in  setting  up  those  watches  at  the 
time  to  stop  and  take  up  Friends,  it  came  upon  me  to  give 
forth  an  exhortation  and  warning  to  the  magistrates.^ 
Besides  this  general  warning,  there  coming  to  my  hand 
a copy  of  a warrant  issued  out  from  the  Sessions  at  Exeter 
in  express  terms,  ‘ for  the  apprehending  of  all  Quakers  ’, 
wherein  Truth  and  Friends  were  reproached  and  vilified, 
I was  moved  to  write  an  answer  thereunto,^  and  send  it 
abroad,  for  the  clearing  of  Truth  and  Friends  from  the 
slanders  therein  cast  upon  them,  and  to  manifest  the  wicked- 
ness of  that  persecuting  spirit  from  whence  it  proceeded. 

When  I had  sent  abroad  the  foregoing  papers  concerning 
the  watches  that  were  set  up  to  intercept  and  stop  Friends, 
a great  sense  came  upon  me  of  the  darkness  and  veil  that 
was  over  the  priests  and  professors  of  Christianity  so  that 
I was  moved  to  give  forth  an  awakening  warning  to  them.3> 
So  we  continued  in  prison  until  the  next  Assizes. 

And  a great  deal  of  work  we  had  betwixt  the  Assizes. 
Several  men  and  women  were  taken  up  by  the  watches 
and  sent  to  prison  at  this  time.  And  at  the  Assizes  several 


i 


' Ellwood,  p.  201  * ; Bicent.,  i,  302-4. 

Ellwood,  pp.  203 *-206*;  Bicent.,  i,  304-8. 

3 Ellwood,  pp.  207*-210*;  Bicent.,  i,  308-13. 


1656]  ELIZABETH  TRELAWNEY  261 

Friends  were  called  before  the  judge  and  indicted;  and 
though  the  gaoler  brought  them  into  the  court,  yet  they 
indicted  them  that  they  came  in  by  force  of  arms  and  in  a 
hostile  manner;  and  the  judge  fined  them  because  they 
would  not  put  off  their  hats.  But  we  were  never  called 
before  the  judge  any  more ; but  they  left  us  by. 

And  Elizabeth  Trelawney^  of  Plymouth,  a baronet’s 
daughter,  being  convinced,  the  priests  and  other  great 
persons  and  professors,  her  kindred,  were  in  a great  rage 
concerning  her,  <and  writ  letters  to  her);  and  being  a wise 
and  tender  woman  in  the  fear  of  God,  she  sent  her  letters 
to  me.  And  I answered  the  priests;  and  if  she  could  own 
them  she  might  set  her  hand  to  them  and  give  them  to  the 
priests,  which  she  did.  And  she  grew  so  in  the  power  and 
spirit  and  wisdom  of  God  that  she  could  answer  the  wisest 
priest  and  professor  of  them  all,  and  had  a dominion  over 
them  all  in  the  Truth  by  the  power  of  the  Lord;  and  she 
continued  in  Truth  till  she  died. 

<Now  while  I was  in  prison  here  the  Baptists  and  Fifth- 
Monarchy-Men  prophesied  that  this  year  Christ  should 
come  and  reign  upon  earth  a thousand  years.  And  they 
looked  upon  this  reign  to  be  outward,  whenas  he  was  come 
inwardly  in  the  hearts  of  his  people  to  reign  and  rule  there, 
these  professors  would  not  receive  him  there.  So  they 
failed  in  their  prophecy  and  expectation,  and  had  not  the 
possession  of  him.  But  Christ  is  come  and  doth  dwell 
in  the  hearts  of  his  people  and  reigns  there.  And  thousands, 
at  the  door  of  whose  hearts  he  hath  been  knocking,  have 
opened  to  him,  and  he  is  come  in,  and  doth  sup  with  them 
and  they  with  him,  the  heavenly  supper  with  the  heavenly 
and  spiritual  man.  So  many  of  these  Baptist  and  Monarchy 
people  turned  the  greatest  enemies  to  the  possessors  of 
Christ.  But  he  reigns  in  the  hearts  of  his  saints  over  all 
their  envy.) 

And  divers  justices  came  to  us  at  the  Assizes  and  were 
pretty  civil,  and  reasoned  of  the  things  of  God  pretty 

^ Daughter  of  Sir  John  Trelawney  (1592-1664);  she  was  Thomas 
Lower’s  first  wife,  and  died  before  1668. 


262  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

soberly  and  had  a pity  to  us.  And  there  came  Captain  Fox, 
that  was  governor  of  Pendennis  Castle,  and  looked  me  in 
the  face  and  said  never  a word,  but  went  his  ways  to  his 
company,  and  said  he  never  saw  a simpler  man  in  his  life. 
And  I called  after  him  and  said,  ‘ Stay,  m.an,  and  we  will 
see  who  is  the  simpler  man.’  But  he  went  his  ways,  a light, 
chaffy  man. 

And  at  the  Assizes  there  came  one  Thomas  Lower^  to 
visit  us,  and  offered  to  give  us  money,  and  we  accepted  of 
his  love  but  refused  his  money.  He  asked  many  questions 
of  us  concerning  our  denying  the  Scriptures  to  be  the  word 
of  God  and  concerning  the  sacraments  and  such  like. 
I spoke  unto  him,  and  he  said  my  words  were  as  a flash  of 
lightning,  they  so  run  through  him.  He  received  satis- 
faction concerning  all  the  things  he  asked  of  us  and  went 
his  ways  and  said  he  never  met  with  such  wise  men  in 
his  life,  for  they  knew  the  thoughts  of  his  heart  and  were  as 
the  wise  master-builders  of  the  assemblies  that  fastened 
their  words  like  nails;  who  after  came  to  be  convinced, 
and  remains  a Friend  to  this  day.  And  he  went  home  to 
his  aunt  Hambly’s^  <v/here  he  then  lived,  and  made  report 
to  her  concerning  us>.  And  hearing  the  sound  of  Truth, 
she  and  her  sister  Grace  Billing  came  afterwards  to  visit 
us  in  prison  and  were  convinced  also,  and  remain  to  this 
day.  They  have  gone  through  great  sufferings  and  spoiling 
of  goods,  both  he  and  his  aunt  for  Truth’s  sake. 

And  Judge  Haggett’s  wife^  came  from  Bristol  to  visit  us 
at  the  second  Assizes;  and  she  was  convinced  and  several 
of  her  children;  and  her  husband  was  very  loving  and 
serviceable  to  Friends  and  had  a great  love  to  God’s 
people,  which  he  retained  till  he  died. 

<About  this  time  I was  moved  to  give  forth  the 
following  exhortation  to  Friends  in  the  ministry: 

^ Thomas  Lower  (1633-1720),  physician,  became  stepson-in-law 
to  Fox,  wrote  out  the  greater  part  of  the  MS.  of  this  Journal  at  Fox’s 
dictation. 

2 Loveday  Hambly,  nee  Billing  (c.  1604-1682),  of  Tregangeeves, 
near  St.  Austell. 

3 Perhaps  Elizabeth  Yeamans  who  married  John  Haggett  of  Bristol. 


‘ ANSWERING  THAT  OF  GOD  ’ 


263 


1656] 

Friends, 

In  the  power  of  life  and  wisdom,  and  dread  of  the  Lord 
God  of  life,  and  heaven,  and  earth,  dwell,  that  in  the  wisdom  of 
God  over  all  ye  may  be  preserved,  and  be  a terror  to  all  the 
adversaries  of  God,  and  a dread,  answering  that  of  God  in 
them  all,  spreading  the  Truth  abroad,  awakening  the  witness, 
confounding  deceit,  gathering  up  out  of  transgression  into  the 
I life,  the  covenant  of  light  and  peace  with  God.  Let  all  nations 
hear  the  word  by  sound  or  writing.  Spare  no  place,  spare  not 
tongue  nor  pen;  but  be  obedient  to  the  Lord  God  and  go  through 
the  work  and  be  valiant  for  the  Truth  upon  earth;  tread  and 
4 trample  all  that  is  contrary  under  . . . Keep  in  the  wisdom  of 
li  God  that  spreads  over  all  the  earth,  the  wisdom  of  the  creation, 

’ that  is  pure.  Live  in  it;  that  is  the  word  of  the  Lord  God  to 

Iyou  all,  do  not  abuse  it;  and  keep  down  and  low;  and  take  heed 
of  false  joys  that  will  change. 

Bring  all  into  the  worship  of  God.  Plough  up  the  fallow 
! ground  . . . And  none  are  ploughed  up  but  he  who  comes 
i to  the  principle  of  God  in  him  which  he  hath  transgressed, 
f Then  he  doth  service  to  God;  then  the  planting  and  the  watering 
I and  the  increase  from  God  cometh.  So  the  ministers  of  the 
t Spirit  must  minister  to  the  spirit  that  is  transgressed  and  in 
I'  prison,  which  hath  been  in  captivity  in  every  one;  whereby 
V with  the  same  spirit  people  must  be  led  out  of  captivity  up  to 
i God,  the  Father  of  spirits,  and  do  service  to  him  and  have 
n unity  with  him,  with  the  Scriptures  and  one  with  another.  And 
i this  is  the  word  of  the  Lord  God  to  you  ail,  and  a charge  to  you 

I all  in  the  presence  of  the  living  God,  be  patterns,  be  examples 
in  all  countries,  places,  islands,  nations,  wherever  you  come; 
that  your  carriage  and  life  may  preach  among  all  sorts  of  people, 
i and  to  them.  Then  you  will  come  to  walk  cheerfully  over  the 
world,  answering  that  of  God  in  every  one;  whereby  in  them 
ye  may  be  a blessing,  and  make  the  witness  of  God  in  them 
to  bless  you.  Then  to  the  Lord  God  you  will  be  a sweet  savour 
and  a blessing. 

Spare  no  deceit.  Lay  the  sword  upon  it;  go  over  it;  keep 
i yourselves  clear  of  the  blood  of  ail  men,  either  by  v/ord,  or 
writing,  or  speaking.  And  keep  yourselves  clean,  . . . that 
nothing  may  rule  nor  reign  but  power  and  life  itself,  and  that 
in  the  wisdom  of  God  ye  may  be  preserved  in  it. 


In  full,  Ellwood,  pp.  212*-214*,  Bicent.,  i,  315-17. 


264  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656  | 

And  after  <the  Assizes)  the  sheriff  and  the  soldiers  came  | 
to  guard  a woman  that  was  to  be  put  to  death,  with  whom  | 
we  had  a great  deal  of  discourse.  And  one  of  them  said  | 
wickedly  that  Christ  was  as  passionate  a man  as  any  that  | 
lived  upon  the  earth;  for  which  we  rebuked  him.  ^ 

And  we  asked  the  gaoler  what  doings  there  were  at  the  I 
Sessions,  and  he  said,  ‘ Small  matters;  only  a matter  of  f 
thirty  for  bastardy  ’,  and  we  thought  it  very  strange  that 
they  that  professed  themselves  Christians,  should  make 
small  matters  of  such  things. 

And  I often  admonished  the  gaoler  to  sobriety:  for  he 
would  abuse  people  that  came  to  visit  us.  He  had  been 
blessed  and  made  if  he  had  carried  himself  civil  but  the  man 
sought  his  own  ruin,  as  after  came  upon  him.  I 

And  Edward  Pyott  had  a cheese  sent  to  him  from  his  j 
wife  from  Bristol,  and  the  gaoler  took  the  cheese  from  us  | 
and  carried  it  to  the  mayor  to  search  it  for  treasonable  i 
letters  as  he  said;  and  <though  they  found  no  treason 
in  the  cheese)  they  kept  it.  | 

And  the  next  year  the  gaoler  was  turned  out,  and  for  some  i 
wickedness  was  cast  into  the  gaol  himself  and  there  begged  i 
of  our  Friends.  And  for  some  unruliness  in  his  carriage 
he  was  cast  into  Doomsdale  by  the  succeeding  gaoler,  and  ! 
locked  up  in  the  irons  and  beaten.  And  he  bid  him  remem- 
ber how  he  had  abused  those  good  men  that  he  had  wickedly,  | 
without  any  cause,  cast  into  that  nasty  dungeon ; and  now 
he  deservedly  should  suffer  for  his  wickedness,  and  the 
same  measure  he  had  meted  to  others  he  should  have  ' 
meted  out  to  himself.  And  he  grew  to  be  very  poor  and  , 
died  in  prison  and  his  wife  and  family  came  to  misery. 

And  not  long  after  Judge  Glynne  died,^  and  Major 
Peter  Ceely  and  other  of  the  persecuting  justices  were  turned 
out. 

And  when  I was  in  prison  in  Cornwall  there  was  a Friend 
went  to  Oliver  Cromwell  and  offered  his  body  to  him  for 
to  go  to  lie  in  Doomsdale  prison  for  me  or  in  my  stead,  ; 
that  he  would  take  him  and  let  me  go  at  liberty,  and  it  i 
^ Judge  Glynne,  d.  1666,  ten  years|later. 


!(  1656]  A PLEA  FOR  LIBERATION  265 

( SO  struck  him  and  came  over  him  that  he  said  to  his  great 
3 men  and  his  Council,  ‘ Which  of  you  would  do  so  much 
lr<  for  me  if  I was  in  the  same  condition  ? ’ 

Nevertheless  Oliver  Cromwell  did  not  accept  the  Friend’s 
r proffer,  but  said  he  could  not  do  it,  for  that  was  contrary 
» to  law;  however,  the  Truth  came  over  him. 

And  after  a time  Oliver  Protector  sent  down  Major- 
)i'  General  Desborough,  pretending  to  set  us  at  liberty,  and 
s he  proffered  us  if  we  would  say  we  would  go  home  and 
1 preach  no  more,  we  should  have  our  liberty,  but  we  could 
3 not  promise  him  so.  <Then  he  urged  that  we  should 
I promise  to  go  home  ‘ if  the  Lord  permitted  ’.  Whereupon 
Edward  Pyott  wrote  him  the  following  letter.) 

Friend  and  Friends, 

Much  might  be  said  as  to  the  liberty  of  Englishmen  to  travel 
in  any  part  of  the  nation,  England  being  as  the  Englishman’s 
house  by  the  law,  and  he  is  to  be  protected  in  any  part  of  it  . . . 
And  liberty  of  conscience  is  a natural  right  and  a fundamental 
and  the  exercise  of  it  by  those  who  profess  faith  in  God  by  Jesus 
Christ,  is  to  be  protected  as  by  the  Instrument  of  Government 
I appears.  . . . Where  these  rights  are  denied  us,  our  liberties 
I are  infringed,  which  are  the  price  of  much  blood  and  treasure 
in  the  late  wars.  . . . We,  who  were  first  committed,  were 
: passing  homewards  when  we  were  apprehended.  And  as  far 
as  I know  we  might  pass  if  the  prison  doors  were  commanded  to 
be  opened.  Should  we  stay  if  the  Lord  commands  us  to  go, 
or  should  we  go  if  the  Lord  commands  us  to  stay,  ...  we  should 
then  be  wanderers  indeed,  for  such  are  wanderers  who  wander 
out  from  the  will  and  power  of  God,  in  their  own  wills  and 
earthly  minds.  . . . Well  weigh  and  consider,  with  the  just 
weight  and  just  balance,  that  justice  you  may  do  to  the  just  and 
innocent  in  your  prison. 

Edward  Pyott.^ 

I <Some  time  having  elapsed  after  the  foregoing  was 
I delivered  him,  and  he  not  giving  any  order  for  our  discharge, 

I I also  writ  unto  him.>^ 

^ In  full:  Camb,  JnL,  i,  238-9;  Ellwood,  p.  215*;  Bicent.,  i,  318-19. 

2 Camb,  JnL,  i,  239-41 ; Ellwood,  pp.  216*-217*;  Bicent.,  i,  319-21. 


266  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

And  he  came  to  the  Castle  Green  and  there  played  at 
bowls  with  the  justices  and  other  men;  and  several  Friends 
were  moved  to  go  and  admonish  him  and  them,  how 
they  took  their  pleasure,  and  imprisoned  the  servants 
of  God,  and  yet  profess  themselves  Christians,  and  how 
the  Lord  would  plead  with  them  and  visit  them  for  such 
things. 

<And  I was  moved  to  give  forth  several  papers  as  a 
warning  unto  them  and  unto  all  that  so  misspend  their 
time.^ 

But  notwithstanding  what  was  writ  or  said  to  him, 
Major-General  Desborough)  went  his  ways  but  left  us  in 
prison.  But  after,  when  the  King  came  in  he  was  cast  into 
prison  himself. 

<He  left  the  business  to  Colonel  Bennet  who  had  the 
command  of  the  gaol.)  And  after  a while  Colonel  Bennet 
would  have  set  us  at  liberty  if  we  would  have  paid  his 
gaoler’s  fees,  for  the  business  was  left  with  him  by  Major- 
General  Desborough.  But  we  told  him  we  could  give 
the  gaoler  no  fees,  for  we  were  innocent  sufferers,  and  how 
could  they  ask  fees  of  us  who  had  caused  us  to  suffer 
so  long  wrongfully. 

And  after  a time.  Colonel  Bennet  coming  to  town,  he 
sent  for  us  to  an  inn  and  insisted  again  upon  fees.  But 
at  last  the  power  of  the  Lord  came  so  over  him  that  he  set 
us  at  liberty  on  the  9th  day  of  the  7th  month  [September], 
1656.^  And  we  were  cast  into  prison  nine  weeks  before 
the  Lent  Assizes. 

^ Two  papers  are  in  Ellwood,  pp.  218*-219*;  Bicent.,  i,  324,  325. 

2 The  MS.  Journal  and  previous  editions  give  13th  in  error.  See 
West  Answering  to  the  North,  1657,  p.  126;  Swarthmore  MSS.,i,  167; 
and  G.  F.  Nuttall  in  Friends  Quarterly,  1946,  117. 


CHAPTER  XI 


WiE  got  horses  and  rid  up  into  the  country  to 
Humphrey  Lower’sd  And  upon  the  road  we 
met  him,  and  he  told  us  he  was  much  troubled  in 
his  spirit  concerning  of  us  and  he  could  not  rest  at  home 
but  was  going  to  Colonel  Bennet  to  seek  for  our  liberty. 
And  we  told  him  we  were  set  at  liberty  and  were  going  to 
his  house,  and  glad  he  was  of  it.  And  at  his  house  we  had 
a fine,  precious  meeting,  and  many  were  convinced  and 
turned  by  the  spirit  of  God  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ’s 
teaching.  And  from  his  house  we  went  to  Loveday 
Hambly’s  house  where  we  had  a fine  large  meeting.  And 
many  were  convinced  there  also  and  turned  to  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  their  teacher.  And  after  we  had  tarried  there 
two  or  three  days  we  came  to  Thomas  Mounce’s  where 
we  had  a General  Meeting  for  the  whole  county  and  Friends 
from  Plymouth  were  there  also,  which  Vv^as  very  large  in 
his  orchard.  And  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  all  and  great 
convincement  there  was  in  many  places  of  the  county. 
All  their  watches  were  dov/n  in  all  the  country  and  all  was 
plain.  And  the  Lord  did  let  me  see  before  I was  set  at 
liberty  that  he  would  make  all  the  country  plain  before  me. 

And  Thomas  and  Ann  Curtis  came  up  to  see  me  whilst 
I was  in  prison,  and  one  of  the  aldermen  of  Reading  who 
was  convinced.  And  <when  Ann  and  the  other  man 
returned),  Thomas  Curtis  stayed  behind  and  went  into 
Cornwall  and  he  did  good  service  for  the  Lord  there  at 
that  time. 

And  from  Thomas  Mounce’s  we  passed  to  Launceston 
again  and  visited  that  little  remnant  of  Friends  where  we 
had  been  prisoners;  and  the  Lord’s  plants  finely  grew  and 
were  estabhshed  on  Christ  the  rock  and  foundation. 

^ Humphrey  Lower’s  house  was  Tremeere,  near  St.  Tudy. 


267 


268  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

And  when  we  came  to  Launceston,  the  constable,  as 
we  were  going  out  of  town,  came  running  to  us  with  the 
cheese  which  they  had  kept  from  us  a long  while,  and  were 
tormented  with  it;  but  then,  being  set  at  liberty,  we  would 
not  receive  it. 

From  Launceston  we  came  to  Okehampton,  and  lay 
at  the  mayor’s  house,  who  kept  an  inn,  and  who  had  taken 
up  and  stopped  several  Friends.  But  he  was  very  civil 
to  us,  and  convinced  in  his  judgment. 

And  from  thence  we  came  through  the  countries  to 
Exeter,  <where  many  Friends  were  in  prison,  and  amongst 
the  rest  James  Nayler,  for  a little  before  the  time  we  were 
set  at  hberty,  James  ran  out  into  imaginations,  and  a 
company  with  him;  and  they  raised  up  a great  darkness 
in  the  nation.  And  he  came  to  Bristol  and  made  a dis- 
turbance there;  and  from  thence  he  was  coming  to  Laun- 
ceston to  see  me,  but  was  stopped  by  the  way  and  imprisoned 
at  Exeter.) 

That  night  that  we  came  to  Exeter,  I spoke  with  James 
Nayler,  for  I saw  he  was  out  and  wrong  and  so  was  his 
company.  Next  day,  being  the  First-day^  we  went  to  the 
prison  to  visit  the  prisoners  and  had  a meeting  with  them 
in  the  prison;  and  I did  admonish  them.  But  James 
Nayler  and  some  of  them  could  not  stay  the  meeting 
but  kept  on  their  hats  when  I prayed.  And  they  were  the 
first  that  gave  that  bad  example  amongst  Friends.  So 
after  I had  been  warring  with  the  world,  now  there  was  a 
wicked  spirit  risen  up  amongst  Friends  to  war  against. 
And  there  was  a corporal  of  horse  came  in  to  the  meeting 
there,  and  he  was  convinced;  and  he  remains  a very  good 
Friend  to  this  day. 

And  there  was  a tender  Friend  died  in  prison  at  that 
time^  who  was  coming  to  visit  me,  whose  blood  lies  on  the 
heads  of  his  persecutors. 

And  the  next  day  I spoke  to  James  Nayler  again,  and  he 
slighted  it  and  was  dark  and  much  out;  nevertheless  he 

^ 21st  Sept.,  1656. 

2 This  was  a woman,  Jane  Ingram. 


JAMES  NAYLER 


1656] 


269 


would  have  come  and  kissed  me,  but  I said,  seeing  he  had 
turned  against  the  power  of  God,  ‘ It  is  my  foot  and  so 
the  Lord  God  moved  me  to  slight  him  and  to  set  the  power 
of  God  over  him.  And  when  he  was  come  to  London 
his  resisting  the  power  of  God  in  me  and  the  Truth 
that  was  declared  to  him  became  one  of  his  greatest 
burdens,  but  he  came  to  see  it  and  to  condemn  it  and 
all  his  outgoings,  and  after  some  time  he  returned  to 
Truth  again  as  in  the  printed  relation^  of  his  repent- 
ance, condemnation,  and  recovery  may  be  more  fully 
seen. 

And  after,  we  passed  from  Exeter^  through  Cullompton 
and  Taunton  and  visited  Friends  and  had  meetings  amongst 
them  and  declared  the  word  of  life  unto  them.  And  from 
thence  we  came  to  Podimore,  to  William  Beaton’s,  and  on 
the  First-day  we  had  a mighty  large  meeting  there  where 
were  several  hundreds  of  people;  and  a great  convincement 
was  all  up  and  down  that  country.  And  many  meetings 
we  had  and  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  all,  and  many  were 
turned  by  the  power  and  spirit  of  God  to  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  that  died  for  them,  and  to  sit  under  his  free  teaching, 
and  continue  to  this  day. 

And  from  thence  we  came  to  John  Dandoe’s"^  where  we 
had  another  precious  meeting:  and  the  Lord’s  power  was 
over  all  and  many  were  convinced  of  God’s  eternal  Truth; 
though  there  was  some  contention  by  professors  and 
Baptists  in  some  places,  yet  the  Lord’s  power  came  over 
all. 

And  from  thence  we  came  to  Bristol  the  Seventh-day 
night,  to  Edward  Pyott’s  house,^  and  it  was  noised  over 
the  town  that  I was  come;  and  I had  never  been  there  before. 
And  on  the  First-day  morning  I went  to  the  meeting  in 

^ Probably  meaning,  it  is  my  foot  thou  shouldst  kiss. 

^ Probably,  A True  Narrative  of  the  Examination,  Tryall  and 
Sufferings  of  James  Nayler,  1657. 

3 On  23rd  Sept. 

^ John  Dandoe  lived  at  Hallatrow,  N.  Somerset. 

5 Edward  Pyott  lived  at  Lower  Easton,  about  a mile  N.E.  from  the 
city. 


11 


270  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

Broadmead/  and  a great  meeting  there  was,  and  quiet. 
And  in  the  afternoon  notice  was  given  of  a meeting  to  be 
in  the  orchard.^  A rude  Baptist  there  was,  whose  name 
was  Paul  Gwin,  that  had  made  before  great  disturbance 
in  the  city;  and  the  mayor  <it  was  reported)  encouraged 
him  and  set  him  on,  and  sometimes  would  give  him  his 
dinner  to  encourage  him,  that  he  gathered  a multitude 
of  the  ruder  sort  of  people  after  him,  that  it  was  thought 
that  sometimes  there  would  be  ten  thousand  people  at 
our  meeting  in  the  orchard.  And  as  I was  going  along 
into  the  orchard  the  people  told  me  that  the  rude  jangling 
Baptist  was  going  to  the  meeting.  And  I bid  the  people 
never  heed,  it  was  nothing  to  me  whoever  went  to  it. 

And  so  when  I came  into  the  orchard  I stood  upon  the 
stone  that  Friends  used  to  speak  on  and  was  moved  of  the 
Lord  to  put  off  my  hat  and  to  stand  a pretty  while  and  let 
the  people  look  at  me,  for  there  were  many  thousands  of 
people  there.  And  this  rude  Baptist  began  to  find  fault 
with  my  hair  and  I said  nothing  to  him:  and  then  he  goes 
on  into  words;  and  at  last  he  says,  ‘ Ye  wise  men  of  Bristol, 
I strange  at  you  that  you  will  stand  here  to  hear  a man 
speak  and  affirm  that  which  he  cannot  make  good.’  And 
as  yet  I had  not  spoken  a word.  Upon  which  the  Lord 
opened  my  mouth  and  I asked  the  people  whether  ever 
they  heard  me  speak  before  or  ever  saw  me  before.  For 
what  kind  of  man  was  this  amongst  them  that  should  so 
impudently  say  that  I had  said  and  affirmed  that  which 
I could  not  make  good,  and  yet  he  nor  they  never  heard  me 
nor  saw  me  before.  And  therefore  that  was  a lying, 
envious,  malicious  spirit  that  spoke  in  him,  and  it  was  of 
the  Devil  and  not  of  God;  and  therefore  I charged  him 
in  the  dread  and  power  of  the  Lord  to  be  silent.  And  the 
mighty  power  of  God  came  over  him  and  all  his  company. 

^ A street  then  newly  built  on  a field  of  that  name,  just  outside 
and  to  N.E.  of  the  old  city.  The  site  of  the  meeting  place  is  believed 
to  be  that  now  occupied  by  Broadmead  Baptist  Chapel. 

2 The  old  Friary  orchard,  by  the  river  Frome  and  near  Broadmead, 
belonging  to  Dennis  Hollister,  a Friend. 


BRISTOL 


271 


1656] 

And  then  a glorious  peaceable  meeting  we  had,  and  the 
word  of  life  was  divided  amongst  them  and  they  were 
turned  from  the  darkness  to  the  light  and  to  Jesus  Christ, 
their  saviour,  and  the  Scriptures  were  largely  opened  to 
them  and  they  turned  to  the  spirit  of  God  in  themselves 
that  would  lead  them  into  all  Truth  and  open  the  Scriptures 
to  them.  And  the  traditions  and  rudiments,  and  ways 
and  doctrines  of  men  that  they  had  been  in,  were  opened 
to  the  people,  and  they  turned  to  the  light  of  Christ  that 
with  it  they  might  see  them,  and  him  the  way  out  of  them. 

And  so  for  many  hours  did  I declare  the  word  of  life 
amongst  them  in  the  eternal  power  of  God  that  by  him 
they  might  come  up  into  the  beginning  and  be  reconciled 
to  God.  And  I showed  them  the  types  and  figures 
and  shadows  of  Christ  in  the  time  of  the  law,  and  showed 
them  how  that  Christ  was  come  that  ended  the  types  and 
shadows,  and  tithes  and  oaths,  and  denied  swearing  and 
set  up  ‘ yea  ’ and  ‘ nay  ’ instead  of  it,  and  a free  teaching. 
And  now  he  was  come  to  teach  people  himself,  and  how 
that  his  heavenly  day  was  springing  from  on  high.  And 
I was  moved  to  pray  in  the  mighty  power  of  the  Lord  and 
the  Lord’s  power  came  over  ah. 

And  when  I had  done,  this  fellow  began  to  babble 
again,  and  I was  moved  to  bid  John  Audland,  who  had 
been  like  to  have  been  destroyed  before  through  him, 
if  he  had  any  thing  upon  him  from  the  Lord  to  speak, 
and  he  was  moved  to  bid  him  repent  and  fear  God.  And 
his  own  people  and  followers  were  ashamed  of  him,  so 
that  he  passed  away  and  never  came  again  to  disturb  the 
meetings.  So  the  meeting  broke  up  quietly  and  the  Lord’s 
power  and  glory  shined  over  all  and  a blessed  day  it  was; 
and  the  Lord  had  the  praise. 

And  after,  this  Paul  Gwin  passed  out  of  the  nation. 
And  many  years  after,  when  I came  to  Barbados  there 
came  this  Paul  Gwin  to  a general  meeting  where  were  many 
justices  and  a judge,  one  Judge  Fretwell.  And  he  fell  to 
babbling  and  asked  me  how  I spelt  Cain,  and  whether  I 
had  the  same  spirit  as  the  apostles  had,  and  I told  him. 


272  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

Yes,  and  he  then  had  the  judge  take  notice  of  it.  And 
I told  him  he  that  had  not  the  same  Holy  Ghost  as  the 
apostles  had  was  an  unclean  ghost  and  so  he  went  his 
ways.  And  so  from  Bristol,  as  I said  before,  I returned  to 
Edward  Pyott’s  and  there  we  had  a great  meeting.  And 
the  Lord’s  power  and  Truth  spread  over  all  and  many 
were  turned  to  Christ  Jesus,  their  life  and  their  prophet, 
to  hear  him;  and  their  shepherd  to  feed  them;  and  their 
bishop  to  oversee  them.  And  after  the  meeting  was  done 
I had  some  reasoning  with  some  professors  but  the  Lord’s 
Truth  came  over  all. 

And  after  this  the  prisoners  were  set  at  liberty  at  Exeter, 
and  many  of  them  came  there  to  Bristol. 

And  from  Edward  Pyott’s  we  passed  to  Slaughterford 
where  we  had  a very  large  meeting,  Edward  Pyott  and 
William  Salt  being  still  with  me.  And  a great  turning 
of  people  there  was  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  their  teacher, 
that  people  were  glad  that  they  came  to  know  their  way, 
and  their  free  teacher,  and  their  saviour  Christ  Jesus. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  the  next  First-day  to  Justice 
Nathaniel  Cripps’s^  in  Wiltshire  where  there  were  about 
two  or  three  thousand  people,  and  all  was  quiet.  And  the 
mighty  power  of  God  was  manifested  and  people  were 
turned  to  the  grace  and  Truth  that  came  by  Jesus  in  their 
hearts,  which  would  teach  them  to  deny  all  manner  of 
ungodliness  and  wordly  lust  and  would  teach  them  to 
live  soberly  and  godly  in  this  present  world;  so  that  every 
man  and  woman  might  know  the  grace  of  God  which  was 
sufficient  and  was  saving;  which  had  appeared  to  all  men 
and  would  bring  their  salvation.  So  here  was  their 
teacher,  the  grace  of  God,  that  would  teach  them  how  to 
live  and  what  to  deny;  that  would  season  their  words  and 
establish  their  hearts  and  bring  their  salvation;  and  this 
was  a free  teacher  to  every  one  of  them,  and  that  they 
might  come  to  be  heirs  of  this  grace  and  of  Christ  from 
whence  it  came;  who  ended  the  prophets  and  the  priests  that 
took  tithes,  and  the  temple.  And  as  for  the  hireling  priests 

^ Nathaniel  Cripps  lived  at  Tetbury. 


MARLBOROUGH 


1656] 


273 


that  took  tithes,  and  their  temples  (which  priests  were  made 
at  schools  and  colleges  and  not  by  Christ),  with  all  their 
inventions  they  were  to  be  denied,  as  the  apostles  denied 
the  true  priesthood  and  temple  which  God  had  com- 
manded, <after  Christ  had  put  an  end  thereto.) 

And  so  largely  the  Truth  and  the  Scriptures  were  opened 
for  several  hours  to  them,  and  the  people  turned  to  the 
spirit  of  God  in  their  hearts,  that  by  it  they  might  be  led 
into  all  Truth,  and  know  the  Scriptures,  and  God  and 
Christ  of  whom  they  were  learnt,  and  have  unity  one  with 
another  in  the  same  spirit.  And  all  people  generally 
went  away  satisfied  and  admired  and  were  glad  that  they 
were  turned  to  Christ  Jesus  their  teacher  and  saviour. 

And  the  next  day  from  thence  we  passed  to  Marlborough 
where  we  had  a little  meeting.  And  Edward  Pyott  went 
to  a Baptist  teacher  and  he  reasoned  with  him.  And  as 
he  was  reasoning  he  felt  the  power  of  God  reach  into  the 
man,  and  he  asked  him  whether  he  did  not  feel  the  power 
of  God  reach  unto  him  when  he  spoke,  and  he  confessed  it. 

And  the  Sessions^  being  that  day  that  we  had  the  meeting 
at  Marlborough,  they  were  granting  forth  a warrant  to 
send  for  me,  and  Justice  Stokes^  being  at  that  Sessions 
stopped  them  and  told  them  there  was  a meeting  at  his 
house  yesterday  at  which  were  several  thousands.  And 
so  the  warrant  was  stopped  and  our  meeting  was  quiet 
and  several  received  Christ  Jesus  their  teacher  and  the  new 
covenant  and  stand  in  it.  And  from  thence  we  came  to 
Newbury  where  we  had  a large  blessed  meeting  and  several 
were  convinced  there.  And  from  thence  we  came  to 
Reading  where  we  had  a large  and  precious  meeting^  in 
the  Lord’s  power  amongst  the  plants  of  God,  and  many 
of  the  world  came  in  and  were  reached,  adding  to  that 
meeting.  And  all  was  quiet  and  the  Lord’s  power  came 
over  all.  And  from  Reading  we  passed  to  Kingston-upon- 
Thames,  and  a few  there  came  in  to  us  which  were  turned 


^ Tuesday,  7th  Oct.,  1656. 

2 Edward  Stokes  (c.  1615-1667),  of  Tytherton  Lucas. 

3 Sunday,  12th  Oct.,  1656. 


274  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  but  since  it  is  become  a great 
meeting. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  to  London,^  and  when  we 
came  near  Hyde  Park  we  saw  a great  clutter  of  people. 
And  we  espied  Oliver  Protector  coming  in  his  coach, 
and  I rid  up  to  his  coach-side.  But  some  of  his  life-guard 
would  have  put  me  away,  but  he  forbad  them.  So  I rid 
down  by  his  coach-side  with  him  declaring  what  the  Lord 
gave  me  to  say  unto  him  of  his  condition,  and  of  the 
sufferings  of  Friends  in  the  nation,  and  how  contrary  this 
persecution  was  to  Christ  and  to  the  apostles  and  Christian- 
ity. And  I rid  by  his  coach  till  we  came  to  [St.]  James 
Park  gate,  and  he  desired  me  to  come  to  his  house. 

And  the  next  day  one  of  Oliver’s  wife’s  maids,  Mary 
Saunders,  came  up  to  me  to  my  lodgings  and  said  that  her 
master  came  to  her  and  said  he  could  tell  her  some  good 
news.  And  she  asked  him  what  it  was,  if  it  were  good 
that  was  well.  And  he  said  unto  her  George  Fox  was 
come  to  town:  and  she  said  that  was  good  news  indeed 
but  could  hardly  believe  it:  but  he  told  her  how  I met  him 
and  rid  from  Hyde  Park  down  to  James  Park  with  him. 

So  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all;  and  Friends  were 
glad  and  the  Lord  had  the  glory  and  the  praise. 

And  so  Edward  Pyott  and  1 went  to  Whitehall  after  a 
time  and  when  we  came  before  him  there  was  one  Dr. 
John  Owen,^  Vice-Chancellor  of  Oxford,  with  him:  so 
we  were  moved  to  speak  to  Oliver  Cromwell  concerning 
the  sufferings  of  Friends  and  laid  them  before  him  and 
turned  him  to  the  light  of  Christ  who  had  enlightened 
every  man  that  cometh  into  the  world : and  he  said  it  was  a 
natural  light,  and  we  showed  him  the  contrary,  and  how 
it  was  divine  and  spiritual  from  Christ  the  spiritual  and 
heavenly  man,  which  was  called  the  life  in  Christ,  the 
Word  and  the  light  in  us.  And  the  power  of  the  Lord 
God  riz  in  me,  and  I was  moved  to  bid  him  lay  down  his 
crown  at  the  feet  of  Jesus.  Several  times  I spoke  to  him 

^ 14th  or  15th  Oct.,  1656. 

2 John  Owen,  D.D.  (1616-1683). 


1656]  MEETING  WITH  CROMWELL  275 

to  the  same  effect,  and  I was  standing  by  the  table;  and 
he  came  and  sat  upon  the  table’s  side  by  me  and  said  he 
would  be  as  high  as  1 was.  And  so  he  continued  speaking 
against  the  light  of  Christ  Jesus,  and  went  his  ways  in  a 
light  manner  and  then  he  said  to  his  wife  and  companions, 
‘ I never  parted  so  from  them  before  ’,  being  judged  in 
himself,  for  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  him. 

And  as  Edward  Pyott  and  I went  out,  many  of  his  great 
persons  were  about  us,  and  there  was  one  of  them^  began  to 
speak  and  discourse  against  the  light  and  Truth.  And  I 
was  made  to  slight  him  for  his  speaking  so  lightly  of  the 
things  of  God;  and  one  told  me  he  was  the  Major-General 
of  Northamptonshire.  ‘ What  ! ’ said  I,  ‘ our  old 
persecutor  that  has  persecuted  and  sent  so  many  of  our 
Friends  to  prison,  who  is  a shame  to  Christianity  and 
religion.  I am  glad  I have  met  with  thee.  ’ So  I was  moved 
to  speak  sharply  to  him  of  his  unchristian  carriages.  But 
he  fled  away,  for  he  had  been  a cruel  persecutor  in 
Northamptonshire.^ 

^And  in  Oliver  Cromwell’s  days  as  I was  walking  up  by 
Ludgate  Hill,  there  was  a stop  with  coaches  and  cars  coming 
from  the  Lord  Mayor’s  feast.^  And  Secretary  Thurloe’s^ 
coach  was  there.  And  as  I was  standing  by  and  could  not 
get  forward  nor  backward,  there  came  a man  with  a naked 
rapier  out  of  his  coach,  and  I looking  at  him  to  see  what 
he  would  do  with  it,  it  being  dark,  he  runs  at  a carman 
standing  hard  by,  who  was  stopped  also,  and  the  carman 

^ William  Butler  or  Boteler,  Major-General  of  the  counties  of 
Northampton,  Bedford,  Rutland,  and  Huntingdon. 

2 The  Spence  MS.  (Camb.  Jnl,  i,  260,  but  not  in  other  editions) 
here  records  as  ‘ credibly  reported  in  that  country  ’ that  the  Major- 
General’s  wife  was  thought  to  be  with  child  ‘ but  brought  forth  a 
monster  ’ which  was  secretly  done  away  with. 

3 In  1656  the  Lord  Mayor’s  inaugural  banquet  was  on  28th  Oct. 

4 John  Thurloe  (1616-1668),  Cromwell’s  Secretary  of  State. 

^ This  passage,  ending  at  ^ on  page  277,  does  not  occur  in  Ellwood’s 
edition.  It  is  written  on  a separate  paper,  dated  1657.  But  Fox’s 
presence  in  London  in  the  autumn  at  the  time  of  the  Lord  Mayor’s 
banquet,  and  the  ‘ troubles  within  ’ referring  probably  to  the  fall  of 
James  Nayler,  both  seem  to  require  1656,  where  it  is  therefore  placed. 


276  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

up  with  his  sling  and  knocked  out  his  brains.  And  the 
man  cried  out.  And  I bid  them  put  him  into  the  coach, 
but  Thurloe  would  not  let  him  be  brought  into  the  coach. 
Then  I bid  them  carry  him  into  some  house  and  wrap  him 
up  whilst  his  blood  was  warm  but  he  died  presently. 
And  this  was  the  fruit  of  such  an  one  who  should  have  kept 
the  peace,  which  might  have  cost  many  more  lives,  and  his 
own  also,  but  the  Lord  prevented  it. 

And  we  had  a meeting  in  the  Palace  Yard,^  but  it  was 
so  pestered  with  rude  priests,  water-men,  and  lackeys,  and 
rude  professors,  that  sometimes  there  would  be  many 
hundreds  about  it;  and  we  could  seldom  keep  any  glass 
whole  in  the  windows,  it  would  be  so  often  broken  down 
by  the  rude  company. 

And  this  was  in  the  Presbyterian  and  Independents’ 
anti-gospel  times,  who  were  against  the  gospel  of  peace. 

And  one  time  at  the  Palace  Yard,  as  I was  declaring  the 
eternal  word  of  life  and  preaching  the  everlasting  Seed  of 
life,  and  many  hundreds  of  people  were  gathered,  some  being 
attentive,  many  of  the  rude  ones  so  bespattered  me  with  dirt 
and  muck  that  my  hair  nor  clothes  could  hardly  be  seen 
nor  face  for  dirt  and  muck.  And  some  outlandish^  and 
other  civil  people  were  so  ashamed  to  see  what  a dishonour 
this  was  to  Christianity,  that  they  began  to  reprove  and 
stop  the  rude  people  and  the  rude  ones  fell  upon  them 
so  that  they  were  forced  to  take  sanctuary  in  Westminster 
Hall  and  fled  there  for  safety. 

And  after  this  our  meeting  broke  up  in  the  power  of  the 
Lord  and  not  much  hurt  done  unto  us.  Such  disturbance 
we  had  in  our  meetings  in  the  city  and  in  many  places  of 
the  country  also. 

And  when  the  priests  could  not  get  down  our  meetings 
with  their  rude  rabble,  then  they  would  write  to  Oliver 
Protector  that  we  met  to  plot  to  bring  in  King  Charles; 
and  so  went  about  to  make  them  treasonable  meetings: 
but  the  Lord  did  give  them  their  portion  at  last  as  is  said 

^ Probably  at  Stephen  Hart's,  New  Palace  Yard. 

2 i.e.  foreign. 


1656]  SUFFERINGS  AND  REPROACHES  277 

before,  and  his  lambs  and  birds  did  escape  their  snares 
and  gins.  And  all  these  things  were  of  service  for  Truth 
for  it  manifested  them  and  their  fruits  to  sober  people, 
and  all  these  things  did  work  together  for  good  to  them 
that  feared  God.  For  we  knew  that  not  a sparrow  could 
fall  to  the  ground  without  the  will  of  the  Father  who  upholds 
all  things  by  his  word  and  power,  and  carries  his  lambs 
in  his  arms  and  brings  them  to  mount  up,  as  on  eagles’ 
wings,  over  all  their  storms,  and  waves,  and  floods  that 
they  cast  out  against  us.  His  name  has  the  praise  for  ever, 
and  the  glory,  who  is  worthy  of  all,  who  is  the  helper  of 
his  people  and  their  rock  and  foundation,  and  with  them 
in  all  their  afflictions  and  their  deliverer  out  of  the  six  and 
seven  troubles,  yea,  even  the  perfection  of  troubles. 

And  this  I know  by  experience  and  therefore  it  is  good 
to  trust  in  the  Lord. 

For  the  persecutions  cannot  be  uttered  that  we 
underwent  in  that  time,  and  the  troubles  and  sufferings  and 
reproaches  every  way  without,  even  as  before  I came  into 
it  my  troubles  within,  could  not  be  uttered.  But  the  Lord 
has  the  praise,  who  is  the  upholder  of  us  through  all,  and 
gives  the  dominion  over  all.  For  that  spirit  which  makes 
the  just,  and  the  good,  and  Seed  of  God  to  suffer  within  is 
the  same  that  makes  to  suffer  without  when  it  is  cast  out 
within.  So  I was  not  ignorant  of  Satan’s  wiles  and  all 
the  sufferings  without  are  nothing  to  the  sufferings  within. 
But  the  Lord  hath  given  me  dominion  over  both  and  doth 
give  dominion  over  both  to  his  people,  and  he  alone  is 
worthy  of  the  glory  and  praise."^ 

And  so  after  I had  visited  the  meetings  of  Friends  in 
London  I went  into  Buckinghamshire  and  Edward  Pyott 
with  me.  And  several  places  received  the  Truth  in  that 
country  and  great  meetings  we  had:  and  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  all. 

And  then  I passed  into  Northamptonshire  and  Notting- 
hamshire and  into  Lincolnshire.  And  after  I had  passed  to 
several  meetings  in  Lincolnshire,  I had  a last  meeting  where 

^ See  note  ^ on  page  275. 


278  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

Sir  Richard  and  Sir  John  Wray/  and  their  wives,  were  at 
the  meeting:  and  she  was  convinced  and  died  in  the  Truth; 
and  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all.  And  they  were 
directed  to  the  light  of  Christ  within  to  give  them  the 
knowledge  of  the  glory  of  God  in  the  face  of  Christ  Jesus, 
and  to  the  annointing  within  to  teach  them,  and  to  the 
grace  of  God  which  was  sufficient  to  save  them.  And 
when  the  meeting  was  done  we  passed  away.  And  it 
being  in  the  evening  there  being  a company  of  serving 
men  and  wild  fellows,  they  met  me  and  encompassed  me 
about  and  had  an  intent  to  have  done  me  some  mischief. 

It  being  dark,  I asked,  ‘ What  ! are  you  highway  men  ? ’ 
and  Friends  and  friendly  people  came  up  to  me  that  knew 
some  of  them;  so  I declared  the  Truth  unto  them  and  showed 
them  their  uncivil  and  rude  carriage,  and  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  all  and  stopped  their  design,  blessed  be  his  name 
for  ever.  <And  then  I passed  into)  Huntingdonshire, 
where  the  mayor  of  Huntingdon  came  to  visit  me  and  was 
very  loving,  and  his  wife  received  the  Truth,  and  into 
Cambridgeshire.  And  so  we  came  into  the  Fen  Country 
where  I had  many  meetings  and  the  Lord’s  Truth  spread. 
(And  Robert  Craven  who  had  been)  the  sheriff  of  Lincoln 
was  with  me  and  Amor  Stoddard  and  Alexander  Parker; 
and  we  went  to  Crowland,  the  sheriff  of  Lincoln  and  me, 
and  came  to  an  inn  where  the  townspeople  were  gathered  : 
together,  being  half  drunk,  a very  rude  place. 

And  1 was  moved  to  admonish  them  and  exhort  them  of 
the  day  of  the  Lord  and  to  leave  off  their  drunkenness  and 
turn  to  the  Lord  and  turned  them  to  the  light  of  Christ 
in  their  hearts  which  would  let  them  see  all  their  evil  deeds, 
ways,  and  words.  And  the  priesF  was  amongst  them  and 
I admonished  him  and  bid  him  see  the  fruits  of  his  ministry. 
And  so  as  I was  turning  them  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  and 
his  teaching,  the  priest  and  his  clerk  were  in  a rage  and  got 
up  the  tongs  and  fire  shovel;  and  had  not  the  Lord’s  power 
preserved  us,  we  might  have  been  murdered  amongst 

I 

^ See  note  on  p.  180.  | 

2 Richard  Lee.  j 


BOSTON 


1656] 


279 


them;  yet  nevertheless  some  received  the  Lord’s  Truth 
then  and  stand  there  to  this  day. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  through  the  country  to 
Boston.  And  miost  of  the  heads  of  the  town  came  to  the 
inn;  and  the  people  seemed  to  be  much  satisfied:  but  there 
was  a raging  man  in  the  yard  and  the  sheriff  of  Lincoln 
was  moved  to  speak  to  him  and  said,  ‘ Thou  son  of  Eve  ! 
thou  shamest  Christianity  and  some  other  words,  and 
he  went  away  quiet;  and  some  were  convinced  there  also. 

And  so  we  passed  through  the  countries  and  had  large 
meetings  up  and  down,  and  I travelled  into  Yorkshire,^ 
and  passed  over  Humber  out  of  Holderness  about  this  time, 
visiting  Friends:  and  from  thence  returned  into  Leicester- 
shire, Staffordshire,  Worcestershire,  Warwickshire. 

And  I had  a meeting  at  Edge  Hill  that  was  very  rude,  for 
there  came  Ranters,  Baptists,  and  several  sorts  of  rude 
people,  for  I had  sent  word  to  have  a meeting  there  a matter 
of  three  weeks  before.  And  I went  up  to  it,  where  were 
many  hundreds  of  people  gathered  to  it  and  many  Friends 
and  people  came  far  to  it.  And  the  Lord’s  everlasting 
Truth  and  word  of  life  reached  over  all  and  in  all,  that  all 
was  chained.  And  many  that  day  were  turned  to  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  by  his  power  and  spirit,  and  came  to  sit  under 
his  blessed,  everlasting,  free  teaching  and  feeding  with  his 
eternal  and  heavenly  food.  And  all  was  quiet  and  peace- 
able and  passed  away  quiet,  so  that  the  people  said  it  was 
a mighty  powerful  meeting,  and  the  presence  of  the  Lord 
God  was  felt  by  his  power  and  spirit  amongst  them. 

And  from  thence  I passed  to  V/arwick  and  to  Baddesley, 
having  precious  meetings,  and  from  thence  into  Gloucester- 
shire, and  came  into  Oxford,  where  the  scholars  were  very 
rude;  but  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  them  all;  and  great 
meetings  we  had  up  and  down. 

And  from  thence  I came  to  Colonel  Grimes’s^  where  there 
was  a mighty  meeting,  and  to  Justice  Cripps’s  where  there 

^ He  was  at  Warmsworth,  near  Doncaster,  23rd  and  25th  Oct., 
1656. 

2 Probably  Mark  Grimes,  of  Corse. 


280  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

came  another  justice  to  the  meetings  that  was  convinced, 
and  he  lay  with  me. 

And  at  Cirencester  we  had  a meeting  which  since  is  much 
increased:  and  so  we  came  to  Evesham  again  where  I met 
John  Camm. 

And  after  this  time,  when  I was  set  at  liberty  <out  of 
Launceston  gaol),  I was  moved  to  go  over  most  parts  of  the 
nation,  the  Truth  being  spread  up  and  down  over  the  nation. 
And  it  was  the  general  talk  of  the  priests  and  professors 
and  other  sectary  preachers  that  the  false  prophets  and  the 
antichrists  should  come  in  the  last  days  and  that  we  were 
they. 

And  I was  moved  to  open  this  through  the  nation, 
how  they  which  said  we  were  the  false  prophets,  antichrists, 
and  deceivers  which  should  come  in  the  last  times,  were 
themselves  they.^ 

<Thus  were  the  objections,  which  the  priests  and 
professors  had  raised  against  Friends,  answered  and  cleared, 
and  the  stumbling  blocks  which  they  laid  in  the  way  of 
the  weak,  removed.  And  as  things  were  thus  opened, 
people  came  to  see  over  them  and  through  them,  and  to 
have  their  minds  settled  upon  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  their 
free  teacher,  which  was  the  service  for  which  I was  moved 
to  travel  over  the  nation  after  my  imprisonment  in  Laun- 
ceston gaol.) 

And  in  this  year  the  Lord’s  Truth  was  finely  planted 
over  this  nation  and  many  thousands  were  turned  to  the 
Lord ; and  seldom  under  a thousand  in  prison  in  the  nation 
for  tithes  and  going  to  the  steeplehouses,  and  for  contempts 
and  not  swearing  and  not  putting  off  their  hats.  And  j 
Oliver  Protector  began  to  harden  and  several  Friends  were  1 
turned  out  of  their  offices  of  justices  and  other  offices,  and  ! 
out  of  the  army.  j 

And  so  after  I had  compassed  most  part  of  the  nation,  | 
I returned  to  London  again.  <Finding  that  evil  spirit  at  I 
work  which  had  drawn  James  Nayler  and  his  followers  out 

^ The  discourse  is  printed  in  Camb.  JnL,  i,  246-55,  and  with  con-  | 
siderable  editorial  changes  in  Ellwood,  pp.  226 *-23 1 * ; Bicent.,  i,  336-43.  ' 


1656]  AN  EPISTLE  TO  FRIENDS  281 

from  Truth,  to  run  Friends  into  heats  about  him,  I writ 
a short  epistle  to  Friends,  as  followeth: 

To  all  the  elect  seed  of  God  called  Quakers,  where  the  death 
is  brought  into  the  death,  and  the  elder  is  servant  to  the  younger, 
and  the  elect  is  known,  which  cannot  be  deceived,  but  obtains 
victory.  This  is  the  word  of  the  Lord  God  to  you  all. 

Go  not  forth  to  the  aggravating  part,  to  strive  with  it  out 
of  the  power  of  God,  lest  you  hurt  yourselves,  and  run  into 
the  same  nature,  out  of  the  life.  For  patience  must  get  the 
victory  and  answer  that  of  God  in  every  one,  must  bring  every 
one  to  it,  and  bring  them  from  the  contrary. 

So  let  your  moderation,  and  temperance,  and  patience  be 
known  to  all  men  in  the  Seed  of  God.  For  that  which  reacheth 
to  the  aggravating  part  without  life  sets  up  the  aggravating  part, 
and  breeds  confusion,  and  hath  a life  in  outward  strife,  and 
reacheth  not  to  the  witness  of  God  in  every  one,  in  which  they 
come  into  peace  and  covenant  with  God,  and  fellowship  with 
another.  Therefore  that  which  reacheth  this  witness  of  God 
within,  and  without  in  others,  is  the  life  and  light;  which  will 
outlast  all,  which  is  over  all  and  will  overcome  all.  And  there- 
fore in  the  Seed  of  life  live,  which  bruiseth  the  seed  of  death. 

G.F. 

I also  writ  another  short  epistle  to  Friends  to  encourage 
them  to  keep  up  their  meetings  in  the  Lord’s  power;  of 
which  epistle  a copy  here  followeth : 

Dear  Friends, 

Keep  your  meetings  in  the  power  of  the  Lord,  which  power 
is  over  all  that  which  is  in  the  fall  and  must  have  an  end.  There- 
fore be  wise  in  the  wisdom  of  God  which  is  from  above,  by  which 
all  things  were  made  and  created,  that  that  may  be  justified 
among  you,  and  you  all  kept  in  the  solid  life,  which  was  before 
death  was,  and  in  the  light  which  was  before  the  darkness  was 
with  all  its  works  . . . For  the  Gospel,  being  the  power  of  God, 
that  is  pure  and  everlasting.  Know  it  to  be  your  portion,  in 
which  is  stability  and  life  and  immortality,  shining  over  that 
which  darkens  the  mortal. 

And  so  be  faithful  every  one  to  God,  in  your  measures  of 
his  power  and  life,  that  ye  may  answer  God’s  love  and  mercy 
to  you,  as  the  obedient  children  of  the  Most  High,  dwelling 


JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX 


282 


[1656 


in  love,  unity,  and  peace,  and  in  innocency  of  heart  towards 
one  another,  that  God  may  be  glorified  in  you,  and  you  kept 
faithful  witnesses  for  him  and  valiant  for  the  Truth  on  earth. 
And  so  God  Almighty  preserve  you  all  to  his  glory,  that  ye  may 
all  feel  his  blessing  among  you  and  that  ye  may  be  possessors 
thereof.  t-  i 


And  inasmuch  as  about  this  time  many  mouths  were 
opened  in  our  meetings  to  declare  the  goodness  of  the  Lord, 
and  some  that  were  young  and  tender  in  the  Truth  would 
sometimes  utter  a few  words  in  thanksgiving  and  praises 
to  God;  that  no  disorder  might  arise  from  thence  in  our 
meetings,  I was  moved  to  write  an  epistle  to  Friends,  by 
way  of  advice  in  that  matter.  And  thus  it  was:> 

All  my  dear  Friends  in  the  noble  Seed  of  God,  and  who 
have  known  his  power,  life,  and  presence  amongst  you,  let  it 
be  your  joy  to  hear  or  see  the  springs  break  forth  in  any,  through 
which  you  have  all  unity  in  the  same  feeling,  life,  and  power. 
And  above  all  things  take  heed  of  judging,  ever,  any  one  openly 
in  your  meetings,  except  they  be  openly  profane,  rebellious,  | 
such  as  be  out  of  the  Truth;  that  by  the  power  and  life  and  ! 
wisdom  you  may  stand  over  them,  and  by  it  answer  the  witness  ' 
of  God  in  the  world,  that  such  are  none  of  you,  whom  you  bear 
your  testimony  against,  so  that  therein  the  Truth  stand  clear  I 
and  single. 

But  such  as  are  tender,  if  they  should  be  moved  to  bubble  i 
forth  a few  words,  and  speak  in  the  Seed  and  Lamb’s  power,  | 
suffer  and  bear  that,  that  is,  the  tender.  And  if  they  should  go 
beyond  their  measure,  bear  it  in  the  meeting  for  peace  sake, 
and  order,  and  that  the  spirits  of  the  world  be  not  moved  against  ■ 
you.  But  when  the  meeting  is  done,  then  if  anything  should  be 
moved  of  anyone  to  speak  to  them  between  yourselves  or  one  ! 
or  two  of  you  that  feel  it  in  the  life,  do  it  in  the  love  and  wisdom  | 
that  is  pure  and  gentle  from  above.  ' 

For  love  is  that  which  doth  edify,  and  bears  all  things,  and 
suffers,  which  doth  fulfil  the  force  of  the  law.  So  in  this  you  | 
have  order,  you  have  edification,  you  have  wisdom  that  preserves  | 
you  all  wise  and  in  the  patience,  which  takes  away  the  occasion 
of  stumbling  the  weak  and  occasioning  the  spirits  of  the  world 

^ In  full,  Ellwood,  p.  232*;  Bicent.,  i,  344. 


1656]  ‘ OPEN  EVERY  SPRING  ’ 283 

to  get  up.  You  will  hear  and  feel  and  see  the  power  of  God, 
as  your  faith  is  all  in  it,  preaching  when  you  do  not  hear  words, 
to  bind,  to  chain,  to  limit,  to  frustrate,  that  nothing  shall  rise 
nor  shall  come  forth,  but  what  is  in  the  power.  And  with 
that  you  will  let  up,  and  open  every  spring,  plant,  and  spark, 
in  which  will  be  your  joy  and  refreshment. 

For  now  you  know  the  power  of  God,  which  is  the  Cross 
of  Christ,  and  are  come  to  it,  which  crucifies  you  from  the  state 
that  Adam  and  Eve  were  in  in  the  Fall,  and  so  from  the  world; 
by  which  power  of  God  you  come  to  see  the  state  Adam  and 
Eve  were  in  before  they  fell . . Yea,  I say  and  to  a state  higher, 
the  Seed,  Christ  the  second  Adam,  by  whom  all  things  were 
made  . . . And  the  way  is  Christ  the  light,  the  life,  the  truth, 
and  the  saviour,  the  redeemer,  the  sanctifier,  the  justifier;  and 
so  in  his  power  and  light  and  life  who  is  the  way  to  God,  con- 
version, regeneration,  and  translation  are  known,  from  death 
to  life,  darkness  to  light,  and  from  the  power  of  Satan  to  God 
again. 

And  these  are  members  of  the  Church  who  know  the  work 
in  the  operation  and  feeling  and  come  to  be  members  one  of 
another.  They  who  come  to  the  Church  that  is  in  God  and 
Christ,  must  come  out  of  the  state  that  Adam  is  in,  in  the  Fall, 
to  know  the  state  that  he  was  in  before  he  fell.  And  now 
they  that  live  in  the  state  that  Adam  is  in,  in  the  Fall,  and  who 
cannot  believe  of  coming  into  the  state  he  was  in  before  he  fell, 
come  not  to  the  Church  in  God,  but  are  afar  from  that,  and 
are  not  passed  from  death  to  life,  and  likewise  are  enemies  to 
the  Cross  of  Christ,  which  is  the  power  of  God  . . . For  all 
the  poorness,  emptiness,  and  barrenness  is  in  the  state  that  Adam 
is  in,  in  the  Fall,  out  of  God’s  power.  By  which  power  he  comes 
to  be  crucified  from  it,  by  which  power  he  comes  to  be  made 
rich  again  and  hath  strength.  This  power  is  the  Cross,  in  which 
mystery  of  the  Cross  is  the  fellowship;  and  this  is  the  Cross  in 
which  is  the  true  and  everlasting  glorying,  which  crucifies  from 
all  other  glorying. 

And  Friends,  though  you  may  have  tasted  of  the  power 
and  been  convinced  and  have  felt  the  light,  yet  afterwards 
you  may  feel  winter  storms,  tempests,  and  hail,  and  be  frozen, 
in  frost  and  cold  and  a wilderness  and  temptations.  Be  patient 
and  still  in  the  power  and  still  in  the  light  that  doth  convince 
you,  to  keep  your  minds  to  God;  in  that  be  quiet,  that  you  may 
come  to  the  summer,  that  your  flight  be  not  in  the  winter.  For 


284  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1656 

if  you  sit  still  in  the  patience  which  overcomes  in  the  power  of  I 
God,  there  will  be  no  flying.  For  the  husbandman,  after  he  hath 
sown  his  seed,  he  is  patient.  For  by  the  power  and  by  the  light 
you  will  come  to  see  through  and  feel  over  winter  storms, 
tempests,  and  all  the  coldness,  barrenness,  emptyness.  And 
the  same  light  and  power  will  go  over  the  tempter’s  head, 
which  power  and  light  were  before  he  was.  And  so  in  the  light 
standing  still  you  will  see  your  salvation,  you  will  see  the  Lord’s 
strength,  you  will  feel  the  small  rain,  you  will  feel  the  fresh  f 
springs  in  the  power  and  light,  your  minds  being  kept  low; 
for  that  which  is  out  of  the  power  and  light  lifts  up.  But  in 
the  power  and  light  you  will  see  God  revealing  his  secrets,  j 
inspiring,  and  his  gifts  coming  unto  you,  through  which  your 
hearts  will  be  filled  with  God’s  love;  praise  to  him  that  lives 
for  ever  more,  in  which  light  and  power  his  blessings  are  received.  i 
And  so  the  eternal  power  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  preserve  and 
keep  you  in  that.  And  so  live  everyone  in  the  power  of  God, 
that  you  may  all  come  to  be  heirs  of  that  and  know  that  to  be 
your  portion,  and  the  kingdom  that  hath  no  end,  and  an  endless 
life,  which  the  seed  is  heir  of.  And  so  feel  that  over  all  set,  ! 
which  hath  the  promise  and  blessing  of  God.  G F ^ 

<About  this  time  I received  some  lines  from  a high-flown 
professor  concerning  the  way  of  Christ,  to  which  I returned 
answer.^ 

Great  opposition  did  the  priests  and  professors  make 
about  this  time  against  the  light  of  Christ  Jesus,  denying  it  | 
to  be  universally  given,  and  against  the  pouring  forth  of  the 
spirit,  and  sons  and  daughters  prophesying  thereby.  Much  j 
they  laboured  to  darken  the  minds  of  people  that  they  might 
keep  them  still  in  a dependence  on  their  teaching.  Where-  . 
fore  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  give  forth  a paper  for  the 
opening  of  the  minds  and  understandings  of  people  and  to  | 
manifest  the  blindness  and  darkness  of  their  teachers.^ 

And  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  send  for  one  or  two  out  i 
of  a county  to  Swarthmoor  and  to  set  up  the  men’s  meetings 

^ In  full,  Camb.  JnL,  i,  222-5;  Ellvvood,  pp.  233*-235*;  Bicent., 
i,  344-7. 

2 Ellwood,  p.  235*;  Bicent.,  i,  347-50. 

3 Ellwood,  pp.  238*-243*;  Bicent.,  i,  350-6. 


1657]  QUARTERLY  MEETINGS  SET  UP  285 

where  they  were  not : and  to  settle  that  meeting  at  Skipton^ 
concerning  the  affairs  of  the  Church,  which  continued  till 
1660. 

And  at  the  first  the  North  took  six  hundred  of  every 
sort  of  book  that  was  printed,  and  that  continued  for  many 
years  till  the  Truth  was  spread  over  the  nation;  and  this 
was  settled  when  we  first  began  to  print.  And  then  when 
the  Truth  was  spread  as  aforesaid,  it  was  left  to  Friends’ 
liberty  for  every  county  to  send  for  what  they  liked  from 
all  parts  of  the  nation.  But  the  North,  at  the  first,  bore 
the  charges  of  all  the  printing  for  several  years,  but  when 
the  Lord’s  Truth  spread  over  the  nation,  and  people  came 
to  be  turned  to  Christ,  then  they  were  eased. 

And  about  this  time  I was  moved  to  set  up  the  men’s 
Quarterly  Meetings  throughout  the  nation,  though  in  the 
North  they  were  settled  before. 

(Having  stayed  some  time  in  London,  and  visited  the 
meetings  of  Friends  in  and  about  the  city,  and  cleared 
myself  of  what  services  the  Lord  had  at  that  time  laid  upon 
me  there),  I passed  out  of  London  into  Kent,  Surrey,  and 
Sussex,^  and  visited  Friends  and  had  great  meetings;  and 
many  times  I met  with  jangling  professors  and  Baptists, 
but  the  Lord’s  power  went  over  all. 

And  before  we  lay  the  night  at  Farnham  we  had  a little 
meeting,  but  the  people  were  exceeding  rude,  and  at  last  the 
Lord’s  power  came  over  them.  We  went  to  our  inn  after 
the  meeting  and  desired  any  that  feared  God  that  they 
might  come  to  our  inn ; and  there  came  abundance  of  rude 
people,  and  the  magistrates  of  the  town  and  some  professors. 
And  I declared  the  Truth  unto  them,  and  the  magistrates 
put  the  rude  people  out  of  the  room.  And  when  they  were 
gone  there  came  up  another  rude  company  of  professors 
and  some  of  the  heads  of  the  town  and  they  called  for 
faggots^  and  drink  though  we  forbade  them;  who  were 
as  rude  a carriaged  people  as  ever  I met  withal,  but  the 

^ The  first  General  Meeting  was  held  at  Skipton  in  1656. 

2 January  and  February,  1657. 

3 Chopped  meat. 


286  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

Lord’s  power  chained  them  that  they  had  not  power  to 
do  us  any  mischief;  but  when  they  went  their  ways,  they 
left  all  their  faggots  and  beer  that  they  had  called  for  into 
the  room  for  us  to  pay  in  the  morning.  And  we  showed 
the  innkeeper  what  an  unworthy  thing  it  was;  yet  he  told 
us  we  must  pay  it,  and  pay  it  we  did.  And  then  I was 
moved  to  write  a paper  to  the  magistrates  and  the  heads 
of  the  town,  of  their  rude  inhuman  uncivil  carriage  to 
strangers  that  sought  their  good,  and  to  the  priest  to  show  i 
him  how  he  had  taught  his  people. 

And  I came  to  Basingstoke,  a very  rude  place  where  they 
had  formerly  very  much  abused  Friends.  There  I had  a 
meeting  in  the  evening,  which  was  quiet,  for  the  Lord’s 
power  chained  the  unruly.  <At  the  close  of  the  meeting) 

I was  moved  to  put  off  my  hat  and  pray  to  the  Lord  to  open 
their  understandings,  and  then  they  raised  a report  upon 
me  and  said  that  I was  a very  good  man  and  I put  off  my 
hat  to  them,  and  bid  them  good-night,  which  was  never  in 
my  heart.  And  we  went  to  an  inn  in  Basingstoke,  The 
George,  and  we  sent  for  the  innkeeper  as  I used  to  do,  and 
he  came  into  the  room  to  us,  a very  rude  man.  And  I began  I 

to  admonish  him  and  he  called  for  faggots  and  a pint  j 

of  wine  and  drunk  it  off  himself,  and  then  called  for  another,  j 

and  then  called  half  a dozen  men  up  into  our  chamber.  | 

And  I bid  him  go  out  of  the  chamber,  and  said  he  should  | 

not  drink  there,  for  we  sent  for  him  up  to  admonish  him  | 

concerning  his  eternal  good.  And  he  was  exceeding  mad  I 

and  rude,  and  drunk,  but  I told  him  the  chamber  was  mine  i 

for  the  time  whilst  I lodged  in  it,  and  so  I called  for  the  key. 

So,  at  last,  he  went  his  ways  in  great  rage,  but  in  the  morning  I 

would  not  be  seen;  but  I told  his  wife  of  his  unchristian  | 

and  rude  carriage  towards  us. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  through  the  countries  till  we  i 
came  to  Bridport  and  had  meetings  on  the  way.  And 
there  we  came  to  an  inn  and  sent  into  the  town  for  such  j 

as  feared  God.  And  there  came  a shopkeeper  and  put  | 

off  his  hat  to  us,  and  seeing  we  did  not  again  to  him  but  said 
' thee  ’ and  ‘ thou  ’ to  him,  he  said  he  was  not  of  our 


BRIDPORT 


1657] 


287 


religion ; and  after  some  discourse  with  him  we  did  admonish 
him;  and  his  wife  was  somewhat  loving.  Thomas  Curtis 
was  with  me.  And  this  professor  went  down  and  stirred 
up  the  priest^  and  magistrates,  and  he  sent  to  us  to  our  inn 
to  come  and  speak  with  him,  for  there  he  said  were  some 
would  speak  with  us  at  his  house:  and  so  Thomas  Curtis 
went  down,  and  when  he  came  there  the  man  had  laid  a 
snare  for  him  and  got  the  priests  and  magistrates;  and 
they  boasted  mightily  that  they  had  catched  George 
Fox,  thinking  I had  been  the  man.  And  they  were  in 
a great  rage  but  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them, 
and  when  they  perceived  it  was  not  me  they  let  him  go 
again. 

And  as  we  were  passing  out  of  Bridport  sober  people 
came  to  us  and  said  the  officers  were  coming  up  to  fetch  me, 
but  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  all  so  as  they  had 
not  power  to  touch  me;  nevertheless  there  were  some  con- 
vinced in  that  town  that  time  and  were  turned  to  the  Lord ; 
and  they  stand  to  this  day,  where  there  is  a fine  meeting. 
And  one  night  we  came  to  a place  called  Lyme,  and  we 
went  to  an  inn.  And  the  house  was  taken  up  with  mounte- 
banks,^ and  there  was  hardly  any  room  for  us  or  our  horses. 
At  night  we  drew  up  some  queries : 

Of  the  grounds  of  all  diseases: 

And  whether  Adam  or  Eve  had  any  before  they  fell: 

And  whether  there  v/as  any  in  the  restoration  by  Christ 
Jesus  again: 

And  whether  any  knew  the  virtue  of  ail  the  creatures  in 
the  creation,  whose  virtue  and  nature  was  according 
to  its  first  name,  except  they  were  in  the  wisdom  of  God 
by  which  they  were  made  and  created. 


And  many  other  particular  queries  we  sent  to  them  and 
told  them  if  they  would  not  answer  them  we  would  stick 
them  on  the  cross  tomorrow,  and  it  made  them  very  cool 
and  low,  for  they  could  not  answer  them.  But  in  the  morn- 
ing they  reasoned  a little  with  us  but  could  not  answer  us ; 

^ John  Eaton  was  rector  of  Bridport. 

^ Itinerant  quack  doctors,  hence  the  queries  that  follow. 


JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX 


288 


[1657 


and  so  we  left  them  with  some  friendly  people,  who  were 
convinced,  to  stick  upon  the  market  cross.  And  the  Lord’s 
power  came  over  all,  and  some  were  turned  by  the  light 
and  spirit  of  Christ  to  his  free  teaching. 

But  before  we  came  to  Lyme  we  had  been  at  Portsmouth 
and  Poole  where  we  had  glorious  meetings  and  many  were 
turned  to  the  Lord  there.  And  fine  meetings  there  are 
there,  that  stand  to  this  day.  And  at  Ringwood  we  had  a 
large  general  meeting  where  the  Lord’s  power  was  over  all. 
And  at  Weymouth  we  had  a meeting  and  so  we  passed  to 
Dorchester. 

And  so  we  passed  through  the  country  till  we  came  to 
Exeter;  at  the  Seven  Stars,  at  the  bridge  foot,^  an  inn  where 
we  had  a General  Meeting^  of  Friends  out  of  Cornwall  and 
Devonshire;  and  thither  came  Humphry  Lower,  Thomas 
Lower,  and  John  Ellis  from  the  Land’s  End;  and  Friends 
from  Plymouth;  Justice  Henry  Polixphen,  Elizabeth 
Trelawney,  and  divers  other  Friends.  Where  a blessed 
heavenly  meeting  we  had,  and  I saw  and  said  that  the  Lord’s 
power  had  surrounded  this  nation  round  about,  as  with 
a wall  and  bulwark,  and  his  Seed  reached  from  sea  unto  sea, 
and  Friends  were  established  in  the  everlasting  Seed  of 
life,  Christ  Jesus,  their  life,  rock,  teacher  and  shepherd. 


CHAPTER  XII 


m ND  after  the  meeting  was  done,  the  next  morning. 
Major  John  Blackmore  sent  down  soldiers  to 
Ji  JL  apprehend  me  but  I was  gone  before  they  came. 
And  as  I was  riding  up  the  street  I saw  the  officers  going 
down,  so  the  wolf  missed  the  lamb  and  the  Lord’s  power 
crossed  them  in  their  design.  And  Friends  passed  away 
peaceably  and  quietly,  though  the  soldiers  examined  some 
Friends  after  I was  gone,  what  they  did  there;  and  they 


i 


^ On  the  Exe-bridge,  kept  by  ‘ one  Morgan  ’. 
2 Sunday,  8th  Mar.,  1657. 


1657]  WARNS  OLIVER  CROMWELL  289 

told  them  they  were  in  their  inn  and  had  occasions  and 
business  to  the  city;  so  they  passed  away  without  any 
farther  meddling  with  them. 

And  after  this  I came  through  the  country  and  had 
meetings  till  I came  to  Bristol.  [Fox  was  at  Bristol  about 
four  days  and  then  went  to  London.]^ 

And  so  I visited  the  meetings  up  and  down  in  London; 
and  some  of  them  were  troubled  with  rude  people  and 
apostates  that  had  run  out  with  James  Nayler.  And  I 
was  moved  to  write  to  Oliver  Cromwell,  and  laid  before 
him  the  sufferings  of  Friends  in  the  nation  and  in  Ireland. 

And  I was  moved  again  to  go  and  speak  to  Oliver 
Protector  when  there  was  a talk  of  making  him  King. 
And  I met  him  in  the  Park  and  told  him  that  they  that  would 
put  him  on  an  earthly  crown  would  take  away  his  life. 

And  he  asked  me,  ‘ What  say  you  ? ’ 

And  I said  again,  they  that  sought  to  put  him  on  a crown 
would  take  away  his  life,  and  bid  him  mind  the  crown 
that  was  immortal. 

. And  he  thanked  me  after  I had  warned  him  of  many 
dangers  and  how  he  would  bring  a shame  and  a ruin  upon 
himself  and  his  posterity,  and  bid  me  go  to  his  house.^ 
And  then  I was  moved  to  write  to  him  and  told  him  how 
he  would  ruin  his  family  and  posterity  and  bring  darkness 
upon  the  nation  if  he  did  so.  And  several  papers  I was 
moved  to  write  to  him.  [Fox  then  returned  to  Bristol 
and  went]  to  the  meeting  there. 

And  after  meeting  was  done  I did  not  stay,  not  so  much 
as  to  eat  nor  drink  in  the  town. 

And  so  I passed  up  into  Wales  and  had  a meeting  at  the 
Slow.3  And  I passed  through  the  country  to  Cardiff,  and 

^ Contemporary  letters  (see  Beginnings  of  Quakerism,  43  8n)  provide 
this  information.  This  journey  to  London  is  undescribed  in  the 
Journal.  Events  in  London  during  this  visit  are,  in  the  MS.  and  in 
previous  editions,  placed  as  though  they  belong  to  another  visit. 
The  following  paragraphs  relating  to  them  are  believed  to  be  here 
placed  in  correct  chronological  position. 

2 Fox  saw  Cromwell,  24th  and  25th  Mar.,  1657. 

3 A farm  near  Caerwent  about  five  miles  west  of  Chepstow. 


290  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

there  a justice  of  peace^  sent  for  me  and  said  he  desired 
half  a dozen  might  come  up  with  me  to  his  house.  And 
so  I took  a Friend  or  two  and  went  up  to  him,  and  he  and 
his  wife  received  me  very  civilly;  and  the  next  day  we  had  a 
meeting  in  Cardiff  in  the  town  hall  and  the  justice  aforesaid 
sent  about  seventeen  of  his  family  to  the  meeting.  And 
there  came  some  disturbers  but  the  Lord’s  power  was  over 
all;  and  many  were  turned  to  the  Lord  there.  And  some 
that  had  run  out  with  James  Nayler  did  not  come  to  the 
meeting;  and  I sent  word  to  them  that  the  day  of  their 
visitation  was  over;  and  they  did  not  prosper  no  ways. 

So  we  passed  through  the  country  to  Swansea  and  passed 
over  a passage  in  a boat  with  the  high  sheriff  of  the  county, 
and  we  had  a blessed  meeting  there  and  a meeting  was 
settled  in  the  name  of  Jesus,  which  stands  to  this  day. 
And  the  next  day  I went  to  have  spoken  with  the  high  sheriff 
aforesaid  but  he  would  not  be  spoken  withal. 

And  from  thence  we  went  to  another  meeting  in  the 
country  where  much  of  the  presence  of  the  Lord  was  with 
us;  and  from  thence  we  went  to  a great  man’s  house,  who 
received  us  very  lovingly.  But  the  next  morning  he  would 
not  be  seen;  one  that  came  <in  the  meantime)  had  incensed 
him,  that  we  could  not  get  to  him  to  speak  with  him,  he 
was  so  changed;  yet  overnight  was  exceeding  loving. 

So  we  passed  through  the  countries  and  had  meetings 
and  gathered  people  in  the  name  of  Christ  to  their  teacher, 
till  we  came  to  Brecknock:  and  there  we  set  up  our  horses 
at  an  inn.  And  there  went  with  me  Thomas  Holmes  and 
John  ap  John,  who  was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  speak  in  the 
streets.  And  I had  walked  out  a little  into  the  fields, 
but  by  the  time  I came  in  all  the  town  was  up  in  an  uproar; 
and  when  I came  into  the  inn  the  chamber  was  full  of 
people  and  they  were  speaking  in  Welsh.  And  I desired 
them  to  speak  in  English  and  they  did,  and  great  discourse 
we  had,  and  after  a while  they  went  their  ways.  But 
towards  night  the  magistrates  gathered  together  in  the 
street,  and  a multitude  of  people,  and  they  bid  them  shout 
^ Probablypohn^Gawler. 


BRECKNOCK 


1657] 


291 


and  gathered  up  the  town  so  that  for  about  two  hours 
together  there  was  such  a noise  as  the  like  we  had  not  heard ; 
and  the  magistrates  set  them  on  to  shout  again  when  they 
had  left.  And  there  was  never  such  an  uproar  amongst 
Diana’s  handicraftsmen  as  there  was  at  that  time,  so  that 
if  the  Lord’s  power  had  not  prevented  them  they  might 
have  plucked  down  the  house  and  us  to  pieces.  And 
this  they  did  till  it  was  within  night. 

^And  they  had  a plot  amongst  them,  together  with  the 
woman  of  the  inn,  after  it  was  night,  to  have  had  us  out  of 
that  room  where  we  were,  which  we  had  taken  up,  into 
another  room  to  have  supped,  a great  hall.  And  so  I 
looked  at  the  room,  and  perceiving  the  plot,  I bid  the 
woman  bring  our  meat  into  our  own  chamber,  for  there 
was  a table  sufficient,  and  we  would  have  none  if  we  had 
it  not  in  our  own  room,  and  choose  her  whether  she  would 
bring  it  or  not.  At  last  she  brought  it  up  in  a great  rage. 
Then  she  wished  us  out  of  her  house,  and  we  told  her  we 
had  taken  a house  of  her  and  grass,  and  so  when  she  could 
not  by  any  means  get  us  out,  they  came  by  flattery.^  She 
would  have  had  six  men  come  into  the  room  under  pretence 
to  discourse  with  us.  But  we  told  her  that  no  persons 
should  come  into  our  room  that  night,  neither  would  we 
go  out  to  them.  ^So  the  Lord  prevented  their  mischief 
for  they  had  an  intent  to  have  murdered  us.^  And  the 
next  morning  after  I had  given  forth  a paper  to  the  town 
of  their  unchristian  carriages,  showing  the  fruits  of  their 
priests  and  magistrates,  we  passed  away;  and  I spoke 
to  the  people  as  I went  forth  of  the  town  how  they  shamed 
both  Christianity  and  religion. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  to  a great  meeting  in  a 
steeplehouse  yard^  where  was  Walter  Jenkins  <who  had 
been  a justice)  and  a priest  and  another  justice,  and  a 
blessed  glorious  meeting  we  had,  and  there  were  a-many 
professors;  and  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  open  to  them 
the  Scriptures  and  the  objections  that  they  stuck  at  in  their 


^ Perhaps,  Pontypool  in  Monmouthshire, 
^ a SJ.,  p.  50-1. 


292  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

profession,  for  I knew  them  very  well,  and  to  turn  them  to 
Christ  who  had  enlightened  them,  with  which  light  they 
might  see  their  saviour  and  sins  and  trespasses  they  had 
been  dead  in,  and  him  that  redeemed  them  out  of  it,  who 
was  their  way  to  God,  their  truth  and  life  and  their  priest 
made  higher  than  the  heavens,  so  that  they  might  come 
to  sit  under  his  teaching.  And  many  were  convinced 
and  settled  that  day  and  a peaceable  meeting  it  was.  And 
after  the  meeting  was  done  I went  with  Justice  Jenkins  to  the 
other  justice’s  house;  and  he  said  unto  me,  ‘ You  have  given 
this  day  great  satisfaction  to  the  people  and  answered  all  the 
objections  that  were  in  their  minds  ’ ; for  the  people  had  the 
Scriptures  but  they  were  not  turned  to  the  spirit  which 
should  let  them  see  that  which  gave  them  forth,  which  is 
the  key  to  open  them,  the  spirit  of  God. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  to  PontymoiP  to  Richard 
Hanbury’s  where  there  was  a great  meeting,  and  there  came 
another  justice  of  peace  and  several  great  people  to  it;  and 
their  understandings  were  opened  by  the  Lord’s  spirit 
and  power  and  the  light  of  Jesus  Christ,  that  they  came  to 
be  turned  to  Christ  from  whence  it  came,  and  a great  con- 
vincement  there  was  and  a large  meeting  there  is  gathered  in 
the  name  of  Jesus  which  continues  thereaways  to  this  day. 

So  from  thence  we  returned  back  again  into  England 
and  so  came  to  Shrewsbury,  where  we  had  a great  meeting 
and  visited  Friends  all  up  and  down  the  countries  in  their 
meetings  till  we  came  into  Cheshire  to  William  Gandy’s;^ 
and  there  we  had  a meeting  of  about  two  or  three  thousand 
people;  and  the  everlasting  word  of  life  was  held  forth 
and  received  that  day.  And  a blessed  meeting  it  was,  for 
Friends  were  settled  by  the  power  of  God  upon  Christ 
Jesus  the  rock  and  foundation. 

And  at  this  time  there  was  a great  drought;  and  after 
the  General  Meeting  was  ended  there  fell  a mighty  rain, 
and  there  was  so  much  rain  the  next  day  that  Friends 

^ Near  Pontypool. 

2 William  Gandy  lived  at  Frandley,  near  Warrington.  The  meeting 
was  held  on  28th  June. 


i 1657]  A PROCLAMATION  ANSWERED  293 

? said  they  believed  we  could  not  pass,  the  brooks  and  waters 
? would  be  so  risen;  but  I believed  so  far  as  they  had  come 
} that  day  to  the  meetings  so  far  they  had  rain.  So  the  next 
day  about  the  afternoon  we  came  back  into  some  parts 
: of  Wales  again  and  there  was  all  dust,  and  no  rain  had 

I fallen  thereabout,  and  it  was  a noted  thing  generally 
■I  amongst  people  that  when  I came,  still  I brought  rain, 
I and  it  had  been  so  for  many  years. 

And  when  Oliver  Protector  gave  forth  a proclamation 
1 for  a fast^  throughout  the  nation  for  rain  when  there  was 
I such  a mighty  drought;  as  far  as  Truth  had  spread  in  the 
north  there  was  rain  enough  and  pleasant  showers,  when 
I up  in  the  south  in  places  they  were  almost  spoiled  for  want 
I of  rain.  And  I was  moved  to  give  forth  an  answer^  to 
Oliver  Protector’s  proclamation  that  if  he  did  come  to  own 
God’s  truth  he  should  have  rain  and  that  drought  was  a 
sign  unto  them  of  their  barrenness  of  the  water  of  life,  as 
I you  may  see  in  that  book  given  forth  in  answer  to  his 
proclamation.  And  the  like  observation  and  expectation 
1 they  have  beyond  the  seas.  When  there  is  a drought  they 
generally  look  for  the  Quakers’  General  Meetings,  for  then 
they  know  they  shall  have  rain;  and  as  they  receive  the 
Truth  and  become  fruitful  unto  God,  they  receive  from 
him  their  fruitful  seasons  also. 

About  the  same  time  was  written  a paper  to  distinguish 
between  true  and  false  fasts.^ 

And  so  we  passed  up  into  Wales  through  Montgomery- 
shire and  up  into  Radnorshire,  where  there  was  a meeting 
like  a leaguer  for  multitude.  And  I walked  a little  off  from 
the  meeting  whilst  the  people  were  a-gathering,  and  there 
came  John  ap  John  to  me,  a Welshman;  and  I bid  him 
go  up  to  the  people,  and  if  he  had  anything  upon  him 
from  the  Lord  to  speak  to  the  people  in  Welsh  he  might, 
<and  thereby  gather  them  more  together). 

^ The  proclamation  was  dated  20th  Mar.,  1654. 

2 Entitled,  A Warning  from  the  Lord  to  all  such  as  hang  down  the 
head  for  a day,  1654. 

3 Ellwood,  pp.  248*-251*;  Bicent.,  i,  363-7. 


294  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

Then  there  came  Morgan  Watkins^  to  me,  who  was  loving 
to  Friends  and,  says  he,  ‘ The  people  lie  like  a leaguer  and 
the  gentry  of  the  country  are  come  in.’  So  I bid  him  go 
up  to  the  meeting,  for  I had  a gieat  travail  upon  me  for 
the  salvation  of  the  people.  And  so  I passed  up  to  the 
meeting  and  stood  a-top  of  a chair  about  three  hours 
and  sometimes  leaned  my  hand  of  a man’s  head,  and  stood 
a pretty  while  before  I began  to  speak,  and  many  people  sat 
a-horseback.  And  at  last  I felt  the  power  of  the  Lord 
went  over  them  all  and  the  Lord’s  everlasting  life  and  truth 
shined  over  all.  And  the  Scriptures  were  opened  to  them 
and  their  objections  answered  in  their  minds  and  every  one 
of  them  turned  to  the  light  of  Christ,  the  heavenly  man,  that 
with  it  they  might  all  see  their  sins  and  see  their  saviour, 
their  redeemer,  their  mediator,  and  feed  upon  him  their 
bread  from  heaven.  And  many  were  turned  that  day 
to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  and  his  free  teaching,  and  all  were 
bowed  down  under  the  power  of  God  and  parted  peaceably 
and  quietly  with  great  satisfaction,  <though  the  multitude 
was  so  great  that  many  sat  on  horseback  to  hear).  And 
there  was  a priest  and  his  wife  sat  a-horseback  that  day 
and  heard  patiently,  but  made  no  objection.  And  they 
said  they  never  heard  such  a divine  in  their  lives,  and  the 
Scriptures  so  opened,  and  the  new  covenant  and  the  old 
covenant  and  the  parables  and  the  state  of  the  Church  in 
the  apostles’  days  and  apostacy  since,  and  Christ  and  the 
apostles’  free  teaching  set  a-top  of  all  the  hireling  teachers 
and  people  turned  to  him. 

And  people  said  that  they  thought  if  I would  come  into 
the  country  again  ^half  the  country  would  have  come  in, 
they  were  so  taken  with  the  Truth^  at  that  meeting,  and  the  ! 
Lord  had  the  praise,  for  many  were  turned  to  him  that  day  ! 
and  a justice  of  peace  was  convinced  that  came  to  be  a fine 
minister  since,  one  Peter  Price. 

And  I came  back  from  thence  to  Leominster,  where  there 
was  a great  meeting  in  a close  and  many  hundreds  of  people ; 

^ Of  Eyton,  Herefordshire. 

b b sj.^  p.  51, 


LEOMINSTER 


1657] 


295 


and  there  was  a matter  of  six  Separate  preachers  and  priests. 
And  there  was  one  Thomas  Taylor  with  me,  who  had 
been  a priest  but  now  was  become  a free  minister  of  Christ 
Jesus. 

And  after  I had  stood  a matter  of  three  hours  and  none 
of  the  priests  were  able  to  open  their  mouths,  the  Lord’s 
power  and  truth  so  reached  them;  though  many  times 
their  mouths  were  opening  to  speak.  And  at  last  one 
priest  went  about  a bow-shot  off  me  and  there  he  drew 
several  of  the  people  after  him  and  fell  a-preaching  to  them, 
and  I kept  my  meeting  and  he  kept  his  meeting.  And  at 
last  Thomas  Taylor  was  moved  to  go  to  him  and  speak 
to  him  and  he  gave  over ; and  then  he  and  the  people  came 
up  to  me  again  and  the  Lord’s  pov/er  went  over  them  all. 
And  at  last  a Baptist  that  was  convinced  said,  ‘ Where  is 
priest  Tombes^  ? how  chance  he  does  not  come  out  ? ’ 
And  this  priest  John  Tombes  v/as  priest  of  Leominster. 

And  then  some  went  and  told  the  priest  and  up  comes  he 
with  the  bailiffs  of  the  town  and  magistrates  and  officers; 
and  when  he  came  up  they  set  him  upon  a stool  over  against 
me.  And  I was  speaking  of  the  heavenly  divine  light  of 
Christ  which  he  enlightens  every  one  that  cometh  into  the 
world  withal,  and  turning  them  to  it  to  give  them  the 
knowledge  of  the  glory  of  God  in  the  face  of  Christ  Jesus 
their  saviour. 

This  Priest  Tombes  cries  out,  ‘ That  is  a natural  light 
and  a made  light.’ 

And  then  I desired  all  the  people  to  take  out  their  Bibles; 
Tor  I would  make  the  Scriptures  bend  him,^  and  I asked 
them  whether  he  did  affirm  that  was  a created,  natural, 
made  light  that  John,  a man  that  was  sent  from  God  to 
bear  witness  to  it,  did  speak  of  who  said,  ‘ In  him  was  life  ’, 
to  wit  the  Word,  ‘ and  this  life  was  the  light  of  men.’ 
John  i.  4.  And  I asked  him  whether  this  light  was  that 
created,  natural,  made  light  he  meant. 


^ John  Tombes  (1603-1676),  learned  minister  and  controversial 
writer,  appointed  one  of  the  Triers  of  ministers,  1653. 

" " SJ.,  p.  55, 


296  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657  j_ 

And  he  said,  ‘Yes.’  I 

Then  said  I,  ‘ Before  I have  done  with  thee  I will  make  ■ 
thee  bend  to  the  Scriptures.  The  natural,  created,  made  * 
light  is  the  sun,  moon,  and  stars  and  this  outward  light.  j 
And  dost  thou  say  that  God  sent  John  to  bear  witness  j 
to  the  sun,  moon,  and  stars  which  are  the  made  lights  ? ’ | ] 

Then  said  he,  ‘ Did  I say  so  ? ’ ■ 

‘Yes  ’,  said  I,  ‘ Thou  said  it  was  a natural,  created,  made  i 
light  that  John  bare  witness  unto.  And  if  thou  dost  not  like  i | 
thy  words,  take  them  again  and  mend  them.  For  John  j 
came  to  bear  witness  to  the  light  which  was  the  life  in  the  j 
Word,  by  which  all  the  natural  lights  were  made  and  created, 
as  sun,  moon,  and  stars  and  the  like.  And  in  him,  to  wit,  1 
the  Word,  was  life;  and  that  life  was  the  light  of  men.’  ] 
And  then  he  took  at  it  again  and  said,  that  light  I spoke  j 
of  was  a natural,  created  light,  and  so  made  it  worse  and 
worse  in  his  argument. 

And  so  I made  manifest  to  the  people  how  that  in  the 
beginning  was  the  Word  and  the  Word  was  with  God,  and 
God  was  the  Word,  and  all  things  that  were  made  were  made 
by  him,  and  without  him  was  not  anything  made  that  was 
made.  So  all  natural  created  lights  were  made  by  Christ 
the  Word.  And  Christ  saith  he  is  the  light  of  the  world, 
and  bids  them  believe  in  the  light,  John  xii.  36.  And  God 
saith,  ‘ I will  give  thee  for  a light  to  the  gentiles  that  thou 
mayest  be  my  salvation  to  the  ends  of  the  earth,’  Isa. 
xlix.  6.  So  Christ  in  his  life  is  saving.  And  the  Apostle  i 
said,  the  light  that  shined  in  their  hearts  was  to  give  them  the  1 

knowledge  of  the  glory  of  God  in  the  face  of  Jesus  Christ,  i 

and  that  was  their  treasure  in  their  earthen  vessels,  2 Cor.  1 
iv.  6,  7.  t 

‘ Oh,’  says  the  people,  ‘ He  is  a cunning  fox.’  ji 

‘ Oh,’  says  the  priest  to  the  magistrates,  ‘ Take  him  away,  tl 
or  else  I shall  not  speak  any  more.’  a 

‘ But,’  said  I,  ‘ Priest  Tombes,  thou  art  not  in  thy  pulpit  ^ 

now,  nor  in  thy  old  mass  house;  thou  art  deceived,  we  are  ai 

in  the  fields.’ 

And  so  he  was  shuffling  to  be  gone.  And  then  Thomas  ih 


PRIEST  TOMBES 


1657] 


297 


Taylor  stood  up  and  <undertook  to  make  out  our  principles) 
by  Christ’s  parable  concerning  the  sower,  Matt.  xiii. 

Then  cries  the  priest,  ‘ Let  that  man  speak  and  not  the 
other.’ 

So  he  was  let  up  into  a little  jangling  till  the  Lord’s  power 
catched  him  again,  being  by  the  power  of  the  Lord  God 
stopped  and  confounded.  Then  a Friend  stood  up  and 
told  him  how  he  had  sued  him  for  tithe  eggs  and  Friends 
for  tithes,  for  he  was  an  Anabaptist  priest,  and  yet  had  the 
parsonage  at  Leominster  and  had  several  journeymen  under 
him.  And  he  said  he  had  a wife  and  he  had  a concubine, 
and  his  wife  was  the  baptized  people  and  his  concubine 
was  the  world.  But  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  all 
and  his  everlasting  Truth  was  declared  that  day,  and  many 
were  turned  by  it  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  their  teacher 
and  way  to  God.  And  of  great  service  that  meeting  was 
in  those  parts.  And  Thomas  Taylor  went  to  the  priest 
the  next  day,  to  reason  with  him,  and  came  over  him 
by  the  power  of  the  Lord. 

And  so  I passed  through  Wales  and  had  several  meetings 
till  I came  to  Tenby,  and  when  I came  up  the  street  a justice 
of  peace  came  out  of  his  house  and  desired  me  to  alight 
and  stay  at  his  house,  and  I did  so. 

And  on  the  First-day  the  mayor  and  his  wife  and  several 
others  of  the  heads  of  the  town  came  in  about  the  tenth 
hour  and  stayed  all  the  meeting,  and  a glorious  meeting 
it  was.  And  John  ap  John^  was  with  me,  and  he  went 
to  the  steeplehouse ; and  the  governor  cast  him  into  prison. 
And  on  the  Second-day  morning  the  governor  sent  one  of 
his  officers  to  the  justice’s  house  for  me,  and  it  grieved 
the  mayor  and  the  justice  for  they  were  both  with  me  in  the 
justice’s  house.  So  the  mayor  and  the  justice  went  up  to 
the  governor  before  me;  and  after, I went  up  with  the  officer; 
and  the  governor  had  got  another  justice  of  peace  with  him. 
And  when  I came  in  I said,  ‘ Peace  be  unto  this  house  ’, 
and  before  he  could  examine  me  I was  moved  to  ask  him 


^ John  ap  John  (c.  1630-1697)  of  Trevor  Issa,  near  Llangollen; 
the  first  Welsh  Quaker.  See  p.  172  ante. 


298  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

why  he  did  cast  my  friend  in  prison,  and  he  said,  ‘ For 
standing  with  his  hat  on  his  head  in  the  church.’ 

I said,  ‘ Had  not  the  priest  two  caps  on  his  head,  a black 
one  and  a white,  and  cut  off  the  brims  of  his  hat  and  my 
friend  then  would  have  but  one;  and  the  brims  of  the  hat 
were  only  to  save  the  rain  from  his  neck.’ 

‘ These  are  frivolous  things,’  said  he. 

Said  I,  ‘ Then  why  dost  thou  cast  my  friend  in  prison 
for  such  frivolous  things  ? ’ 

So  then  he  began  to  ask  me  whether  I owned  election 
and  reprobation.  ‘Yes,’  said  I;  ‘and  thou  art  in  the 
reprobation.’  Then  he  was  up  in  a rage  and  said  he  would 
send  me  to  prison  till  I proved  it,  and  then  I told  him  I 
would  prove  it  quickly  if  he  would  confess  truth.  Then 
I asked  him  whether  wrath,  fury,  and  rage,  and  persecution 
were  not  in  the  reprobation,  for  he  that  was  born  of  the  flesh 
persecuted  him  that  was  born  of  the  spirit.  For  Christ 
and  his  disciples  never  persecuted  nor  imprisoned  any. 

And  so  he  fairly  confessed  that  he  had  too  much  of 
wrath,  haste,  and  passion  in  him;  so  I told  him  Esau  was 
up  in  him,  the  first  birth,  and  not  Jacob,  the  second  birth. 
So  the  Lord’s  power  so  reached  the  man,  and  came  over 
him  that  he  confessed  to  Truth:  and  the  other  justice 
came  and  took  me  by  the  hand.  And  as  I was  passing 
away  I was  moved  to  speak  to  the  governor  again,  and 
he  invited  me  to  dinner  with  him  and  set  my  friend  at 
liberty. 

So  I went  back  to  the  other  justice’s  house  and  the  mayor 
and  his  wife  and  the  justice  and  his  wife  and  diverse  other 
Friends  of  the  town  went  about  half  a mile  with  us  to  the 
water’s  side.  And  there  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  kneel 
down  with  them  and  pray  to  the  Lord  to  preserve  them. 

And  after  I had  turned  them  to  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ 
their  free  teacher  and  saviour  I passed  away;  and  the  Lord’s 
power  came  over  all,  and  the  Lord  had  the  glory.  And  there 
is  a meeting  continues  in  that  town  to  this  day. 

And  so  from  thence  we  passed  through  the  country  to 
Pembrokeshire.  And  in  Pembroke  town  we  had  some 


PEMBROKESHIRE 


1657] 


299 


service  for  the  Lord:  and  from  thence  we  passed  to 
Haverfordwest  where  we  had  a great  meeting  and  all  was 
quiet  and  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all:  and  many  were 
settled  in  the  new  covenant  Christ  Jesus,  and  built  upon  him 
their  rock  and  foundation.  And  they  stand  a precious 
meeting  to  this  day.  And  the  next  day,  being  their  fair 
day,  we  passed  through  their  fair  and  sounded  the  day  of 
the  Lord  and  his  everlasting  Truth  amongst  them. 

And  after  that  we  came  to  another  county,  and  at  noon 
we  came  into  a great  market  town^  and  went  to  several 
inns:  and  yet  could  not  get  any  meat  for  our  horses,  and 
at  last  we  came  to  an  inn  where  we  did  get  some  meat 
for  our  horses.  John  ap  John,  being  with  me,  he  spoke 
through  the  town,  declaring  the  truth  to  the  people,  and 
after  he  came  to  me  he  said  he  thought  all  the  town  was  as 
people  asleep.  And  after  a while  he  was  moved  to  go 
again,  and  then  the  town  was  all  in  an  uproar  and  cast 
him  into  prison.  So  there  were  several  of  the  heads  of  the 
town  and  others  came  down  to  the  inn  where  I was  and  said 
they  had  cast  my  man  in  prison.  ‘ For  what  ? ’ said  I. 
They  said  he  preached  in  their  streets;  and  then  I asked 
them,  ‘ What  did  he  say  ? Did  he  reprove  some  of  the 
drunkards  and  swearers,  and  warn  them  to  repent  and  leave 
off  their  evil  doing  and  turn  to  the  Lord  ? ’ And  then  I 
asked  who  had  cast  him  into  prison ; and  they  said  the  high 
sheriff  and  the  justices  and  the  mayor.  So  I asked  the  names 
of  them  and  whether  they  did  understand  themselves  and 
whether  that  was  their  carriage  to  travellers  that  passed 
through  their  town  and  to  strangers  that  did  admonish 
them  and  exhort  them  to  fear  the  Lord  and  reproved  sin 
in  their  gates ; so  they  went  up  again  and  told  those  officers 
what  I said.  And  after  a while  they  brought  down  John 
ap  John  guarded  with  their  officers  and  halberts  to  the 
inn  door,  in  order  to  put  him  out  of  town.  I,  <being  at 
the  inn  door,)  bid  them  take  their  hands  off  him.  They 
said  the  mayor  and  officers  had  commanded  to  put  him 
out  of  the  town,  and  I told  them  I would  talk  with  their 

^ Probably  Carmarthen. 


300  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

mayor  and  justices  anon  of  their  uncivil  and  unchristian 
carriages  towards  him. 

So  I bid  John  go  and  look  after  the  horses  and  get  them 
ready,  and  charged  the  officers  not  to  touch  him.  So  they 
went  their  ways  after  I had  declared  the  Truth  to  them  and 
showed  them  the  fruits  of  their  priests  and  the  incivility 
and  unchristian-like  carriage.  They  were  a kind  of 
Independents,  but  a very  wicked  town,  for  no  sooner  had 
we  turned  our  backs  from  the  innkeeper,  whom  we  bid 
give  our  horses  a peck  of  oats,  but  all  the  oats  were  stolen 
from  our  horses,  that  we  ordered  him  to  give  them. 

And  so  after  we  had  refreshed  ourselves  a little  and  were 
ready,  I took  horse  and  rid  up  to  the  inn  where  I heard  the 
mayor  and  sheriff  and  officers  were;  and  I called  to  speak 
with  them,  and  asked  them  the  reason  wherefore  they  had 
imprisoned  John  ap  John  and  kept  him  in  prison  about 
two  or  three  hours;  but  they  would  not  answer  a word 
to  me,  but  looked  out  at  the  windows  upon  me.  And  then 
I showed  them  how  unchristian  their  carriage  was  to 
travellers  and  strangers,  and  the  fruits  of  their  teachers, 
and  declared  unto  them  the  Truth,  and  warned  them  of 
the  day  of  the  Lord  that  was  coming  upon  all  the  evil  doers, 
and  how  that  they  all  knew  that  there  were  few  inns  in 
their  country;  and  what  an  unworthy  thing  it  was  to  hinder 
us  in  our  journey,  and  they  would  not  be  so  served  them- 
selves. And  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them,  they  were 
so  ashamed,  but  I could  not  get  a word  from  them  in 
answer.  So  I warned  them  to  repent  and  turn  to  the  Lord; 
and  we  passed  away. 


^When  I came  to  Cardigan,  I lodged  at  a justice’s  house 
and  had  a brave  meeting  at  a great  house  in  the  town. 
So  we  came  into  Cardigan,  and  being  upon  a market-day 
Friends  spoke  in  the  market;  and  all  the  town  was  in  an 
uproar.  But  we  passed  quietly  out  of  the  town  after  I 
had  spoken  the  Truth  among  them.^ 

And  at  night  we  came  to  a little  inn,  very  poor  but  very 

^ ^ S.J.,  p.  49.  The  exact  position  of  this  visit  in  the  itinerary 

is  uncertain. 


CARDIGAN 


I 1657] 


301 


i cheap,  for  we  and  our  horses  cost  but  eightpence;  but  the 
horses  would  as  soon  eat  the  heath  on  the  common  as 
their  oats.  And  we  declared  unto  them  the  Truth  and 
sounded  the  day  of  the  Lord  through  the  countries. 

And  before  that  we  came  to  a great  town^  and  went 
to  an  inn ; and  Edward  Edwards  went  into  the  market  and 
declared  the  Truth  amongst  them  and  the  people  came  to 
the  inn  and  filled  the  inn  yard  and  were  exceeding  rude. 
But  a good  service  we  had  for  the  Lord.  The  life  of 
Christianity  and  the  power  of  it  tormented  the  chaffy 
natures  and  exceedingly  came  over  them,  and  some  there 
were  reached  and  convinced.  And  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  all,  so  that  the  magistrates  were  bound;  they 
had  no  power  to  meddle  with  us. 

And  after  this  we  passed  away  and  came  to  another  great 
! town^  on  a market-day,  and  John  ap  John  declared  the 
i everlasting  Truth  through  the  streets  and  declared  the  day 
I of  the  Lord  amongst  them.  And  many  people  in  the 
evening  gathered  about  the  inn;  and  many  being  drunk, 
they  would  fain  have  had  us  forth  into  the  street  again, 
but  we  saw  their  design.  And  I told  them  if  there  were 
any  that  feared  God  and  desired  to  hear  Truth,  they  might 
come  into  our  inn  or  else  we  might  have  a meeting  with 
them  the  next  morning.  And  some  service  for  the  Lord 
we  had  with  the  people  both  over-night  and  in  the  morning; 
though  the  people  were  hard  to  receive  the  Truth,  yet  the 
seed  was  sown,  and  thataways  the  Lord  has  a people 
turned  to  himself. 

And  in  that  inn  also  I turned  but  my  back  from  the  man 
that  was  giving  oats  to  my  horse,  and  I looked  back  again 
and  he  was  filling  his  pockets  with  the  provender  that  was 
given  to  my  horse,  a wicked  thievish  people  to  rob  the  poor 
dumb  creature  of  his  food,  of  which  I had  rather  they  had 
robbed  me. 

And  another  time  as  I was  riding  along  there  was  a great 
man  overtook  us  in  the  way.  And  he  thought  to  have 


^ Probably  Lampeter. 

2 Probably  Aberystwyth. 


12 


302  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

taken  us  up  at  the  next  town  for  highwaymen,  but  before  i 
we  came  to  the  town  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  God  to 
speak  to  him;  and  it  reached  to  the  witness  of  God  in  the 
man  that  he  was  so  affected  that  he  had  us  to  his  house  | 
and  entertained  us  very  civilly : and  he  and  his  wife  desired  j 
us  to  give  them  Scriptures  both  for  our  principles  and  for  I 
Christ’s  alone  teaching,  and  against  the  priests.  So  we  were  | 
glad  of  it  and  furnished  him  with  Scriptures  enough.  And  j 
he  laid  them  down  and  v>^as  convinced  of  the  Truth  by  the  1 
spirit  of  God  in  his  heart,  and  confirmed  by  the  Scriptures,  | 
and  after  set  us  on  in  our  journey.  i 

And  then  we  came  to  another  town^  and  went  to  an  inn;  i 

' I 

and  came  a-top  of  a hill  which  they  say  was  two  or  three  | 
miles  high.^  And  on  this  hill-side  I could  see  a great  way;  ! 
and  I was  moved  to  sound  the  day  of  the  Lord^  there;  | 
and  set  my  face  several  ways  and  told  John  ap  John,  j 
a faithful  Welsh  minister,  in  what  places  God  would  raise  i 
up  a people  to  set  under  his  teaching.  And  those  places 
he  took  notice  of,  and  since  there  has  a great  people  risen  I 
in  those  places. 

And  the  same  thing  I have  been  moved  to  do  in  many 
other  places  and  countries,  the  which  have  been  rude  places,  j 
and  yet  I was  moved  to  declare  the  Lord  had  a seed  in  those 
places;  and  after,  there  has  been  a brave  people  raised  up 
in  the  covenant  of  God  and  gathered  in  the  name  of  Jesus, 
where  they  have  salvation  and  free  teaching. 

And  from  that  hill  we  came  down  to  a place  called 
Dolgelly,  and  we  went  to  an  inn.  And  John  ap  John 
declared  through  the  streets,  and  the  townspeople  riz  and 
gathered  about  him.  And  there  were  two  Independent  i 
priests  in  the  town  and  they  came  out.  And  they  both  | 
of  them  discoursed  with  him.  And  I went  up  to  them, 
and  as  they  were  speaking  in  Welsh  I asked  them  what  j 
was  the  subject  they  spoke  about,  and  asked  them  why  | 
they  were  not  more  moderate  and  spoke  one  by  one, 

^ Probably  Machynlleth. 

2 Probably  Cader  Idris. 

3 See  p.  104,  note  1. 


DOLGELLY 


1657] 


303 


for  the  things  of  God  were  weighty  and  they  should  speak 
them  with  fear  and  reverence.  And  then  I bid  them  speak 
in  English,  and  they  said  that  the  light  which  John  came 
to  bear  witness  of,  which  was  Christ  the  true  light  which 
enlightens  every  one  that  cometh  into  the  world  was  a 
created,  natural,  and  made  light. 

So  then  I took  a Bible  and  let  them  see  that  the  made 
and  created,  natural  lights  were  the  sun,  moon,  and  stars, 
and  the  elements ; but  the  true  light  which  John  bore  witness 
to  was  the  life  in  Christ  the  Word,  by  which  all  things  were 
made  and  created.  And  it  was  called  the  light  in  man  and 
woman,  which  was  the  true  light  which  had  enlightened 
every  man  that  came  into  the  world,  which  was  a heavenly 
and  divine  light  which  let  them  see  all  their  evil  words  and 
deeds  and  their  sins,  and  the  same  light  would  let  them  see 
Christ  their  saviour,  from  whence  it  came  to  save  them 
from  their  sin  and  to  blot  it  out. 

So  this  light  shone  in  the  darkness  of  their  hearts  and 
the  darkness  could  not  comprehend  it;  but  where  God  had 
commanded  it  to  shine  out  of  darkness,  in  their  hearts  it 
gave  them  the  knowledge  of  the  glory  of  God  in  the  face  of 
Christ  Jesus  their  saviour.  So  I opened  the  Scripture 
largely  to  them  and  turned  them  to  the  spirit  of  God  in 
their  hearts,  which  would  reveal  the  Scriptures  to  them 
and  lead  them  into  all  the  truth  of  them;  and  so  I turned 
them  to  that  which  would  give  every  one  of  them  the 
knowledge  of  their  saviour  who  died  for  them  and  was  their 
way  to  God,  and  made  their  peace  betwixt  them  and  God. 
And  the  people  generally  received  it  and  with  hands  lifted 
up  blessed  and  praised  God;  and  the  priests  were  stopped 
and  quiet  all  the  while.  So  I brought  them  to  be  sober 
that  when  they  spoke  of  the  things  of  God  and  Christ 
their  saviour  they  might  speak  them  with  reverence  and  fear. 

<The  people  were  attentive)  so  I was  moved  to  speak  to 
John  ap  John  to  stand  up  and  speak  in  Welsh  to  them, 
and  he  did.  So  the  meeting  broke  up  in  peace  in  the  street 
and  many  people  accompanied  us  to  our  inn,  and  rejoiced 
in  the  Truth  that  had  been  declared  unto  them,  that  they 


304  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

were  turned  to  that  light  and  spirit  by  which  they  might 
see  their  sin  and  know  salvation  from  it. 

And  when  we  went  out  of  town  the  people  were  so  affected 
they  lifted  up  their  hands  and  blessed  the  Lord  for  our 
coming.  And  the  Lord  has  a great  people  thataways, 
and  there  is  a great  people  gathered  to  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ’s  free  teaching  and  have  suffered  much  for  it  there- 
aways. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  to  a city  like  a castle,  <called 
Carnarvon),  and  we  rid  into  it  and  went  to  an  inn.  And 
after  we  had  set  up  our  horses  at  the  gates,  where  the  stable 
was  that  belonged  to  the  inn,  and  after  we  had  refreshed 
ourselves,  John  ap  John  spoke  through  the  streets  <which 
were  so  straight  and  short  that)  one  might  stand  in  the 
middle  of  the  town  and  see  both  the  gates.  And  a multitude 
of  people  was  gathered  about  him,  and  a priest  who  was 
as  dark  as  dark  could  be  <began  to  babble,  but)  his  mouth 
was  soon  stopped.  And  I declared  the  word  of  life  amongst 
them  and  turned  them  to  the  light  of  Christ  in  their  hearts, 
that  by  it  they  might  see  all  their  ways,  religions  and 
teachers,  and  to  come  off  all  to  Christ  their  way  and  free 
teacher.  And  some  of  them  were  rude  and  some  were 
civil ; and  they  told  us  how  they  did  hear  how  we  had  been 
persecuted  and  abused  in  many  places  but  they  would 
not  do  so  to  us  there.  So  I commended  their  moderation  j 
and  sobriety.  And  I warned  them  of  the  day  of  the  Lord  j 
that  was  coming  upon  all  sin  and  wickedness  and  how  that  | 
Christ  was  come  to  teach  his  people  himself  by  his  power  ^ 
and  by  his  spirit. 

So  from  thence  we  passed  into  Beaumaris,  and  went  to  an  ' 
inn.  And  there  was  a garrison  in  that  town.  And  John  . 
ap  John  had  been  formerly  a Separate  teacher  there. 
And  he  went  and  spoke  through  the  streets  and  they  cast 
him  into  prison.  And  the  innkeeper’s  wife  told  me  that 
the  governor  and  the  magistrates  were  sending  for  me  to 
send  me  to  prison  also,  and  I told  her  they  had  done  more 
than  they  could  answer  already  and  had  acted  contrary  to 
Christianity  in  imprisoning  John  for  reproving  sin  in  their  j 


1657]  A FEAT  OF  HORSEMANSHIP  305 

gates  and  for  declaring  the  Truth.  And  there  came  other 
friendly  people  and  told  me  if  I went  out  into  the  street 
they  would  imprison  me  also,  and  therefore  they  desired 
me  to  keep  in  the  inn.  Upon  which  I was  moved  to  go 
and  v/alk  up  and  down  in  their  streets,  and  told  the  people 
what  an  uncivil  and  unchristian  thing  they  had  done  in 
casting  John  in  prison,  for  they  were  high  professors,  and 
asked  was  this  the  entertainment  they  had  for  strangers, 
would  they  be  so  served  themselves,  had  they  any  example 
from  Christ  or  the  apostles  to  do  so,  who  looked  upon  the 
Scriptures  to  be  their  rule. 

So  after  a while  they  set  John  at  liberty  again.  And 
the  next  day,  being  market  day,  we  were  to  cross  over  a great 
water^  not  far  off.  Where  we  were  to  take  the  boat  many 
people  out  of  the  market  drew  to  us,  amongst  whom  we  had 
good  service  for  the  Lord  and  declared  the  word  of  life 
and  everlasting  Truth  to  them,  and  preached  the  day  of 
the  Lord  which  was  coming  upon  all  wickedness,  and 
turned  them  to  the  light  of  Christ  which  the  heavenly 
man  had  enlightened  them  withal,  by  which  they  might 
see  all  their  sins  and  false  ways,  religions,  worships  and 
teachers ; and  by  the  same  light  they  might  see  their  saviour 
Christ  Jesus,  their  way  to  God. 

So  the  Lord’s  truth  was  declared  amongst  them  and 
Christ  their  teacher  set  over  all  and  his  power  came  over 
ail.  Then  I bid  John  get  his  horse  into  the  boat.  But 
they  had  made  a plot  amongst  them,  for  there  came  a 
company  of  v/ild  gentlemen  (as  they  called  them,  but  we 
found  them  rude  men)  and  they  and  others  kept  his  horse 
out  of  the  boat;  so  I came  to  them  and  showed  them 
what  an  unm.anly  and  unchristian  thing  it  was.  So  <as  I 
spoke)  I leapt  with  my  horse  into  the  boat  amongst  them. 
And  it  being  pretty  deep,  John  could  not  get  his  horse 
into  the  boat  so  I told  them  they  showed  an  unworthy 
spirit  and  below  Christianity  or  humanity.  Seeing  I could 
not  get  John  in  I leapt  out  a-horseback  again  into  the  water 
and  stayed  with  John  on  that  side.  And  there  we  stayed 

^ Menai  Strait. 


306  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

from  the  eleventh  hour  to  the  second  before  the  boatmen 
came  back  again  to  fetch  us;  and  then  we  had  forty-two 
miles  to  ride  that  evening,  <and  by  the  time  we  had  paid 
for  our  passage)  we  had  but  one  groat  left  both  of  us  of 
money. 

So  we  came  on  about  sixteen  miles  and  got  a little  hay 
for  our  horses;  and  after,  came  to  an  alehouse  for  the  night, 
but  we  could  not  have  oats  nor  hay  there,  so  we  travelled  on 
all  night  and  about  four  o’clock  in  the  morning  we  got 
within  six  miles  of  Wrexham  where  that  day  we  met  with 
many  Friends  and  had  a glorious  meeting^  and  large,  and 
the  Lord’s  everlasting  power  and  truth  came  over  all, 
where  there  is  a meeting  continues  to  this  day.  But  we 
were  very  weary  with  travelling  so  hard  up  and  down  j 
in  Wales;  and  it  was  hard  to  get  meat  for  our  horses,  or 
ourselves  either,  in  many  places.  } 

And  the  next  day  we  passed  from  thence  through  Denbigh^  ; 
into  Flintshire  and  sounded  the  day  of  the  Lord  through  the 
towns  and  came  into  Wrexham  at  night,  where  many  of 
Morgan  Lloyd’s  people  came  to  us.  But  very  rude,  and 
wild,  and  airy  they  were,  and  little  sense  of  Truth  they  had, 
yet  there  were  some  convinced  in  the  town.  And  the  next 
morning  there  was  a lady  sent  for  me,  and  she  had  a teacher 
at  her  house.  <I  went  to  her  house,  but  found  that)  they 
were  both  very  light,  airy  people  and  were  too  light  to 
receive  the  weighty  things  of  God ; and  in  her  lightness  she 
came  and  asked  me  whether  she  should  cut  my  hair.  And  | 
1 was  moved  to  reprove  her  and  bid  her  cut  down  the 
corruptions  in  her  with  the  sv/ord  of  the  spirit  of  God. 

So  after  I had  admonished  her  we  passed  away ; and  after,  , 
she  made  her  boast  in  her  frothy  mind  that  she  came 
behind  me  and  cut  off  a lock  of  my  hair,  which  was  a lie. 

And  to  the  town  <of  Beaumaris)  that  had  imprisoned 
John  ap  John  I writ  unto  the  mayor  and  sheriff  to  let  them 
see  their  conditions  and  the  fruits  of  their  Christianity  and 

^ Probably  Trevor,  the  home  of  John  ap  John,  between  Llangollen 
and  Ruabon. 

2 i.e.  the  county,  not  the  town.  | 


1657]  LIVERPOOL  AND  MANCHESTER  307 

their  teachers.  And  after,  I met  with  some  of  those 
justices  near  London,  and  they  were  ashamed  of  their 
actions.  So  from  Wrexham  we  came  through  the  country 
to  Chester^  and  stayed  a while,  it  being  their  fair  time,  and 
visited  Friends. 

And  from  Chester  we  came  through  the  country  to 
Liverpool.  And  there  being  a fair  there  also,  a Friend 
was  standing  a-top  of  the  cross  declaring  <the  Truth  to  the 
people)  as  I rode  through  the  fair;  who  also  <seeing  me 
ride  by  and  knowing  I had  appointed  a meeting  to  be  the 
next  day  upon  a hill  not  far  off,)  gave  notice  that  George 
Fox,  the  servant  of  the  Lord,  would  have  a meeting  upon 
such  a hill.  If  any  feared  the  Lord,  they  might  come  there 
and  hear  him  declare  the  word  of  life  to  them,  and  this  I 
heard  him  declaring  as  I rid  by  the  cross. 

And  so  from  Liverpool  we  went  that  night  to  Richard 
Cubham’s^  who  had  been  convinced  but  not  his  wife;  but 
at  that  time  his  wife  was  convinced  also.  And  the  next  day 
we  went  to  the  meeting  on  the  top  of  the  hill,  which  was 
very  large.  And  some  rude  people  with  a priest’s  wife 
came  and  made  a noise  for  a while;  but  the  Lord’s  power 
came  over  them  and  the  meeting  was  quiet.  And  the  Lord’s 
truth  came  over  all  and  many  were  settled  upon  the  rock  and 
foundation,  Christ  Jesus,  and  under  his  teaching,  who  made 
their  peace  betwixt  them  and  God. 

And  we  had  a meeting  at  Malpas  where  we  had  a few 
Friends  and  people. 

And  from  thence  we  came  to  another  place  where  we 
had  another  meeting,  and  there  came  a bailiff  with  a sword, 
a rude  man,  but  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all  and  Friends 
were  established  in  the  Truth. 

And  from  thence  I came  to  Manchester,  and  there  came 
a many  rude  people  out  of  the  town,  the  Sessions  being 
there  that  day.  And  in  the  meeting  they  threw  at  me  coals, 

^ The  MS.  refers  to  Chester  as  West  Chester,  a name  corrupted 
from  the  ancient  Waste  Chester. 

^ Richard  and  Ann  Cubham  lived  at  Bickerstaffe,  near  Ormskirk, 
Lancashire. 


308  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

clots,  stones,  water,  <yet  the  Lord’s  power  bore  me  up 
over  them  that  they  could  not  strike  me  down).  And  I 
was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  stand,  till  at  last  when  they 
could  do  no  good  with  their  water,  stones,  and  dirt  some 
ran  to  the  Sessions  and  told  them,  upon  which  they  sent 
a company  of  officers  and  plucked  me  down  and  haled  me 
out  of  the  meeting  into  the  Sessions-house  before  the 
justices.  And  all  the  court  was  in  an  outrage  and  a noise. 
And  I asked  where  were  the  officers  or  magistrates  that 
they  did  not  keep  the  people  civil.  ‘ Yes’ , said  some  of 
the  justices,  they  were  magistrates.  And  I asked  them  why  ' 
they  did  not  appease  the  people  and  keep  them  sober;  : 
for  one  cried,  ‘ I will  swear  ’,  and  another  cried,  ‘ I will  ! 
swear.’  j 

So  I declared  to  the  justices  how  we  were  abused  in  our 
meeting  by  the  rude  people  throwing  stones,  and  clots,  and  | 
water,  and  how  I was  haled  out  and  brought  out  of  the  : 
meeting  contrary  to  the  Instrument  of  Governmxent,  which  I 
was  that  none  should  be  molested  in  their  meetings  that 
professed  God  and  owned  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  which  I ! 
did.  I 

And  so  the  Truth  came  over  them,  that  when  one  of  the  i 
rude  fellows  cried  he  would  swear,  one  of  the  justices  said,  J 
‘ What  ! will  you  swear  ? Hold  your  tongue.’  So  at 
last  they  bid  the  constable  have  me  to  my  lodging  and  there  ! 
I should  be  secured  till  tomorrow  morning  that  they  sent  I 
for  me.  And  the  people  were  exceeding  rude,  but  I let  i 
them  see  the  fruits  of  their  teachers  and  how  they  shamed  i 
Christianity  and  dishonoured  the  name  of  Jesus  which  they 
professed.  So  the  constable  had  me  to  my  lodging.  And 
at  night  we  went  to  a justice’s  house  in  the  town  that  was  ' 
pretty  moderate;  and  1 had  a great  deal  of  discourse  with 
him.  And  the  next  morning  v/e  sent  to  the  constable 
to  know  if  he  had  anything  more  to  say  to  us,  but  he  !| 
sent  us  word  he  had  nothing  to  say  to  us,  we  might  go  where  :| 
we  would,  so  we  passed  out  of  the  town.  And  the  Lord  i 
has  raised  up  a people  to  stand  for  his  name  and  Truth 
in  that  town  over  those  chaffy  professors.  i: 


SWARTHMOOR 


1657] 


309 


And  so  from  thence  we  passed  through  the  country 
and  had  many  precious  meetings  in  several  places,  and 
came  to  Preston  and  many  came  gazing  about  us.  And  I 
had  a General  Meeting  between  that  and  Lancaster,^  and 
after,  we  came  to  Lancaster,  and  there  met  Colonel  West 
at  the  inn,  who  was  mightily  glad  to  see  me.  And  he  told 
Judge  Fell  that  I was  mightily  grown  in  the  Truth;  but 
the  ground  was  because  he  was  come  nearer  to  see  the 
Truth,  and  could  better  discern  it. 

And  from  thence  we  came  to  Robert  Widders’s,  and  on 
the  First-day  I had  a General  Meeting  near  the  Sands’  side, 
of  Friends  out  of  Westmorland  and  Lancashire.  And  the 
Lord’s  everlasting  power  and  word  of  life  was  over  all  and 
Friends  were  settled  upon  the  foundation,  Christ  Jesus,  and 
under  his  free  teaching,  and  many  were  convinced  and 
turned  to  the  Lord. 

And  the  next  day  I came  over  the  Sands  to  Swarthmoor, 
and  Friends  all  thereaways  were  glad  to  see  me.  And  I 
stayed  there  two  First-days  visiting  Friends  in  their  meetings. 
And  so  having  travelled  through  every  county  in  Wales 
I returned  to  Swarthmoor  again  and  the  Lord  in  his  eternal 
power  had  carried  me  through  and  over  all. 

<Having  got  a little  respite  from  travel  I was  moved  to 
write  an  epistle  to  Friends): 


All  Friends  of  the  Lord  everywhere,  whose  minds  are  turned 
in  towards  the  Lord,  take  heed  and  hearken  to  the  light  within 
you,  which  is  the  light  of  Christ  and  of  God;  which  will  call 
your  minds  within,  as  you  love  it,  which  is  abroad  in  the  creatures. 
So  your  minds  may  be  renewed  and  by  it  turned  to  God  with 
this  which  is  pure,  to  worship  the  living  God,  the  Lord  of  Hosts 
over  all  the  creatures  . . . And  the  light  of  God,  which  calls 
the  mind  out  of  the  creatures,  turns  it  to  God,  into  a beings  of 
endless  joy  and  peace.  And  here  is  always  a seeing  God  present, 
who  is  not  known  to  the  world  whose  hearts  are  in  the  creatures, 
whose  knowledge  is  in  the  flesh,  whose  minds  are  not  renewed 

^ Probably  Carr  House,  near  Garstang,  the  home  of  John  Moone. 
The  meeting  was  known  as  Claiighton. 

2 being  here  means  dwelling. 


310  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

...  So  fare  you  well,  and  God  Almighty  bless,  and  guide,  and 
keep  you  in  his  wisdom.  G.F.^ 

<About  this  time  Friends  that  were  moved  of  the  Lord 
to  go  to  the  steeplehouses  and  markets  to  reprove  sin  and 
warn  people  of  the  day  of  the  Lord,  suffered  much  hardship 
from  the  rude  people,  and  also  from  the  magistrates ; being 
commonly  pulled  down,  buffeted,  and  beaten,  and  many 
times  sent  to  prison.  Wherefore  I was  moved  to  give 
forth  the  following  paper,  to  be  spread  abroad  amongst 
people,  to  show  them  how  contrary  they  acted  therein 
to  the  apostles’  doctrine  and  practice,  and  to  bring  them 
to  more  moderation.) 

...  Is  it  not  more  of  honour  and  credit  to  prove  all  things 
and  try  all  things,  than  to  pluck  down  in  the  steeple-houses,  and 
pull  off  the  hair  of  their  heads,  and  cast  into  prison  ? Is  this 
an  honour  to  your  truth  and  gospel  you  profess  ? Doth  it 
not  show  that  you  be  out  of  Truth  ? . . . And  doth  not  this 
show  that  you  have  not  this  spirit  poured  forth  upon  you, 
that  fill  the  gaols  with  so  many  sons  and  daughters,  and  hold 
up  such  teachers  as  are  made  by  the  will  of  man  at  Oxford  and 
Cambridge,  bred  up  at  learning  ? . . . 

And  do  not  all  your  fruits  show,  in  all  the  nation  where  you 
come,  in  towns,  cities,  villages,  and  countries,  that  you  are 
the  seedsmen  made  by  the  will  of  man,  which  to  the  flesh  do 
sow,  of  which  nothing  but  corruption  is  reaped  in  nations, 
countries,  cities,  and  villages  ? . . . And  so  you  sow  to  your 
own,  persecuting  him  that  is  born  of  the  spirit,  who  sows  to 
the  spirit,  who  of  the  spirit  reaps  life  eternal;  such,  you  who 
sow  to  the  flesh,  cast  into  prison  . . . And  again,  what  scorn, 
scoffing,  mocking,  derision,  and  strife,  oaths,  drunkenness, 
uncleanness,  and  cursed  speaking,  lust,  and  pride  are  seen  in 
the  streets  ! And  this,  we  see,  is  fruit  which  is  reaped  of  the 
flesh  . . . 

The  ministers  of  the  spirit,  which  sow  to  the  spirit,  of  the 
spirit  come  to  reap  life  eternal.  . . . The  ministers  of  the  spirit, 
which  be  born  of  the  spirit,  sons  and  daughters,  which  have  the 
spirit  poured  forth  upon  them,  who  witness  the  promise  of  God 

^ From  MS.  George  Fox  Papers  (R.  15);  Ellwood,  p.  261*;  Bicent., 
i.,  384-6. 


1657]  ‘ BE  BOLD  AND  VALIANT  ’ 311 

fulfilled,  preach  and  minister  to  the  spirit  of  God  in  prison 
in  every  one,  in  the  sight  of  God  the  father  of  spirits. 

God’s  hand  is  turned  against  you  all  that  have  destroyed 
God’s  creatures  upon  your  lust,  that  have  wronged  by  unjust 
dealing,  and  defrauded,  and  have  oppressed,  and  have  respected 
the  persons  of  the  proud,  and  such  as  be  in  gay  apparel,  and  lend 
not  your  ear  to  the  cry  of  the  poor  . . . 

Now  all  may  read  each  seedsman,  which  hath  each  wisdom. 
He  that  sov/s  to  the  flesh,  which  is  of  that  born,  hath  the  wisdom 
that  is  earthly,  sensual,  and  devilish;  he  that  sows  to  the  spirit, 
a minister  of  the  spirit,  hath  the  wisdom  from  above,  which  is 
pure,  which  is  gentle,  which  is  easy  to  be  entreated,  the  wisdom 
by  which  all  things  were  made  and  created.  Now  is  each  wisdom 
discovered,  and  each  seedsman;  the  day  hath  discovered  it, 
which  is  the  light.  G.F.^ 

<As  the  foregoing  paper  was  sent  forth  among  the  world’s 
people  to  let  them  see  from  whence  this  imprisoning  and 
persecuting  cruelty  and  violent  dealing  sprang,  so  I was 
also  moved  to  give  forth  the  following  epistle  to  Friends, 
to  stir  them  up  to  be  bold  and  valiant  for  the  Truth,  and 
to  encourage  them  in  their  sufTerings  for  it:> 

Epistle  to  Friends;  of  Christ,  he  must  not  come  into  the 
stable  but  in  the  best  room. 

All  Friends  and  brethren  everywhere,  now  is  the  day  of 
your  trial,  and  now  is  the  time  for  you  to  be  valiant,  and  to 
see  that  the  testimony  of  the  Lord  doth  not  fall.  For  now  is 
the  day  of  exercise  of  the  gifts,  of  your  patience,  of  your  faith, 
and  now  is  the  time  to  be  armed  v/ith  patience,  and  with  the  light, 
and  v/ith  righteousness,  and  with  the  helmet  of  salvation  . . . 
For  the  Lord  may  try  you  as  he  did  Job,  whom  he  made  rich, 
whom  he  made  poor,  and  whom  he  made  rich  again;  who  still 
kept  his  integrity  in  ail  conditions.  So  learn  Paul’s  lesson, 
‘ in  all  states  to  be  content  ’ ; and  have  his  faith,  that  ‘ nothing 
is  able  to  separate  us  from  the  love  of  God,  which  we  have  in 
Christ  Jesus  ’.  Therefore  be  rich  in  life,  and  in  grace,  which 
will  endure,  who  are  heirs  of  life  and  born  of  the  womb  of 
eternity,  that  noble  birth  that  cannot  stoop  to  the  birth  that  is 
born  in  sin.  . . . 

Therefore  mind  him  that  destroys  the  original  of  sin,  the  Devil 
^ From  MS.  Portfolio  10.2.  In  full,  Ellwood,  pp,  263 *-265^'; 
Bicent.,  i.,  386-8. 


312  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

a,nd  his  works,  and  cuts  off  the  entail  of  Satan,  viz.  sin;  v/ho 
would  hold  by  entail  an  inheritance  of  sin  in  men  and  women 
from  generation  to  generation,  and  pleads  for  it  by  all  his 
lawyers  and  counsellors.  And  though  the  lav/  did  not  cut  it 
off,  nor  made  nothing  perfect,  yet  Christ  is  come  and  destroys 
the  Devil  and  his  works,  and  cuts  off  the  entail  of  sin.  This 
angers  all  the  Devil’s  lawyers  and  counsellors,  that  Satan  shall 
not  hold  sin  by  entail  in  thy  garden,  in  thy  field,  in  thy  temple, 
nor  thy  tabernacle.  So  keep  thy  tabernacle,  that  there  thou 
mayst  see  the  glory  of  the  Lord  appear  at  the  door  thereof. 
And  so  be  faithful;  for  you  see  what  the  worthies  and  the 
valiants  of  the  Lord  did  attain  to  by  faith  ...  So  bring  your 
deeds  all  to  the  light,  which  you  are  taught  to  believe  in  by 
Christ,  your  head,  the  heavenly  man;  and  see  how  they  are 
wrought  in  God,  that  he  may  rule  and  reign  in  you.  We  must 
not  have  Christ  Jesus,  the  Lord  of  life,  put  any  more  in  the 
stable  amongst  the  horses  and  asses,  but  he  must  now  have  the 
best  chamber,  the  heart,  and  the  rude,  debauched  spirit  must  be 
turned  out.  Therefore  let  him  reign,  whose  right  it  is,  who  was 
conceived  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  by  which  Holy  Ghost  you  call 
him  Lord,  in  which  Holy  Ghost  you  pray,  and  by  which  Holy 
Ghost  you  have  comfort  and  fellowship  with  the  Son  and  with 
the  Father.  Therefore  know  the  triumph  in  the  Seed,  which 
is  first  and  last,  the  beginning  and  ending,  the  top  and  corner- 
stone; in  which  is  my  love  and  in  which  I rest.  G.F. 

And,  Friends,  be  careful  how  that  you  do  set  your  feet  among 
the  tender  plants,  that  are  springing  up  out  of  God’s  earth; 
lest  you  do  hurt  them  and  tread  upon  them,  and  bruise  them, 
or  crush  them  in  God’s  vineyard. 

Let  this  be  read  in  Friends’  Meetings.^ 

And  after  those  two  First-days  that  I tarried  at  Swarth- 
moor  I passed  into  Westmorland,  visiting  the  meetings 
there.  And  at  John  Audland’s  there  was  a General 
Meeting  of  such  as  were  convinced  of  the  Lord  and  had 
a belief  in  his  everlasting  Truth. 

I had  a vision  the  night  before  of  a desperate  creature 
like  a wild  horse  or  colt  that  was  coming  to  destroy  me;  but 
I got  victory  over  it. 

I Swarthmore  MSS.,  ii,  961.  In  full,  Ellwood,  pp.  265 *-267* 
Bicent.,  i,  389-91. 


1657]  I SAW  I WAS  IN  HIS  HAND  313 

®As  I was  passing  to  a meeting  near  Sedbergh  there  lay  a 
company  of  men  in  the  way  at  a bridge  at  an  alehouse  with 
weapons  to  have  done  me  a mischief,  but  I was  moved  to 
pass  over  another  way  over  a water,  not  knowing  outwardly 
of  them,  and  so  some  of  them  came  to  a meeting  rudely, 
but  the  truth  of  the  Lord  that  answers  the  witness  of  God 
in  all  people,  came  over  all,  and  they  passed  away  without 
doing  me  or  Friends  any  hurt. 

Then  Friends  had  a meeting  at  John  Audland’s,  not 
far  off  that  place,  the  next  First-day  where  there  were  about 
a thousand  people,  and  most  convinced  of  the  Truth  of 
God.®  And  in  the  meeting-time  there  came  one  Otway, 
Sir  John  Otway’s^  brother,  with  some  rude  fellows,  with 
his  sword  or  rapier  and  he  v/as  struck  by  the  Lord’s  dreadful 
power  before  he  came  up  to  the  meeting,  but  he  came  up 
and  rid  round  about  the  meeting  and  would  fain  have 
gotten  in  to  me  through  Friends,  but  they  stood  thick 
so  as  he  could  not  come  at  me.  So  he  rid  about  raging, 
but  at  last  he  went  his  way.  So  the  meeting  ended  gloriously 
and  the  Lord’s  everlasting  power  came  over  all.  And 
this  wild  man  went  home  and  became  distracted  and  not 
long  after  died.  But  I sent  a paper  to  John  Blaykling 
to  read  to  this  man  when  he  was  in  his  distractions,  showing 
him  his  wickedness,  and  he  did  acknowledge  something 
of  it  to  him. 

®And  it’s  large  to  declare  the  works  and  wonders  of  the 
Lord  God  and  the  preservation  of  me  through  all  by  his 
mighty  hand  and  power,  but  I saw  I was  in  his  hand.® 

<From  hence  I went  through  Kendal,  where  a warrant 
had  long  lain  to  apprehend  me,  and  the  constables  seeing 
me,  ran  to  fetch  their  warrant,  as  I was  riding  through  the 
town,  but  before  they  could  come  with  it  I v/as  gone  past, 
and  so  escaped  their  hands.) 

And  after,  I passed  through  the  meetings  visiting  of  them 
till  I came  to  Strickland  Head,  where  I had  a great  meeting; 
and  most  of  the  gentry  of  the  country  were  gathered  to  a 

^ Sir  John  Otway,  of  Ingmire  Hall,  near  Sedbergh. 

® ® 5./.,  p.  35. 


314  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

horse  race  not  far  off  the  meeting,  and  I was  moved  to 
declare  the  Truth  unto  them;  and  there  was  a chief  constable 
did  admonish  them  also,  and  we  had  our  meeting  quiet  and 
the  word  of  the  Lord  came  over  all  and  Friends  were 
settled  in  the  eternal  Truth. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  into  Cumberland  and  had 
many  living  precious  meetings  there.  And  from  thence 
we  travelled  through  to  Gilsland  and  had  a meeting  there; 
and  from  thence  came  to  Carlisle,  where  they  used  to  put 
Friends  out  of  the  town,  and  there  came  a great  flood 
so  as  they  could  not  put  us  out  of  the  town,  and  the  First-day 
we  had  a meeting  there. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  through  the  country  to 
Abbey  Holme  where  we  had  a little  meeting  where  I told 
Friends  long  before  there  would  be  a great  people  come  out 
of  that  place  to  the  Lord,  which  has  since,  and  there  is  a 
large  meeting  in  those  parts. 

And  so  I passed  from  thence  to  a General  Meeting  at 
Christopher  Fell’s  at  Langlands  in  Cumberland,  which 
was  very  large;  and  most  of  the  people  had  so  forsaken 
the  priests  that  the  steeplehouses  in  some  places  stood 
empty. 

And  Priest  John  Wilkinson,  mentioned  before,  that  had 
three  steeplehouses,  had  few  auditors  left  so  that  he  first 
set  up  a meeting  in  his  house  and  preached  amongst  them 
that  were  left;  and  then  after,  set  up  a silent  meeting  like 
Friends  at  which  came  a few,  for  most  of  his  auditors 
were  come  off  to  Friends.  At  last  he  had  not  past  half  a 
dozen  left;  they  still  forsook  him  and  came  off  to  Friends. 
And  at  last  he  had  so  few  left  that  he  would  come  to 
Pardshaw  Crag  where  Friends  had  a meeting  of  several 
hundreds  of  people  who  were  all  come  to  sit  under  the 
Lord  Jesus  Christ’s  teaching;  and  he  would  come  and 
walk  about  the  meeting  on  the  First-days  like  a man  that 
went  about  the  commons  to  look  for  sheep. 

And  I went  to  this  Pardshaw  Crag  meeting,  and  there 
was  he,  and  three  or  four  of  his  followers  that  were  yet  left 
behind  came  to  the  meeting,  and  they  were  all  thoroughly 


1657]  PRIEST  WILKINSON  CONVINCED  315 

convinced,  and  after  the  meeting  was  done  Priest  Wilkinson 
asked  me  two  or  three  questions  and  I satisfied  him.  And 
from  that  time  he  came  amongst  Friends  to  their  meetings, 
and  became  an  able  minister  and  freely  preached  the  Gospel 
and  turned  many  to  Christ’s  free  teaching;  and  he  continued 
many  years  in  the  free  ministry  and  preaching  of  the  Gospel, 
and  died  in  the  Truth.^ 


CHAPTER  XIH 

HAD  for  some  time  felt  drawings  in  my  spirit  to  go 
I into  Scotland.)  And  Colonel  William  Osburne,^ 
Xwhom  I had  sent  to  (desiring  him  to  come  and  meet 
me),  came  out  of  Scotland  to  that  meeting,  and  some  others 
with  him.  He  said  he  never  saw  such  a glorious  meeting 
in  his  life;  and  after  the  meeting  was  done  I passed  with 
him  and  them  towards  Scotland.  And  Robert  Widders 
went  alongst  with  me,  a thundering  man  against  hypocrisy 
and  deceit  and  the  rottenness  of  the  priests. 

The  first  night  we  came  into  Scotland^  we  lodged  at  an 
inn.  And  the  innkeeper  told  us  that  there  was  an  earl 
would  fain  see  me,  and  had  left  word  at  his  house  that  if 
ever  I came  to  Scotland  he  should  send  me  word.^  And 
he  said  there  were  three  drawbridges  to  his  house,  and  that 
it  would  be  the  ninth  hour  before  the  last  drawbridge  was 
drawn.  So  we  went  down  to  his  house  being  but  a quarter 
of  a mile  off.  He  received  us  very  lovingly ; and  would  have 
gone  with  us  on  our  journey,  but  he  was  pre-engaged  to 
to  go  to  a funeral.  (After  we  had  spent  some  time  with 
him,  we  parted  very  friendly,  and  returned  to  our  inn.)  So 

^ John  Wilkinson  of  Cumberland  (d.  1675)  preached  Quakerism 
in  England  and  Ireland.  See  also  pp.  153  fif.  ante. 

2 Supporter  of  Quaker  cause  in  Edinburgh,  1653,  not  known  of 
after  1658. 

3 Thursday,  10th  Sept.,  1657. 

4 Doubtless,  Robert,  second  Earl  of  Nithsdale  (d.  1667),  and  his 
castle  of  Caerlaverock.  He  was  popularly  called  ‘ The  Philosopher  ’. 


316  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

from  thence  we  passed  through  Dumfries  to  Douglas, 
where  we  met  with  some  Friends;  and  thence  we  passed 
to  the  Heads, ^ where  we  had  a blessed  meeting  in  the  name 
of  Jesus,  and  felt  him  in  the  midst. 

From  thence  we  passed  to  Bedcow^  and  had  a meeting, 
and  abundance  of  people  came  to  it  and  were  convinced. 
From  thence  we  passed  towards  the  highlands  to  Colonel 
Osburne’s  house  where  we  gathered  up  the  sufferings  of 
Friends,  and  the  principles  of  the  Scots  priests,  which  may 
be  seen  in  the  book  called  The  Scotch  Priests"  Principles.^ 

And  from  thence  we  came  back  again  to  Heads  and 
Bedcow  and  Gartshore  where  the  Lady  Margaret  Hamilton 
was  convinced,  that  went  up  to  warn  Oliver  Cromwell 
and  Charles  Fleetwood  of  the  day  of  the  Lord  that  was 
coming  upon  them. 

And  on  the  First-day  we  had  a great  meeting  and  several 
professors  came  out.  And  the  priests  had  frightened  people 
with  the  doctrine  of  election  and  reprobation,  and  said  that 
the  greatest  part  of  men  and  women  God  had  ordained  for 
hell,  let  them  pray,  or  preach,  or  sing,  and  do  what  they 
could,  it  was  all  nothing  if  they  were  ordained  for  hell. 
And  God  had  a certain  number  which  were  elected  for 
heaven,  let  them  do  what  they  would,  as  David  an  adulterer 
and  Paul  a persecutor,  yet  elected  vessels  for  heaven. 
So  the  fault  was  not  at  all  in  the  creatures  less  or  more, 
but  God  had  ordained  it  so. 

So  I was  made  to  open  to  the  people  the  folly  of  their 
priests’  doctrines. 

And  I showed  them  how  the  priests  had  abused  those  Scriptures 
which  they  had  brought  and  quoted  to  them,  as  in  Jude  and  other 
places  . . . for  did  not  God  warn  Cain  and  Balaam  and  gave  a 
promise  to  Cain  if  he  did  well  he  should  be  accepted  . . . 

For  if  those  called  Christians  resist  the  Gospel  as  Korah  did 
the  law  and  err  from  the  spirit  of  Christ  as  Balaam  did,  and  if 
they  do  not  well  as  Cain,  is  not  here  a fault,  which  fault  is  in 
themselves  and  the  cause  of  their  reprobation,  and  not  God. 

^ A hamlet  close  to  Strathavon,  Lanarkshire. 

2 Easter  Bedcovv',  a farm  near  Kirkintilloch,  Dunbartonshire. 

3 By  George  Weare  et  ah,  1657. 


SCOTLAND 


1657] 


317 


And  doth  not  Christ  say,  ‘ Go  preach  the  gospel  to  all  nations 
which  is  the  gospel  of  salvation.  He  would  not  have  sent  them 
out  into  all  nations  to  preach  the  doctrine  of  salvation  if  the 
greatest  part  of  men  was  ordained  for  hell.  And  was  not 
Christ  a propitiation  for  the  sins  of  the  whole  world,  for  the 
reprobates  as  well  as  the  saints,  and  so  died  for  the  ungodly 
as  well  as  the  godly : and  died  for  all  men  as  the  apostle  bore 
witness  to,  and  enlightens  every  man  that  cometh  into  the 
world  that  through  him  they  might  all  believe  (2  Cor.  v,  15; 
Rom.  V,  6).  And  Christ  bids  them  believe  in  the  light  and  so  all 
they  that  hate  the  light,  which  Christ  bids  all  believe  in,  they  are 
reprobated ...  » 

And  therefore,  all  people,  believe  in  the  light  as  Christ  com- 
mands and  own  the  grace  of  God  your  free  teacher,  and  it  will 
bring  you  your  salvation  for  it  is  sufficient.^ 


And  the  people  were  opened  to  see,  and  a spring  of 
life  riz  up  amongst  them,  and  many  other  Scriptures  were 
opened  concerning  reprobation. 

And  these  things  came  to  the  priests’  ears,  and  the 
people  that  sat  under  their  dark  teachings  began  to  see 
light  and  to  come  into  the  covenant  of  light,  that  the  noise 
that  I was  come  there  was  spread  all  over  Scotland  amongst 
the  priests.  And  a great  cry  was  amongst  them  that  all 
was  undone  and  that  I had  spoiled  all  the  honest  men  and 
women  in  England,  so  that  the  worst  was  left  to  them. 
And  they  gathered  great  assemblies  of  priests  together 
and  drew  up  articles  to  be  read  in  their  parishes  in  the 
steeplehouses  and  that  all  the  people  should  say  Amen 
to  them,  which  are  as  folio weth  in  part:  and  the  rest  may 
be  seen  in  the  book  of  the  Scotch  priests’  principles. 

First:  Cursed  is  he  that  saith  every  man  hath  a light  within 
him  sufficient  to  lead  him  to  salvation  and  let  all  the  people 
say.  Amen. 

Second:  Cursed  is  he  that  saith  faith  is  without  sin  and  let 
all  the  people  say.  Amen. 

Third:  Cursed  is  he  that  denieth  the  sabbath  day  and  let  all 
the  people  say,  Amen. 

In  this  last  they  make  the  people  curse  themselves. 

^ In  full  Ellwood,  pp.  269*,  270* ; Bicent.,  i,  394-6. 


318  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

For  upon  the  sabbath  day,  which  is  the  seventh  day  of  the 
week,  which  the  Jews  keep,  v/hich  was  the  command  of  God, 
they  kept  markets  and  fairs,  and  so  brought  the  curse  upon  their 
own  heads. 

And  Christ  saith  believe  in  the  light  that  ye  may  become 
children  of  the  light,  and  believe  and  be  saved  and  he  that 
believeth  shall  have  everlasting  life,  and  he  that  believeth  passes 
from  death  to  life  and  is  grafted  into  Christ.  And  ye  do  well 
that  ye  take  heed  unto  the  light  that  shines  in  the  dark  place 
until  the  day  dawn  and  the  day  star  arise  in  your  hearts,  so  the 
light  is  sufficient  to  lead  unto  the  day  star. 

And  faith  is  the  gift  of  God  and  every  gift  of  God  is  pure. 
And  faith  which  Christ  is  the  author  of  is  precious  and  divine 
without  sin.  And  this  is  the  faith  which  gives  victory  over  sin 
and  access  to  God,  in  which  faith  they  please  God.  And  they 
are  reprobates  themselves  concerning  this  faith,  and  in  their 
dead  faith  that  charges  sin  upon  this  faith,  under  pain  of  a curse; 
which  faith  gives  the  victory  over  their  curse  and  returns  it  into 
their  own  bowels. 

And  there  was  a company  of  Scots  near  Bedcow  chal- 
lenged a dispute  with  some  of  our  Scottish  Friends,  for 
with  me  they  would  not  dispute.  So  some  of  the  Scottish 
Friends  met  them  at  the  market  cross.  And  the  dispute 
was  upon  some  of  their  principles  aforesaid  and  the  sabbath 
day.  And  a Scottish  Friend,  a gun-smith,  overthrew 
them  clearly,  for  I had  gotten  their  principles  and  assertions 
and  showed  him  my  answers,  whereby  he  might  easily 
overthrow  them. 

<There  were  two  Independent  churches  in  Scotland, 
in  one  of  which  many  were  convinced ; but  the  pastor  of  the 
other  was  in  a great  rage  against  Truth  and  Friends.  They 
had  their  elders,  who  sometimes  would  exercise  their  gifts 
amongst  the  church-members,  and  would  sometimes  be 
pretty  tender;  but  their  pastor  speaking  so  much  against 
the  Light  and  us,  the  friends  of  Christ,  he  darkened  his 
hearers,  so  that  they  grew  dark  and  blind  and  dry,  and  lost 
their  tenderness.  And  he  continued  preaching  against 
Friends,  and  against  the  light  of  Christ  Jesus,  calling  it 
natural.  At  last  one  day  in  his  preaching,  he  cursed  the 


1657]  A WARNING  TO  OTHERS  319 

Light  and  fell  down  as  dead  in  his  pulpit.  The  people 
carried  him  out  and  laid  him  upon  a gravestone  and  poured 
strong- waters  into  him,  which  fetched  him  to  life  again; 
and  they  carried  him  home  but  he  was  mopish.  After 
a while  he  stripped  off  his  clothes,  put  on  a Scottish  plaid 
and  went  into  the  country  amongst  the  dairy-women. 
And  when  he  had  stayed  there  about  two  weeks,  he  came 
home  and  went  into  the  pulpit  again.  Whereupon  the 
people  expected  some  great  manifestation  or  revelation 
from  him,  but  instead  thereof,  he  began  to  tell  them  what 
entertainment  he  had  met  with,  how  one  woman  gave  him 
skimmed-milk,  another  gave  him  buttermilk  and  another 
gave  him  good  milk,  so  the  people  were  fain  to  take  him 
out  of  the  pulpit  again,  and  carry  him  home.  He  that  gave 
me  this  account  was  Andrew  Robinson,  who  was  one  of 
his  chief  hearers,  and  came  afterwards  to  be  convinced  and 
received  the  Truth.  And  he  said  he  never  heard  that  he 
recovered  his  senses  again.  By  this  people  may  see  the 
vengeance  of  God  which  came  upon  him  that  cursed  the 
Light,  which  Light  is  the  life  in  Christ,  the  Word;  and  it 
may  be  a warning  to  all  others  that  speak  evil  against  the 
light  of  Christ.) 

And  then  the  priests  were  in  such  a rage  that  they  posted 
up  to  Edinburgh,  to  Oliver  Cromwell’s  Council  there,  with 
petitions  against  me,  and  a great  cry  was  amongst  them  that 
all  was  gone. 

And  so  after  that  I had  settled  Friends  upon  Christ  their 
foundation  thereaways,  and  gathered  up  the  principles  of 
the  Scots  priests  and  the  sufferings  of  Friends,  I went  up  to 
Edinburgh.  Several  Friends  were  come  into  the  nation 
and  spread  over  Scotland,  sounding  the  day  of  the  Lord 
and  preaching  the  everlasting  Gospel  of  salvation,  and 
turning  people  to  Christ  Jesus  that  died  for  them,  their 
free  teacher. 

And  as  I went  to  Edinburgh  I came  by  Linlithgow,  and 
there  the  innkeeper’s  wife  was  blind;  and  she  received  the 
word  of  life  and  came  under  Christ  Jesus  her  saviour’s 
teaching;  and  at  night  there  came  in  abundance  of  soldiers 


320  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

and  officers,  and  much  discourse  we  had  with  them,  and 
some  were  rude  and  one  of  the  officers  said  that  he  would 
obey  the  Turks  or  Pilate’s  command  if  he  should  command 
him  to  guard  Christ  to  crucify  him.  He  was  so  far  off  all 
tenderness  or  sense  of  the  spirit  of  Christ,  that  he  would 
rather  crucify  the  just  than  suffer  for  or  with  the  just; 
whereas  many  officers  and  magistrates  lost  their  places 
before  they  would  turn  against  the  Lord  and  his  just  one. 

And  from  thence  we  came  to  Edinburgh,  and  stayed 
there  a while,  and  1 went  to  Leith,  and  there  a-many 
officers  came  in  and  their  wives,  and  many  were  convinced. 
And  there  came  Edward  Billing’s^  wife  with  a great  deal 
of  coral  in  her  hand  and  threw  it  before  me  on  the  table  to 
see  whether  I would  declare  against  it  or  no,  but  I took  no 
notice  of  it  but  declared  the  Truth  to  her  and  she  was 
reached. 

And  there  came  in  a-many  Baptists,  very  rude,  but  the 
Lord’s  power  came  over  them  that  they  went  away  con- 
founded, and  then  there  came  in  another  sort  and  one  of 
them  said  he  would  dispute  with  me  and  deny  there  was  a 
God,  for  argument’s  sake.  So  I told  him  he  was  one  of 
those  fools  that  said  in  his  heart  there  was  no  God  but  he 
should  know  him  in  the  day  of  Judgement.  So  he  went 
his  ways,  and  a fine,  precious  time  we  had  with  several 
people  of  account,  and  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all. 

And  Colonel  Osburne  was  with  me;  and  Colonel  Lidcott’s 
wife  was  convinced,  and  William  Welch’s  wife  was  con- 
vinced, and  several  of  the  officers  that  were  there  were 
convinced  at  that  time  also. 

And  so  after,  Edward  Billing’s  wife  came  to  be  loving. 

And  she  and  her  husband  were  then  separated  one  from 
the  other.  And  we  sent  for  him  and  he  came,  and  the 
Lord’s  power  reached  unto  them  both  and  they  joined 
together  in  it  to  live  together  in  love  and  unity  as  man  and 
wife. 

And  from  thence  we  went  to  Edinburgh  again;  and  many 

^ Edward  Billing  or  Byllynge  (c.  1623-1686),  became  part-proprietor 
of  the  colony  of  New  Jersey.  Married  Lilias  Flepburn. 


1657]  BEFORE  THE  COUNCIL  AT  EDINBURGH  321 

thousands  of  people  were  gathered  there,  and  abundance  of 
priests,  about  burning  of  a witch.  And  I was  moved  to 
declare  the  day  of  the  Lord  amongst  them  and  so  then 
went  from  thence  to  the  meeting,  and  a-many  rude  people 
and  Baptists  came  in  and  there  the  Baptists  began  with 
their  logic  and  syllogisms.  But  I was  moved  in  the  Lord’s 
power  to  thresh  their  chaffy,  light  minds,  and  showed 
the  people  that  after  that  manner  of  light  discoursing  they 
might  make  white  black  and  black  white,  and  because  a 
cock  had  two  legs  and  they  had  two  legs  therefore  they 
were  cocks,  and  so  turn  any  thing  into  lightness:  which 
was  not  the  manner  of  Christ  nor  his  apostles’  teachings 
and  speakings.  And  after  they  went  their  ways  we  had  a 
blessed  meeting  in  the  Lord’s  power  which  was  over  all. 

And  then  Oliver’s  Council  sent  an  order  to  the  inn  where 
I lodged,  by  one  of  their  officers,  that  I must  appear  at  the 
Parliament  house  that  day  seven-night  by  eight  o’clock  in 
the  morning  before  them  at  the  Council  table: 

Thursday,  8th  of  October,  1657,  at  his  Highness's 
Council  in  Scotland 

Ordered, 

That  George  Fox  do  appear  before  the  Council  on  Tuesday, 
the  13th  of  October  next,  in  the  forenoon. 

Emanuel  Downing, 

Clerk  of  the  Council. 

So  he  asked  me  v/hether  I would  appear  or  no  but  I 
would  not  answer  him  whether  I would  or  not.  And  I 
asked  him  whether  he  had  not  forged  it;  so  he  said  it  was 
a real  thing  from  the  Council  and  he  was  sent  as  their 
messenger  with  it  to  give  me  notice. 

So  that  day  seven-night  I appeared  before  them.  And 
they  had  me  up  into  a great  room  where  many  great  persons 
came  and  looked  at  me.  And  after  a while  the  doorkeeper 
came  and  had  me  in,  and  as  I was  going  into  the  Council- 
chamber  he  took  off  my  hat,  and  I asked  him  why  he  did  so, 
who  was  there  that  I might  not  go  in  with  my  hat  on  for 
I had  been  before  Oliver  Cromwell  with  my  hat  on.  But 
he  took  it  off  and  hung  it  up  and  had  me  in  before  them. 


322  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

And  when  I came  before  them,  after  I had  stood  awhile 
and  they  said  nothing  to  me,  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to 
say,  ‘ Peace  be  amongst  you,  and  wait  in  the  fear  of  God 
that  you  may  receive  his  wisdom  from  above,  by  which  all 
things  were  made  and  created,  and  that  with  it  you  may  all 
be  ordered  and  that  with  it  you  may  order  all  things  under 
your  hands  to  God’s  glory.’ 

And  so  standing  still,  they  asked  me  what  was  my  business 
of  coming  into  that  nation  and  I told  them  to  visit  the  Seed 
of  God  which  had  long  lain  in  death  and  bondage  and  to  the 
intent  that  all  in  the  nation  that  did  profess  the  Scriptures 
of  Christ,  the  prophets  and  the  apostles’  words,  might 
come  to  the  light,  spirit,  and  power  which  they  were  in  that 
gave  them  forth,  so  that  with  the  spirit  they  might  know 
Christ  and  God  and  the  Scriptures  and  have  fellowship 
with  them  and  with  the  Scriptures  and  one  with  another. 

And  then  they  asked  me  whether  I had  not  any  outv/ard 
business  there.  And  I said  nay.  Then  they  asked  me  how 
long  I should  stay  in  the  country.  I told  them  I should 
say  little  to  that,  my  time  was  not  to  be  long,  yet  in  my 
freedom  I stood  in  the  will  of  him  that  sent  me. 

And  then  they  desired  me  to  withdraw  and  then  the  door- 
keeper took  me  by  the  hand  and  had  me  forth. 

And  presently  after,  they  sent  for  me  in  again  and  told 
me  that  I must  depart  the  nation  within  seven  days.  And  I 
asked  them  for  what,  or  what  I had  done,  what  was  my 
transgression  that  they  passed  such  a sentence  upon  me  to 
depart  out  of  the  nation. 

So  they  told  me  they  would  not  dispute  with  me.  Then  1 
desired  them  to  hear  what  I had  to  say  to  them,  and  they 
said  they  would  not  hear  me.  I told  them  Pharaoh 
heard  Moses  and  Aaron  and  yet  he  was  a heathen  and  no 
Christian;  and  Herod  heard  John  Baptist  and  they  should 
not  be  worse  than  them. 

And  then  they  cried,  ‘ Withdraw,  withdraw.’  And  then 
the  doorkeeper  took  me  by  the  hand  and  had  me  forth. 

And  after  I had  visited  Friends  in  Edinburgh  and  there- 
aways  I writ  to  the  Council  of  their  unchristian  carriage  to 


TO  GLASGOW 


1657] 


323 


banish  me  who  was  an  innocent  man  and  sought  their 
eternal  good  and  salvation.  And  some  of  them  were 
troubled,  as  I heard,  for  I showed  them  what  an  unchristian 
carriage  it  was  and  that  they  would  not  be  so  served  them- 
selves, as  you  may  see  more  at  large.  ^ 

And  I saw  General  Monk,^  that  he  was  as  a man  that 
bowed  under  Oliver  Protector  and  had  a covering  over 
him.  And  take  away  that  covering  and  then  he  was  the 
man  as  he  was  before;  as  he  did  fulfil  it  in  a few  years  after. 
And  they  that  banished  me  came  to  be  banished  themselves 
not  many  years  after,  who  would  not  do  good  in  the  day 
when  they  had  power  nor  suffer  others  that  would. 

And  from  Edinburgh  I passed  again  to  Heads  and  there 
Friends  had  been  in  great  sufferings,  for  the  Presbyterian 
! priests  had  excommunicated  them  and  given  charge  that 
i none  might  buy  or  sell  with  them  nor  eat  nor  drink  with 
them,  so  they  could  neither  sell  their  commodities  nor  buy 
what  they  wanted.  So  it  went  very  hard  with  some  of  them, 

I for  if  they  had  bought  bread  or  victuals  of  any  of  their 
neighbours,  the  priests  threatened  them  so  v/ith  curses  that 
; they  would  run  and  fetch  it  from  them  again. 

But  Colonel  Ashfield^  being  a justice  of  peace  in  that 
1 country  gave  a stop  to  the  priests’  proceedings.  And  he 
after  was  convinced  and  had  a meeting  since  at  his  house; 
and  declared  the  Truth  amongst  them,  and  lived  and  died 
in  it. 

And  so  after  I had  visited  Friends  at  Heads  and  thataways 
I went  to  Glasgow.  And  a meeting  was  appointed  there; 
but  never  a one  of  Glasgow  came  to  it.  But  as  I went 
I into  the  city  the  guard  at  the  gates  had  me  up  before  the 
governor,  where  T had  a great  deal  of  discourse  with  him, 
and  he  was  moderate,  but  too  light  to  receive  the  Truth; 
but  he  set  me  at  liberty  and  so  I passed  to  the  meeting. 
And  seeing  none  of  the  townspeople  came  out  lu  the 
meeting,  we  declared  through  the  town,  and  so  passed  away 

1 Ellwood,  pp.  274*,  275*;  Bicent.,  i,402,403;  CamZ>./«/,i,  301, 302. 

2 George  Monk  (1608-1670),  afterwards  first  Duke  of  Albemarle. 

3 Colonel  Richard  Ashfield,  governor  of  Glasgow. 


324  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1657 

and  visited  Friends  in  their  meetings  thereways  and  returned 
towards  Bedcow.  And  several  Friends  went  to  declare 
Truth  in  their  steeplehouses ; and  the  Lord’s  power  came 
over  them  all. 

And  one  time  as  I was  going  to  Colonel  Osburne’s  there 
lay  a company  of  rude  fellows  that  hid  themselves  under  the 
hedges  and  in  bushes ; and  I espied  them  and  asked  Colonel 
Osburne  what  they  were  and  he  said,  said  he,  ‘ Oh,  they  are 
thieves.’ 

And  it  was  upon  Robert  Widders  to  go  and  speak  to  a 
priest  and  to  admonish  him,  and  we  had  left  him  behind 
us ; so  I said  to  Colonel  Osburne,  ‘ I will  stay  in  this  valley 
and  do  thee  go  and  look  after  him.’  And  he  was  afraid 
to  leave  me  alone  whilst  he  went  to  look  after  Robert 
Widders,  and  I said  I feared  them  not.  There  were  three 
or  four  of  them  and  I called  them  up  to  me  and  asked 
them  what  they  hid  themselves  in  the  bushes  and  hedges 
for.  So  they  came  trembling  to  me  for  the  dread  of  the 
Lord  had  struck  them,  so  I admonished  them  to  be  honest 
and  brought  them  to  the  spirit  of  God  in  their  hearts  that 
they  might  see  what  an  evil  it  was  to  follow  after  theft 
and  robbery.  But  when  I first  called  to  them  to  come 
to  me  they  were  loth  to  come  up,  but  I charged  them  to 
come  up  to  me  or  else  it  might  be  worse  with  them,  so 
the  power  of  the  Lord  came  over  them.  So  I stayed  till 
Colonel  Osburne  and  Robert  Widders  came  up,  for  it’s 
like  had  we  passed  away  they  would  have  robbed  Robert 
Widders. 

And  we  passed  on  to  Colonel  Osburne’s  house  and 
declared  the  Truth  to  several  people  that  came  into  his 
house.  And  after,  we  went  amongst  the  clans,  and  they 
were  devilish  and  like  to  have  spoiled  us  and  our  horses, 
and  ran  with  pitchforks  at  us,  but  through  the  Lord’s 
power  we  escaped  them. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  to  Stirling  where  the  soldiers 
took  us  up  and  had  us  before  the  main  guard.  And  after 
a few  words  with  their  officers  we  were  set  at  liberty,  the 
Lord’s  power  came  over  them,  but  no  meeting  could  we  get 


1657]  BANISHED  FROM  PERTH  325 

amongst  them  in  the  town  they  were  so  closed  up  in  dark- 
ness. But  the  next  morning  there  was  a man  was  to  run 
a race  with  a horse  and  most  of  the  townspeople  and  officers 
went  to  see  it;  and  so  as  they  came  back  again  from  the 
race  I had  a brave  opportunity  to  declare  the  day  of  the 
Lord  and  his  word  of  life  amongst  them.  And  some 
confessed  and  some  opposed;  but  the  Lord’s  truth  and 
power  came  over  them  all. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  through  the  country  till  we 
came  to  Burntisland,  and  I had  a meeting  at  one  Captain 
Poole’s  house  both  in  the  morning  and  in  the  afternoon. 
And  whilst  they  went  to  their  dinner  I walked  to  the 
sea-side  being  not  free  to  eat  with  them.  And  he  and  his 
wife  were  convinced  and  became  fine  Friends  afterwards, 
and  several  officers  of  the  army  came  in  and  received  the 
Truth. 

And  from  thence  we  passed  through  several  other  places 
in  the  country  and  at  last  we  came  to  Johnstons^  and  there 
were  several  Baptists  that  were  very  bitter  and  in  a rage, 
which  came  to  us  to  dispute  with  us,  and  vain  janglers  and 
disputers  they  were:  but  <when  they  could  not  prevail  by 
disputing)  they  went  and  informed  the  governor  against  us, 
and  the  next  morning  they  raised  a whole  company  of  foot 
and  banished  me  and  Alexander  Parker  and  James  Lan- 
caster and  Robert  Widders  out  of  the  town,  ^being  taken 
out  of  a Friend’s  house.^ 

So  we  got  on  our  horses,  and  when  they  were  guarding 
us  out  of  the  town,  James  Lancaster  was  moved  to  sound 
and  sing  in  the  power  of  God,  and  I was  m.oved  to  sound 
the  day  of  the  Lord  and  the  glorious  everlasting  Gospel. 
And  all  the  streets  were  up  and  filled  with  people,  and  the 
soldiers  were  so  ashamed  that  they  cried  and  said  they  had 
rather  have  gone  to  Jamaica  than  to  guard  us  so.  And 
then  they  set  us  in  a boat  and  set  us  over  the  water  with 
our  horses,  and  there  left  us.  And  the  ground  and  cause 
of  our  banishment  out  of  this  place  was  the  Baptists,  who 

^ St.  Johnstown,  now  Perth. 

^ a 5./.,  p.  52. 


326  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1658 

were  themselves  not  long  after  banished  out  of  the  army, 
and  the  governor  himself  when  the  King  came  in  was  turned 
off  also. 

And  so  from  thence  we  came  to  another  market  town^ 
where  Edward  Billing  and  his  v/ife  quartered,  and  a-many 
soldiers  lay  there;  and  so  we  came  to  an  inn  and  there 
desired  that  we  might  have  a meeting  that  we  might  preach 
the  everlasting  Gospel  amongst  them.  And  so  the  soldiers 
and  officers  said  we  should  have  it  in  the  town  hall,  and  the 
Scotch  magistrates,  in  spite,  went  and  appointed  a meeting 
there  upon  town  business  that  day.  So  when  the  officers 
saw  that  they  did  it  in  malice,  they  would  have  us  go  into 
the  town  hall  nevertheless,  but  we  told  them  ‘ By  no  means  ’, 
for  then  they  might  inform  the  governor  against  them  and 
say  that  they  took  the  town  hall  from  them  by  force  when 
they  were  to  do  their  town  business  therein.  And  we  told 
them  we  could  go  to  the  public  cross  in  the  market  place, 
and  then  they  said  it  was  market  day;  and  we  said  it  was 
best  of  all  for  we  would  have  all  people  to  hear  the  Truth 
and  to  know  our  principles. 

So  Alexander  Parker  went  a-top  of  the  cross  with  a 
Bible  in  his  hand  and  declared  the  Truth  amongst  the 
soldiers  and  market  people,  but  the  Scotch,  being  dark, 
carnal  people,  never  heeded  it  nor  hardly  took  notice  of  it. 
And  at  last  1 was  moved  of  the  Lord  God  to  stand  up  at  the 
cross,  and  commanded  to  declare  with  a loud  voice  the 
everlasting  Truth  and  the  day  of  the  Lord  that  was  coming 
upon  all  sin  and  wickedness,  and  they  came  running  out 
of  the  town  hall,  and  people  gathered,  so  as  at  last  we  had  a 
large  meeting,  for  they  sat  but  in  the  Court  only  for  a colour 
to  hinder  us  from  having  the  hall. 

And  then  the  magistrates  and  all  came  out,  and  some 
heard  and  some  walked  by.  So  the  Lord’s  power  came  over 
them  all,  and  they  were  left  without  excuse,  whether  they 
would  hear  or  forbear.  And  many  were  turned  to  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  that  died  for  them,  and  had  enlightened  them, 
that  with  his  light  they  might  see  their  evil  deeds  and  their 

^ Probably  Dundee. 


! 1658]  LEITH  AND  EDINBURGH  327 

sins,  and  with  the  same  light  they  might  see  their  saviour, 

L Christ  Jesus,  their  teacher.  And  if  they  would  not  receive 
^ Christ  and  own  him,  that  light  which  came  from  him 
would  be  their  condemnation:  and  there  were  several 
were  loving  to  us;  and  some  came  to  be  convinced  after- 
^ wards,  especially  the  English  people. 

' And  there  v/as  a soldier  there  that  was  very  envious 
p against  us  and  hated  us  very  much,  and  spoke  evil  of  Truth 
; <and  very  despitefully  against  the  light  of  Christ  Jesus). 

/ And  he  was  mighty  zealous  for  the  priests,  and  one  time  as 

0 he  was  hearing  the  priests,  having  his  hat  before  his  face 
M whilst  the  priest  was  at  prayer,  one  of  the  priest’s  hearers 
' stabbed  him  to  death,  who  as  aforesaid  was  a man  very 
n envious  against  the  light  of  Christ:  and  so  came  to  be 
P murdered  by  them  whom  he  had  so  cried  up,  and  rejected 

1 Jesus  Christ  to  be  his  teacher. 

I And  from  thence  we  came  through  the  country  to  Leith, 
^ warning  and  admonishing  people  to  turn  to  the  Lord: 
iJ  and  when  we  came  at  Leith  we  went  to  an  inn,  and  the  inn- 

1 keeper  told  me  that  the  Council  had  granted  warrants 
out  for  to  apprehend  me  because  I was  not  gone  out  of 
the  nation  after  the  seven  days  that  they  had  ordered  me 
to  depart  the  nation  in.  And  several  friendly  people 
came  and  declared  the  same.  So  the  noise  of  these  warrants 
was  all  over.  And  I told  them,  ‘ What  ! do  you  tell  me  of 
f their  warrants  against  me  ? If  there  were  a cartload  of 

I them  I do  not  heed  them,  for  the  Lord’s  power  is  over  them 
all.’  For  they  were  now  afraid  to  meddle  with  me. 

So  from  Leith  I went  up  to  Edinburgh  where  they  said 
their  warrants  were  from  their  Council;  and  I came  to  the 
r inn  where  I used  to  lodge,  and  went  and  visited  Friends. 

And  after  I had  visited  Friends,  I desired  the  Friends 
i that  were  with  me  to  saddle  their  horses  and  to  ride  out  of  the 
) town  with  me  the  next  morning.  And  there  were  with  me 
’ Thomas  Rawlinson  and  Alexander  Parker  and  Robert 
!|  Widders. 

And  when  I was  out  of  the  town  they  asked  me  whither 
I would  go,  and  I told  them  it  was  upon  me  from  the  Lord 


328  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1658 

to  go  back  again  yonder  to  Johnstons  whence  we  had  been 
banished,  and  so  set  the  power  of  God  over  them  also  and 
his  Truth.  And  Alexander  Parker  said  he  would  go  along 
with  me.  And  I told  the  other  two  that  they  might  stay  at  a 
town  a matter  of  three  miles  of  Edinburgh  till  we  returned. 

And  so  Alexander  Parker  and  I got  over  the  water, ^ 
which  was  about  three  miles  over,  and  so  rid  on  through 
the  country.  And  in  the  afternoon,  his  horse  being  weak 
was  not  able  to  hold  out  with  me,  I put  on;  and  just  as 
they  were  upon  drawing  up  the  bridges  I came  into  John- 
stons, and  the  officers  and  soldiers  never  questioned  me. 

And  so  I rid  up  the  street  to  Captain  Davenport’s  house 
from  whose  house  we  had  been  banished  before.  And 
when  I came  there,  there  were  a-many  officers  more  with 
him  in  his  chamber;  and  when  I came  amongst  them  they 
lifted  up  their  hands  and  admired  that  I should  come  again, 
and  I told  them  the  Lord  God  had  sent  me  amongst  them 
again.  So  they  went  their  ways. 

And  the  Baptists  and  others  sent  me  a letter  by  way  of 
challenge  that  they  would  discourse  with  me  the  next  day. 
So  I sent  them  word  I would  meet  them  at  such  a house 
about  a half  mile  out  of  the  town  at  such  an  hour.  So 
thither  I went,  and  Captain  Davenport  and  his  son  went 
with  me;  and  we  stayed  there  some  hours,  but  never  a 
one  of  them  came.  And  then  as  we  were  looking  out  we 
espied  Alexander  Parker  coming  who  had  lain  out  that 
night  and  could  not  reach  to  the  town.  And  when  I saw 
him  I v/as  exceeding  glad  that  we  met  again. 

And  so  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  them  all  and  they 
had  no  power  to  touch  me,  for  if  I had  stayed  in  the  town  to 
discourse  with  them  they,  under  pretence  of  discoursing 
with  me,  might  have  raised  men  to  put  me  out  of  the  town 
again  and  therefore  it  was  upon  me  to  try  them  out  of  the 
town. 

^So  when  I was  off  that  burden^  I passed  away,  and 
Captain  Davenport  returned  to  the  town,  who  afterwards 

^ The  Firth  of  Forth. 

b b S.J.,  p.  52. 


('i  1658] 


‘ OVER  THEIR  VERY  MUSKETS  ’ 


329 


j was  turned  out  of  his  place  for  not  putting  off  his  hat  and 
c for  saying  ‘ thou  ’ and  ‘ thee  ’ to  them,  and  he  remains  a 
[i  Friend  to  this  day. 

I And  Alexander  Parker  was  moved  to  go  to  the  town 
where  we  had  the  meeting  at  the  cross  aforesaid;  and  I 
f(  passed  alone  through  the  countries  to  Lieutenant  Foster’s 
quarters,  where  there  were  several  other  officers  that  were 
convinced. 

And  so  from  thence  I came  up  to  the  town  where  I had 
left  Friends;  and  from  thence  we  came  to  Edinburgh  again. 
And  I bid  Robert  Widders  follow  me,  and  so  in  the  dread 
and  power  of  the  Lord  we  came  to  the  first  two  sentries; 
and  the  Lord’s  power  came  so  over  them  that  we  passed 
by  them  without  any  examination.  So  we  rid  up  the  streets 
to  the  market  place  and  by  the  main  guard  and  then  out  at 
the  gate  by  the  third  sentry  and  so  clear  out  at  the  suburbs. 
And  there  we  came  to  an  inn  and  set  up  our  horses  on  the 
Seventh-day. 

So  I saw  and  felt  that  ""I  went  over  their  very  muskets, 
cannons,  pistols,  pikes,  and  very  sword-ends.^  And  the 
Lord’s  power  and  immediate  hand  carried  us  over  the 
heads  of  them  all. 

On  the  First-day  we  went  up  to  the  meeting  in  Edinburgh, 
Friends  having  notice  that  I would  be  at  it  and  there  were 
a-many  officers  and  soldiers,  and  a glorious  meeting  it  was, 
and  the  everlasting  power  of  God  was  set  over  the  nation 
and  his  Son  reigned  and  shined  over  it  in  his  glorious  power, 
and  all  was  quiet  and  never  a one  meddled  with  me.  So 
when  meeting  was  done  and  I had  visited  Friends  I came 
out  of  the  city  again  to  my  inn.  And  so  the  Second-day 
we  set  forward  through  the  country  towards  the  borders 
of  England. 

And  Lieutenant  Foster  and  Lieutenant  Dove  and  Captain 
Watkinson  were  turned  out  of  the  army  for  owning  Truth, 
and  several  other  officers  and  soldiers,  and  because  they 
would  not  put  off  their  hats  to  them  and  said  ‘ thee  ’ and 
‘ thou  ’ to  them. 


c ^ 5./.,  p.  52. 


330  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1658 

And  so  as  we  travelled  along  the  country  I espied  a 
steeplehouse  and  I asked  them  what  steeplehouse  it  was, 
and  they  said  Dunbar,  and  it  struck  ^at  my  life  that  I should 
have  a meeting  the  next  day  in  the  steeplehouse  yard. 
Many  Friends  were  with  me  that  were  turned  out  of  the 
army."^  And  when  I came  thither  and  had  taken  up  our 
inn  I walked  up  to  the  steeplehouse  and  a Friend  or  two 
went  with  me.  And  when  I came  into  the  steeplehouse  yard 
there  was  one  of  the  chief  men  of  the  town  was  walking 
there,  and  I bid  the  Friend  go  and  tell  him  there  would  be 
a meeting  of  the  people  of  God  in  scorn  called  Quakers 
there  tomorrow  about  the  ninth  hour,  and  bid  him  give 
notice  to  the  town  of  it.  And  he  sent  me  word  again 
that  they  were  to  have  a lecture  there  by  the  ninth  hour 
and  therefore  we  might  have  our  meeting  by  the  eighth 
hour  if  we  would,  so  I told  him,  with  all  my  heart,  let  him 
so  give  notice. 

And  in  the  morning  about  the  eighth  hour  both  poor  and 
rich  came,  and  there  was  a captain  lay  in  the  town  and  he 
came  up  and  his  troopers,  so  that  we  had  a brave  and 
glorious  meeting  and  the  Lord’s  power  was  set  over  all. 
So  at  last  the  priest  came,  but  he  went  into  the  steeplehouse, 
and  we  being  in  the  steeplehouse  yard  most  of  the  people 
stayed  with  us;  and  Friends’  voices  were  so  full  and  high 
in  the  power  of  God  that  the  priest  could  do  little  in  the 
steeplehouse,  so  he  came  out  again  and  stood  a while  and 
after  went  his  ways. 

And  1 opened  to  the  people  where  they  might  find  Christ 
Jesus,  having  turned  them  to  the  light  which  he  had 
enlightened  them  withal;  that  with  the  light  they  might  see 
Christ  that  died  for  them,  and  turn  to  him  their  saviour 
and  free  teacher.  And  I let  them  see  all  the  hireling 
teachers  that  they  had  followed,  who  made  the  Gospel 
chargeable,  and  showed  them  all  the  ways  they  had  walked 
in  the  night  of  apostacy,  and  turned  them  unto  Christ  their 
way  to  God,  and  showed  them  the  religions  and  worships 
that  they  had  been  in,  which  men  had  set  up,  and  that 
d d SJ.,  pp.  52-3. 


1658]  TO  DUNBAR  AND  BERWICK  331 

they  had  lost  Christ’s  which  he  set  up  in  spirit  and 
truth. 

This  great  man  of  the  town  asked  the  captain  leave  to 
speak  to  me;  and  I told  him  he  might  freely  if  he  had  any 
thing  to  say,  but  then  he  was  silent  and  said  little.  And  so 
after  I had  turned  people  to  the  spirit  of  God  which  led  the 
holy  men  of  God  to  give  forth  Scriptures,  1 showed  them 
that  they,  with  that  measure  of  the  spirit,  truth,  grace,  faith, 
might  know  it  in  themselves,  if  they  came  to  know  God  and 
Christ  or  the  Scriptures,  and  so  Friends  being  full  of  the 
power  of  the  Lord  to  speak,  I stepped  down  and  let  them 
declare  what  they  had  to  say  from  the  Lord  to  the  people. 

And  I walked  a little  by;  and  presently  some  professors 
began  to  jangle,  and  so  I came  again  and  stood  up  again  and 
answered  their  questions;  and  they  seemed  to  be  satisfied 
(and  I did  so  once  or  twice).  So  our  meeting  ended 
in  the  Lord’s  power,  quiet  and  peaceable,  <the  last  meeting 
I had  in  Scotland).  And  the  Truth  and  the  power  of  God 
was  set  over  that  nation ; and  many  were  turned  to  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  by  his  power  and  spirit  their  saviour  and 
teacher,  who  shed  his  blood  for  them,  and  remain  to  this 
day.  And  since,  a great  increase  there  is,  and  great  there 
will  be,  in  Scotland.  For  when  first  I set  my  horse’s 
feet  a-top  of  the  Scottish  ground  I felt  the  Seed  of  God 
to  sparkle  about  me  like  innumerable  sparks  of  fire,  though 
there  is  abundance  of  thick,  cloddy  earth  of  hypocrisy  and 
falseness  that  is  a-top,  and  a briary,  brambly  nature  which 
is  to  be  burnt  up  with  God’s  word,  and  ploughed  up  with 
his  spiritual  plough,  before  God’s  Seed  brings  forth  heavenly 
and  spiritual  fruit  to  the  glory  of  the  heavenly,  glorious 
and  omnipotent  Lord  God  almighty.  But  the  husbandman 
is  to  wait  in  patience. 

And  so  from  Dunbar  we  came  to  Berwick  where  we  were 
questioned  a little  by  the  soldiers,  and  at  night  we  had  a 
little  meeting  and  the  governor  was  loving  towards  us, 
and  the  Lord’s  power  came  over  all. 


CHAPTER  XIV 


D from  thence  we  came  to  Morpeth  and  so  through 


the  country  to  Newcastle  visiting  Friends,  where  I 


had  been  once  before,  for  the  Newcastle  priests  had 
given  forth  many  books  against  us:  and  one  Thomas 
Ledgerd,  an  alderman  of  the  town,  was  very  envious  against 
Truth  and  Friends;  and  he  and  they  said  the  Quakers 
would  not  come  into  great  towns  but  lived  in  the  fells  like 
butterflies.  And  so  I went,  and  Anthony  Pearson  with  me, 
to  several  of  these  aldermen  and  to  this  Ledgerd  and  desired 
a meeting  amongst  them  for  we  were  now  come  into  their 
great  town.  But  Ledgerd  began  to  plead  for  the  Sabbath- 
day,  and  so  I told  him  they  kept  markets  and  fairs  on  it, 
for  that  day  which  Christians  meet  on  now  (which  they  call 
their  Sabbath)  was  the  first  day  of  the  week. 

^And  he  said  the  Scriptures  were  above  the  spirit  and 
were  above  angels  and  were  the  word  of  God;  and  I told 
him  the  Word  was  God  and  the  spirit  gave  forth  Scriptures, 
and  that  he  must  know  in  himself  both  the  Word  and  spirit 
which  reconciles  to  the  Scriptures,  to  God,  and  to  one 
another;  and  that  he  must  know  it  in  his  heart  and  mouth, 
which  divides  his  good  words  from  his  bad  and  his  good 
thoughts  from  his  bad.^ 

So  we  desired  to  have  a meeting  with  them  seeing  they 
had  written  so  many  books  against  us,  but  they  would 
not,  nor  would  be  spoken  with,  but  this  man  and 
one  other.  So  I told  them,  had  they  not  called  Friends 
butterflies  and  that  they  would  not  come  into  any  great 
towns,  and  now  we  were  come  into  their  towns  they  would 
not  come  at  us  but  print  books  against  us,  who  were  the 
butterflies  now  ? 

^ ^ 5*./.,  p.  34. 


332 


DURHAM 


1658] 


333 


Nevertheless  we  got  a little  meeting  amongst  Friends 
and  friendly  people  at  the  Gateshead  where  there  stands  a 
meeting  to  this  day  in  the  name  of  Jesus. 

And  so  as  I was  passing  away  by  the  market  place  the 
power  of  the  Lord  riz  in  me  to  warn  them  of  the  day  of 
the  Lord  that  was  coming  upon  them.  And  not  long 
after  all  these  five  priests  of  Newcastle  and  their  profession 
were  turned  out  when  the  King  came  in.^ 

So  from  thence  we  came  through  the  countries  and  had 
meetings  visiting  Friends  in  Bishoprick  and  Northumber- 
land. We  had  a fine  meeting  at  Lieutenant  Dove’s  where 
many  were  turned  to  the  Lord  and  his  teaching.  And  I 
went  to  visit  a justice  of  peace  there,  a very  sober,  loving 
man  that  had  confessed  to  Truth. 

And  so  from  thence  we  came  to  Durham,  and  there  was 
a man  come  down  from  London  to  set  up  a college  there 
to  make  ministers  of  Christ,  as  they  said.  And  so  I and 
some  others  went  to  the  man  and  reasoned  with  him  and 
let  him  see  that  was  not  the  way  to  make  them  Christ’s 
ministers  by  Hebrew,  Greek,  and  Latin  and  the  Seven  Arts, 
which  all  were  but  the  teachings  of  the  natural  man.  For 
the  many  languages  began  at  Babel,  and  to  the  Greeks  that 
spoke  the  natural  Greek,  the  preaching  of  the  cross  of 
Christ  was  foolishness  to  them;  and  to  the  Jews  that  spoke 
natural  Hebrew,  Christ  was  a stumbling  block  to  them, 
and  as  for  the  Romans  that  had  Italian  and  Latin,  they 
persecuted  the  Christians;  and  Pilate,  one  of  the  Roman 
magistrates,  could  set  Hebrew,  Greek,  and  Latin  a-top 
of  Christ  when  he  crucified  him. 

So  he  might  see  the  many  languages  began  at  Babel  and 
they  set  them  a-top  of  Christ  the  Word  when  they  crucified 
him.  And  John  the  divine,  who  preached  the  Word  that 
was  in  the  beginning,  said  that  the  beast  and  the  whore 
have  power  over  tongues  and  languages,  and  they  are  as 
waters.  So  here  he  might  see  the  whore  and  the  beast 

^ William  Cole,  William  Durrant,  Samuel  Hammond,  Richard 
Prideaux,  Thomas  Weld,  co-authors  of  anti-Quaker  works.  The 
Perfect  Pharisee,  1653,  and  A Further  Discovery,  1654. 


13 


334  JOURNAL  OF  GEORGE  FOX  [1658  jj 

have  power  over  the  tongues  and  many  languages  which  are  | 
in  mystery  Babylon,  for  they  began  at  Babel;  and  how  the  j 
persecutor  of  Christ  Jesus  set  them  over  Christ  when  he 
crucified  him,  but  he  is  risen  over  them  all,  who  was  before 
they  were.  And  did  he  think  to  make  ministers  of  Christ 
by  these  natural,  confused  languages,  at  Babel  and  in 
Babylon,  set  a-top  of  Christ  the  life,  by  a persecutor  ? 
Oh  no  ! And  Peter  and  John,  that  could  not  read  letters, 
preached  the  word,  Christ  Jesus,  which  was  in  the  beginning 
before  Babel  was.  And  Paul  was  made  an  apostle,  not 
of  man  nor  by  man,  neither  received  he  the  Gospel  of  man, 
but  by  Jesus  Christ,  <who  is  the  same  now,  and  so  is  his 
Gospel,  as  it  was  at  that  day.)  The  man  confessed  to 
many  of  these  things.  For  we  showed  him  further  that 
Christ  that  made  his  ministers  gave  gifts  unto  them,  and 
desired  them  to  pray  to  the  Lord  of  the  harvest  to  send  forth 
labourers.  When  we  had  thus  discoursed  with  the  man  I 
he  became  very  loving  and  tender;  and,  after  he  had  | 
considered  further  of  it,  he  never  set  up  his  college.^ 

And  when  I was  in  Bishoprick,  Anthony  Pearson  came  | 
to  me  and  had  a great  desire  that  I should  go  with  him  ! 
to  see  Henry  Vane;^  but  I had  little  upon  me  to  go  at  that 
time,  and  he  commended  him  to  me  and  said  Henry  Vane  I 
had  much  enquired  after  me. 

And  1 went  to  Henry  Draper’s,  and  there  Henry  Vane’s 
chaplain  came  to  me  and  began  to  declare  to  me  of  the 
righteousness  of  man  and  self-righteousness,  and  the  j 
righteousness  of  the  law.  ^ 

So  I made  answer  to  him  and  said  that  I was  in  the  , 
righteousness  of  Christ  before  self-righteousness  and  the  | 
righteousness  of  man  was,  and  Christ’s  righteousness  ends  I 
the  righteousness  of  the  law.  : 

‘ Oh  ’,  says  his  chaplain,  ‘ take  heed  of  blasphemy  and  | 
presumption.’  j 

^ The  attempt  to  establish  a college  at  Durham  failed.  The  present  | 
university  was  opened  in  1833. 

2 Sir  Henry  Vane  the  younger  (IbH-lbbl),  of  Raby  Castle,  ! 
prominent  Parliamentarian,  mystic,  executed  by  Charles  II. 


1658]  VISIT  TO  SIR  HENRY  VANE  335 

And  1 said  unto  him,  ‘ Is  not  Christ  the  end  of  the  law  for 
righteousness  sake  ? And  was  not  he  before  self-righteous- 
ness and  man’s  righteousness  or  the  righteousness  of  the 
law  either,  and  will  be  when  theirs  is  gone  who  fulfils  the 
righteousness  of  the  law  ? And  thou  that  callest  this 
blasphemy  and  presumption  knowest  not  what  thou 
sayest.’ 

So  he  asked  me  whether  I would  come  down  to  Raby 
Castle,  and  I told  him  I should  say  little  to  that.  But  the 
next  day  I went  down,  and  they  had  me  up  into  the  chamber 
to  Sir  Henry  Vane’s  wife,  and  after  a while  he  came  up, 
and  one  of  New  England’s  magistrates,  and  said  he,  ‘ Is 
this  George  Fox  ? I thought  he  had  been  an  elder  man.’ 

And  I was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  speak  to  him  of  the  true 
light  which  Christ  doth  enlighten  every  man  that  cometh 
into  the  world  withal,  and  he  saith,  ‘ Believe  in  the  light 
that  ye  may  become  children  of  the  light  ’ ; and  how  that 
Christ  had  promised  to  his  disciples  to  send  them  the  Holy 
Ghost,  the  spirit  of  truth,  which  should  lead  them  into  all 
truth,  which  we  witnessed,  and  how  that  the  grace  of  God 
which  brought  salvation  had  appeared  unto  all  men  and 
was  the  saints’  teacher  in  the  apostles’  days  and  so  it  was 
now. 

Then,  says  he,  ‘ None  of  all  this  doth  reach  to  my 
experience.’ 

‘ Nay  ’,  said  I,  ‘ then  how